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Research Report

Unsettled Technology Domains in Aerospace Additive Manufacturing Concerning Safety, Airworthiness, and Certification

2019-12-20
EPR2019008
Additive manufacturing (AM) is currently being used to produce many certified aerospace components. However, significant advantages of AM are not exploited due to unresolved issues associated with process control, feedstock materials, surface finish, inspection, and cost. Components subject to fatigue must undergo surface finish improvements to enable inspection. This adds cost and limits the use of topology optimization. Continued development of process models is also required to enable optimization and understand the potential for defects in thin walled and slender sections. Costs are high for powder-fed processes due to material costs, machine costs, and low deposition rates. Cost for wire-fed processes are high due to the extensive post-process machining required. In addition, these processes are limited to low-complexity features.
Technical Paper

Comparative Experimental Investigation of Thumba and Argemone Oil Based Dual Fuel Blend in a Diesel Engine for Its Performance and Emission Characteristics

2019-11-21
2019-28-2375
An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the possibility of using the Thumba oil (Citrullus colocyntis) and Argemone Mexicana (non-edible and adulterer to mustard oil) as a dual fuel blend with diesel as an alternative of using pure diesel for its performance and emission characteristics. The work was carried on a single cylinder, four strokes, In-line overhead valve, direct injection compression ignition engine. The argemone and Thumba biodiesel were produced using the transesterification process and thereafter the important physio-chemical properties of produced blends were investigated. Four dual biodiesel blends like B10 (5% Argemone, 5% Thumba and 90% Diesel), B20, B30 and B40 were prepared for investigation process. The operating conditions adopted for the study was the entire range of engine loads and speed (1000-1500 r/min) keeping the injection pressure and injection timing at the OEM settings.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends on GDI Engine to Reduce Cost of Vehicle Ownership

2019-11-21
2019-28-2379
A major challenge for combustion engine development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline, and CNG are such alternative fuels. Reducing the consumption of Gasoline also helps India’s dependence on import of crude oil. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder CRDI Engine Fueled with Diesel-Methanol Blend

2019-11-21
2019-28-2380
Diesel engine is widely used for its high thermal efficiency and better fuel efficiency. However, increasing usage of petroleum fuel and environmental degradation motivates to use renewable biofuel as a replacement to conventional diesel. Biofuel produced from non-edible sources can be used as a partial substitute of diesel for the significant growth of fuel economy and reduction of environmental pollution. Methanol can be implemented as a blend fuel in the diesel without affecting engine design. In this paper, we study the effect of diesel-methanol blends and injection parameters in particular, start of injection (SOI) and fuel injection pressure (FIP) on a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine performance and emission were investigated. Four blends were prepared by mixing diesel with methanol (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) and adding a certain amount of oleic acid and Iso-butanol to get a stable blend.
Technical Paper

Modelling for Collective Effect of Muffler Geometric Modifications and Blended Microalgae Fuel Use on Exhaust Performance of a Four-Stroke Diesel Engine: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach

2019-11-21
2019-28-2377
Engine performance significantly depends on the effective exhaust of the combustion gases from the muffler. With stricter BSVI norms more efficient measures have to be adopted to reduce the levels of emissions from the exhaust to the atmosphere. Muffler along with reducing the engine noise is intended to control the back pressure as well. Back pressure change has a significant effect on muffler temperature distribution which affects the NOx emission from the exhaust. Many research communications have been made to reduce the exhaust emissions like HC, CO and CO2 from the exhaust by using different generation biofuels as an alternative fuel, yet they have confronted challenges in controlling the NOx content from the exhaust. This work presents the combined effect of Muffler geometry modifications and blended microalgal fuel on exhaust performance with an aim to reduce NOx emission form a four-stroke engine.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Blends of Biofuel under the Influence of 1,4-Dioxane and Rice Husk Nano Particle

2019-11-21
2019-28-2387
In this modern era increase in pollution became a huge impact on the lives of all living creatures, in this automobile tends to be one of the major contributors in terms of air pollution thanks to their exhaust emissions. The objective of the present study is to reduce the amount of harmful pollutants emitted from the automobiles by the utilization of a biofuel further influenced by two additives (liquid and a Nano additive). In this study, first the bio oil is extracted, then the biofuel is mixed with diesel fuel at different proportions of 20%, 40% by volume. Experiments are carried out in a common rail direct injection, diesel engine, which is a stationary test engine manufactured by Kirloskar, connected to a computer setup with an open control unit. The emission values in the exhaust gases are obtained using AVL exhaust gas analyzer.
Technical Paper

Replacing Twin Electric Fan Radiator with Single Fan Radiator

2019-11-21
2019-28-2381
Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organization. The main aim is to reduce - Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance. This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchanger is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction.
Technical Paper

Utilisation Treated Waste Engine Oil and Diesohol Blends as Fuel for Compression Ignition Engine - An Experimental Study

2019-11-21
2019-28-2384
Diesel Ethanol (Diesohol) blends are one of the suitable alternative fuel to replace diesel for fueling the compression ignition engines. This experimental study is to utilize optimal fuel blend that contains a higher volume of ethanol in diesel with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent for preventing the phase separation. This study includes three stages: Treating the waste engine oil, preparation of diesel ethanol blends with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent, testing the blends for solubility, properties and performance in a compression ignition engines. Treatment of waste engine oil was conducted in five steps including the acid-clay treatment, in which acetic acid and fuller earth were used as treating materials. Solubility test was conducted for various proportions of diesel-ethanol blends (from 0% to 50% of ethanol by volume) and treated waste engine oil (from 5% to 25%). The stable blends were tested for essential properties as per the ASTM standards.
Technical Paper

New CEC Gasoline Direct Injection Fuels Test - Comparison of Deposits and Spray Performance from New and Used Injectors

2019-11-21
2019-28-2392
The use of deposit control additives in European market gasoline is well documented for maintaining high levels of engine cleanliness and subsequent sustained fuel and emissions performance. Co-ordinating European Council (CEC) industry fuels tests have played a crucial role in helping to drive market relevant, effective and low-cost deposit control additives into European market fuels. Until now, there hasn’t been a Gasoline Direct Injection engine test available to fuel marketers in any market globally. However, a new CEC engine test is currently being developed to address that gap. Based on an in-house VW injector coking test, it shows promise for becoming a useful tool with which to develop and measure the performance of deposit control additives. A key requirement of industry tests should be to replicate issues seen in consumer vehicles, thereby providing a platform for relevant solutions.
Technical Paper

Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

2019-11-21
2019-28-2388
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%.
Technical Paper

Telescopic Rear Wiper Arm with Cam and Roller Mechanism for Increased Wiping Area

2019-11-21
2019-28-2407
Visibility is a critical factor to avoid the accidents and incidents on road. Every year there are over 5 million car accidents reported in USA. Of these 23% are caused by the hazardous weather and poor visibility. Driving in poor visibility increases the potential for a serious crash. Over the last decade 15% of the accidents on road are due to poor visibility in bad weather conditions. This paper addresses the poor visibility through the rear windshield glass of a car. A vehicle is designed in a way to provide the maximum possible visibility. But due to the vehicle design constraints, the visibility through the rear glass is very less. This visibility reduces drastically in the extreme weather conditions like rain, snow, dust and fog. At present, wiper systems play an essential role in providing better visibility for the driver in bad weather.
Technical Paper

A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas - Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

2019-11-21
2019-28-2390
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower particulate matter (PM) and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds.
Technical Paper

Fabrication and Wear Characteristics Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Matrix Composites

2019-11-21
2019-28-2570
Generally brake pads are manufacturing by use of asbestos materials, that materials are chemically harmful and toxic nature to affect the human health. The present investigation is to fabricates polypropylene composites with mixing constant volume [5 vol.%] of alumina nano particles and different volume percentages [0%, 5%, 10% & 15%] of basalt Fiber by hand layup compression technique. The wear characteristics of polypropylene matrix composites were tested by dry sliding condition. The test was carried out pin on disc apparatus, configured with hardened steel counter-face at elevated temperature. The load was applied 10 N to 30 N with the interval of 10 N and varying of sliding speed 300 rpm to 900 rpm with the interval of 300 rpm for the time period of 0-180 sec. The wear rate was decreases with addition of alumina nano particle and the frictional force was increases due to basalt Fiber content present in the composites.
Technical Paper

Effect of Tyre Inflation Pressure on Rolling Resistance : Comparing the Values of Coefficient of Rolling Resistance and Rolling Resistance at Variable Tyre Inflation Pressure

2019-11-21
2019-28-2415
1 Rolling resistance, is nothing but the rolling drag, is the force resisting the motion when a body rolls on a surface. It is mainly caused by non-elastic effects; that is, not all the energy needed for deformation of the wheel, roadbed, etc. It is recovered when the pressure is removed, in the form of hysteresis losses and permanent deformation of the tyre surface. So, the rolling resistance contributes to the deformation of roadbed as well as tyre surface of the vehicle. Factors contributing in rolling resistance are tyre inflation pressure, wheel diameter, speed, load on wheel, surface adhesion, sliding and relative micro-sliding between the surfaces of contact. In this concerned paper we are significantly working on effect of tyre inflation pressure on rolling resistance and taking all other factors constraint.
Technical Paper

Neural Network Based Hybridized Dynamic Models for Connected Vehicles - A Case Study on Turbocharger Position Prediction

2019-11-21
2019-28-2443
Combustion engine driven vehicles operating in a connected and autonomous vehicle (CAVs) environment, the engine drive cycles are run in a regulated manner. This is due to synchronized movement of vehicles operating in connected environment. Hence, developing intelligent and faster control of airpath variable with smooth transient tracking, helps to achieve a synchronized drive cycle. With regards to this author discuss modeling of turbocharger. This is critical for airpath system variable calculation. Due to the hybridized nature of turbocharger models, predicting accurately the position of VTG without introduction of any sensing devices is key, as sensing device induces delay in action. Authors propose a model which improve the performance and capability of VTG position prediction. A neural network based supervised learning model is developed. This model is coupled with engine models which are in series application for performance evaluation.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Compression Ratio for DI Diesel Engines for Better Fuel Economy

2019-11-21
2019-28-2431
Fuel economy is becoming one of the key parameter as it does not only account for the profitability of commercial vehicle owner but also has impact on environment. Fuel economy gets affected from several parameters of engine such as Peak firing pressure, reduction in parasitic losses, volumetric efficiency and thermal efficiency. Compression ratio is one of key design criteria which affects most of the above mentioned parameters, which not only improve fuel efficiency but also results in improvement of emission levels. This paper evaluates the optimization of Compression ratio and study its effect on Engine performance. The parameters investigated in this paper include combustion bowl volume in Piston and Cylinder head gasket thickness as these are major contributing factors affecting clearance volume and in turn the compression ratio of engine. Based on the calculation results, an optimum Compression Ratio for the engine is selected.
Technical Paper

V2X Standardization in Over-the-Air Solution

2019-11-21
2019-28-2435
Today in-vehicle software is growing significantly resulting into increase in importance of over-the-air software/firmware updates dramatically. Various suppliers are providing the update-over-the-air solution in the automotive sector. Due to limited standardization in solution, each supplier needs more customization for specific customer. This paper is to bring in the required standardization in V2X resulting into ‘vehicle on-board components’ as one solution to multiple customer. “Update over-the-air improved solution through various standardization resulting into ‘vehicle on-board components’ as the product”
Technical Paper

Analysis of Pressure Variation in Wheel Using Statistical Methods

2019-11-21
2019-28-2450
Tire is one of the significant components of the vehicle, and so its characteristics for proper functioning of vehicle. Tire characteristics relies on number of factors including pressure in tire, construction of the tire and thread pattern. Of these, the factor of our interest is tire pressure. Maintaining proper tire pressure becomes necessity, as it causes several undesired effects which in turn affect the motorcycle performance. Hence, pressure variations should be detected as one of the safety measures. Wheel speed based detection of tire pressure is not observed before in motorcycles. In this approach only, software algorithm is needed to complete the system to measure pressure, no extra hardware is required. The paper presents a method to analyze variation in tire pressure by using the wheel speed sensor. The idea is to detect pressure variations in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from wheel speed sensor.
Technical Paper

Engine Fuel Economy Optimization for Different Hybrid Architectures Using 1-D Simulation Technique

2019-11-21
2019-28-2496
Hybridization of off road vehicles is in its early phase but it is likely to increase in coming years. In order to improve fuel economy and overall emission of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict vehicle fuel consumption and emission using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Initially, An acceptable agreement within 5% deviation between simulation and experimental is established for engine steady state points, both for engine performance and NOx emission parameters. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE model. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE model for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying idle start stop and fully hybrid P0 type hybrid architecture. The hybrid P0 type involves idle start stop, e-boost and regeneration.
Technical Paper

Estimating Drive Cycle for E-Rickshaws Using Real World Operating Scenarios for Overall Powertrain Improvements

2019-11-21
2019-28-2497
E-Rickshaws are popular and convenient mode of transportation for last mile connectivity and are typically used for short distance (<10 Km) commute. As per recent reports there are more than 1.5 million e-rickshaws plying on Indian roads and approx. 10,000 vehicles are adding every month. Owners of these vehicles are inclined towards the overall range these vehicles can give on a single charge. Range can be improved by using efficient powertrain. Range can also be improved by optimized Battery Management systems and Controllers. Though there are certain evaluation criteria (such as curtailed Indian Drive Cycles) which can be used for efficiency estimations, manufacturers are more interested in extending the range in real world scenarios. Hence, the availability of real-world drive cycle is imperative. Through this paper, we have attempted to derive a typical drive cycle by collecting road data of various types of e-Rickshaws under different environment conditions.
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