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Technical Paper

Transfer Film Composition and Characteristics in Copper-Free NAO Brake Pads

2021-10-11
2021-01-1278
Copper-free non-asbestos-organic (NAO) brake pads have been developed to satisfy the copper content regulations in North America. Copper-free NAO brake pads are required to have a stable friction coefficient owing to the electrification of the control systems, as well as to exhibit improved wear resistance to reduce brake dust emissions. Our previous study indicated that the transfer film formed on the rotor surface affects both the friction coefficient stability and amount of wear. In this study, we investigated how different types of inorganic fillers affect the transfer film formation and its composition in a wear test controlled by temperature. It was confirmed that the main component of the transfer film was iron oxide derived from the rotor. Furthermore, the contained components changed according to the appearance of the rotor surface after each wear test.
Technical Paper

Development of Application-tailored Friction Performance of Race Pad Compounds

2021-10-11
2021-01-1282
As a race driver hits the pedal to trigger the braking event, a dynamic load transfer takes place in the car. This is a similar kind of weight transfer experienced on the road while stopping any vehicle abruptly. Modern race cars such as FIA-regulated Grand Touring Car classes GT3 and LMGTE produce a significant aerodynamic downforce at a reasonably high efficiency level. In this type of high downforce race cars, load variations originated by aerodynamics are added onto the mass transfer. The combination of these effects provide a braking effect with this type of cars a highly transient character. At the same time, our customers are facing the challenge of strict technical regulations, usually forbidding brake control systems. In motorsport competition, car performance is of primary priority to help our customers win championships.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Analysis of Quarter Car Model for Low Cost Suspension Test Rig

2021-10-01
2021-28-0189
This paper deals with simulating a control system automating the operation of an existing suspension test rig at a low cost. The rig has a few limitations; it has to be operated manually, the load applied cannot be specified, and the deflection has to be measured manually. Also, a suspension setup cannot be tested for varying road profiles. The control system proposed in this paper effectively automates the process of load testing of suspension springs, at a cost relatively lower than a fully-automated test rig available in the market, while improving the breadth of its capabilities. Simulation models of both the existing test rig and modified test rig control system were plotted using SIMSCAPE. The effects of testing suspension components on both rigs were simulated, and the resulting graphs were obtained and compared.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Abnormal Squeak Noise from Front Suspension While Moving Over Obstacles Due to Torque Loss at Lower control arm joints

2021-10-01
2021-28-0246
Lower control arm (LCA) is a part of front suspension system which is mounted on chassis with flexible rubber bushing through bolted joint which allows control arm to swing up and down, absorb road bumps and reduce noise and vibrations as front wheels roll over bump or potholes. In bolted joints, torque is applied so as joint develops a certain preload which is higher than the external loads & losses acting on the joint. But loss of preload is evident over the time which causes quality problems, reworks or even joint failures. While moving over speed breakers/obstacles abnormal squeak noise is observed in the vehicle due to torque loss in LCA joint. The intend of this study is to determine preload requirements in LCA joint and various factors contributing to preload loss by performing joint integrity analysis in CAE. Road load data acquisition (RLDA) with wheel force transducer (WFT) is done for different testing tracks.
Technical Paper

Application of Machine Learning Technique for Development of Indirect Tire Pressure Monitoring System

2021-09-22
2021-26-0016
Tire inflation pressure has a significant impact over vehicle driving dynamics, fuel consumption as well as tire life. Therefore, continuous monitoring of tire pressure becomes imperative for ride comfort, safety and optimum vehicle handling performance. Two types of tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) used by vehicles are - direct and indirect TPMS. Direct systems deploy pressure sensors at each wheel and directly send pressure value to the vehicle Controller Area Network (CAN). Indirect sensors on the other hand use the information from already existing sensors and some physics-based equations to predict the value of tire pressure. Direct TPMS tend to be more accurate but have higher cost of installation while indirect TPMS comes with a minimum cost but compromised accuracy. A digital proof-of-concept study for indirect TPMS development of a non-ESP vehicle based on machine learning (ML) technique is elaborated in this paper.
Technical Paper

Simulation based Verification and Validation of AEBS

2021-09-22
2021-26-0128
ADAS and AV technologies are going to disrupt the entire transportation industry as we know it, with a profound impact on human life. They promise to enhance human lives by providing a safer and much more accessible transportation ecosystem to all of society. But to deliver on all of its promises, they need to be at least as good as a 'good' human driver. And therefore, they need to be very safe and robust, having the ability to perform in a variety of driving scenarios, and be very secure, being immune from any external cyberattacks. Hence, such technologies need to be tested very extensively. But from various studies, it has been found that, to declare a full AV as good as a human driver, the AV will be required to drive more than a billion miles on real roads, taking tens and sometimes hundreds of years to drive those miles, considering even the most aggressive testing assumptions.
Technical Paper

Study of vehicular CO2 variations in MIDC

2021-09-22
2021-26-0196
With introduction of CAFÉ norms in India from Apr’17, the manufacturer of all M1 Category vehicles (not exceeding 3,500kg GVW) has to ascertain that they comply with Annual Corporate Average CO2 (CAFÉ) Target as defined in AIS-137 regulation which is becoming stricter from 2022 onwards. Hence CO2 emissions are becoming one of the major controlling parameters during vehicle development. The assessment of CAFÉ compliance involves multiple steps. Firstly, test agency provides Type Approval and Conformity of Production emission test reports to the Designated Agency. Accordingly, every manufacturer also submits Fuel consumption report/Passbook to the Designated Agency on annual basis. After verification of all data, the Designated Agency issues a status of compliance to the Manufacturer. Such detailed assessment protocol possess a huge challenge for any manufacturer in maintaining the consistency/accuracy of CO2 produced by manufactured vehicles within the Type Approved Limit.
Technical Paper

Road-Lab-Math (RLM) strategy for improving vehicle development efficiency

2021-09-22
2021-26-0193
In today's Indian automotive industry, vehicles are becoming more complex and require more efforts to develop. Also, new and upcoming regulations demand more trials under varied driving conditions to ensuring robustness of emission control. Combined with expectations of customer to get new products more frequently, requires solutions and methods that can allow more trials with required accuracy to ensure compliance to stricter regulation and delivery a quality product. This translates into more trials in less time during the development life cycle. Recently, to overcome above challenge, there has been focus on simulating the vehicles trials in engine bench environment. 'Road to Lab to Math' (RLM) is a methodology to reduce the effort of On-road testing and replace it with laboratory testing and mathematical models. Also, on-road testing of prototype vehicles is expensive as it requires physical parts.
Technical Paper

Front Axle Kingpin Bush - Evaluation of Wear in Operating Conditions

2021-09-22
2021-26-0473
In automobiles, front axle assembly is a main load bearing member and houses steering linkages. Front axle assembly has two main parts namely axle beam and axle arm, interconnected by a kingpin. This kingpin allows the rotation of axle arm during steering events. To avoid metal to metal contact between axle arm and kingpin, bushes are housed on the top and bottom half of the axle arm & in axle beam. Due to radial load and steering rotation, as a weak member, bushes will wear out faster. This affects the proper functioning of steering mechanism. Hence, the bushes need to be evaluated prior to its implementation in vehicle. In general, bushes are evaluated using Pin-On-Disc test as a comparative study, but it does not simulate exact boundary conditions as in vehicle. Next option is vehicle level validation but leads to more testing time and cost. Hence, as an optimized solution, the same vehicle operating conditions can be replicated in component level testing.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology Development on Multi-Purpose Bracket for HCV Application

2021-09-22
2021-26-0467
In the modern automotive sector, durability and reliability are two terms of utmost importance and relevance. The ever improving standards and cut throat competition has led to customers expecting highly reliable products at low costs. Any product that fails within its useful life leads to customer dissatisfaction and affects the OEM’s reputation. To eradicate this, all automotive components undergo stringent validation protocol, either in proving ground or in lab. Multipurpose bracket is one of the most important and critical aggregate in the vehicle assembly. It encompasses various mounting components such as FUPD bracket, steering mounting bracket, front spring front bracket, cab mount bracket, cab tilt cylinder mounting bracket, front cross member, footstep bracket and bumper. All these components experience various degrees of vibration and fatigue during its running period.
Technical Paper

Multi Axis Fatigue Test of Lift Axle Assembly through Real Time Simulation Abstract

2021-09-22
2021-26-0486
This paper discusses the test setup and methodology required to validate complete lift axle assembly for simulating the real time test track data. The correlation of rig vs track is discussed. The approach for reduction of validation time by eliminating few of the non-damaging tracks/events, its correlation with real life condition is discussed, and details are presented. With increased competition, vehicle development time has reduced drastically in recent past. Bench test procedure using accelerated test cycle discussed in this paper will help to reduce development time and cost. Process briefed in this paper can also be used for similar test specification for other structural parts or complete suspension system of heavy commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

Coastdown Road Load Coefficients of Passenger Vehicles - Variation Analysis and its Correlation with Temperature

2021-09-22
2021-26-0487
Road Load parameters (rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag) of a vehicle have strong impact on overall Vehicle Emissions and Fuel Economy. The road load coefficients are simulated on chassis dynamometer to carryout emission and fuel economy measurement and are hence required to be found beforehand. A realistic measure of road load parameters can be obtained by conducting a coastdown test. Coastdown test results are hugely impacted by various environmental parameters like ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed etc. Though performed in standard boundary conditions, results of multiple tests performed on a vehicle vary from one another due to variations in the mentioned environmental parameters over and above standard test to test variation. This paper aims at studying the variation in test results due to ambient temperature as one of the parameters responsible.
Technical Paper

A Proposed Systematic Software Robustness Verification Framework (SRVF) for Enhancing Critical Software Module Robustness

2021-09-22
2021-26-0481
With the advancement of inbuilt electronics and intelligent controls, automotive and other industries are looking at efficient usage of ECUs with intelligent electronic modules and more of critical functions implemented by software. Robustness of the software involved is always critical to the ECUs health, so software engineers are tasked to ensure the same by following right development and validation life cycle. Enabling the multiple decision by single software module makes verification & validation challenging, complex and time consuming. Current method of software validation involves unit testing at module level. This may overlook some failures which occur on system level and can identify new set of requirements if not already captured during requirement gathering phase. It becomes an iterative approach of design, test and identify new requirements. Software FMEA in embedded control system [2] is used for identifying new requirements and mitigating the failures.
Technical Paper

Automated Test Setup for Edge Compute Connectivity Devices by Recreating Live Connected Ecosystem on the Bench

2021-09-22
2021-26-0498
Connected vehicle services have come a long way from the early days of telematics, both in terms of breadth of the class of vehicles, and in terms of richness or complexity of the data being handled for Enhancing Customer Experience. The Connectivity Control unit (CCU) is a gateway device for the vehicle to the outside world. While it enables transmission of vehicle data along with the location information. CCU is currently validated in the vehicle to check functionality. It has cost, time drawbacks and prevents effective testing of many scenarios. Bench level validation will not be able to complete functionality validation. There is subset of validation tools or semi-automated solutions are available in the market, but they are not fully functional, and critically cannot perform end to end validation. Automated Test setup for CCU in lab simulating the entire field data of the vehicle with modifiable characteristics.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emission Norms Project Development by Virtualization - An Efficient Combination of Virtual and Conventional Test Benches

2021-09-22
2021-26-0495
The ever-increasing cost of automotive powertrain development is due to the more complex technologies required to meet the latest emissions legislation and customer expectations. Manufacturers need to conduct extensive development loops of test bench and on-road testing to verify the hardware, emission control system, corresponding ECU software function development. Increased resources are required to build up a comparably large number of prototype vehicles to calibrate all the ECU algorithms and functionalities. Increasing powertrain complexity leads typically to a strong increase of conventional calibration efforts. Therefore, there is a strongly increasing need for an advanced calibration approach based on multi-facial XiL simulation.
Technical Paper

21SIAT-0638 - Fleet Analytics - A Data-Driven and Synergetic Fleet Validation Approach

2021-09-22
2021-26-0499
Current developments in automotive industry such as hybrid powertrains and the continuously increasing demands on emission control systems, are pushing complexity still further. Validation of such systems lead to a huge amount of test cases and hence extreme testing efforts on the road. At the same time the pressure to reduce costs and minimize development time is creating challenging boundaries on development teams. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to utilize testing and validation prototypes in the most efficient way. It is necessary to apply high levels of instrumentation and collect as much data as possible. And a streamlined data pipeline allows the fleet managers to get new insights from the raw data and control the validation vehicles as well as the development team in the most efficient way. In this paper we will demonstrate a data-driven approach for validation testing.
Technical Paper

Development of Closed Loop Power Recirculating Type Test Rig - Higher Torque Ranges

2021-09-22
2021-26-0491
In the past decades, many impressive progress has been made in the rig development for the gear validation. But, the challenges are to test the entire gear box for the improvement in the single gear alone to ascertain material quality or process improvement, that too with the higher torque range gear boxes, which requires huge investment and power consumption due to high capacity test rig / dynamometer. This paper deals with an experimental validation of the dynamic model for a gear pair test system, representative of a closed loop power recirculating type test rig. Being a closed loop, this system has its own uniqueness, that, it uses the low capacity prime mover, which considers the initial starting loop torque only, to cater the high power requirement in an efficient manner. The key intend of the development of this rig is to reduce the testing from system level to sub component level with low cost operation and more competence for the gears of high torque application.
Technical Paper

A 1:3 Small Scale Vehicle Model Investigation in Small Scale Wind Tunnel and Correlation with Full Vehicle Testing

2021-09-22
2021-26-0493
In present study a comparative investigation and correlation attempted on small scale vehicle model for aerody-namic drag performance at small scale wind tunnel test facility in India vs full vehicle tested at globally know and accepted full scale test facility in Pininfarina, Italy. Current investigation aims to assess the small-scale wind tunnel suitable for testing 1:3 small scale car models A scale model of 1:3 scale size was tested in small scale wind tunnel (at IISC,Bengaluru, India) having test section area of 11.68 Sq. m. To understand the overall vehicle aerodynamic drag performance small scale model was test-ed for different configurations such as baseline, spoiler removal, underbody cover and different yaw condition. To understand the correlation between small scale vs full vehicle’s aerodynamic performance one actual vehicle was also tested at full scale wind tunnel Pinifarina Italy.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Protected Boot Mechanism in Automotive Domain

2021-09-22
2021-26-0506
In the recent years the electronics and software in the car has been increased with the request of new features. Todays vehicles are vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to their connectivity with internet and infrastructure. Due to this security in the automotive domain has gained importance. Earlier the software updates were done at the service station and probability of tampering the software was less. As the vehicles are connected through internet, the car manufacturers are shifting towards over the air updates (OTA). It should be ensured that only authentic software is executed on the micro controller. Protected boot is a security control used to ensure authentic software is executed on the microcontroller. Protected boot is a mechanism in which authenticity and integrity of the software is checked during the booting phase by using the chain of Trust mechanism. Protected boot can be achieved by using authenticated boot or secure boot mechanism.
Technical Paper

Development of Compression Spring Variable Valve for Exhaust Mufflers

2021-09-22
2021-26-0289
The main function of the muffler is to reduce noise from the internal combustion engine without affecting its performance due to the impact of higher backpressure. The backpressure of the exhaust system is directly related to the fuel efficiency of the engine. BS VI and the forthcoming RDE emission control systems (hot end) use combination technologies such as DOC, DPF,SCR and multiple SCR. In BS IV application, emission control system (hot end) contributes about 30% of the total allowable exhaust backpressure, whereas in BS VI regulation the contribution of hot end system is about 70% of exhaust backpressure. The addition of hot end internals (DOC, DPF, SCR) in BS VI system increases backpressure abnormally and hence the engine performance decreases. So,there is a mandatory requirement to control backpressure of the exhaust system.Although these hot end components contribute additional value for acoustic tuning, the upcoming NVH targets demand precise optimization.
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