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Technical Paper

Cybersecurity by Agile Design

ISO/SAE 21434 [1] Final International Standard was released September 2021 to great fanfare and is the most prominent standard in Automotive Cybersecurity. As members of the Joint Working Group (JWG) the authors spent 5 years developing the 84 pages of precise wording acceptable to hundreds of contributors. At the same time the auto industry had been undergoing a metamorphosis probably unmatched in its hundred-year history. A centerpiece of the metamorphosis is the adoption of the Agile development method to meet market demands for time-to-market and flexibility of design. Unfortunately, a strategic decision was made by the JWG to focus ISO/SAE 21434 on the V-Model method. Agile does not break ISO/SAE 21434. Agile is a framework that can be adapted to suit any process. In the end the goals are the same regardless of development method; security by design must be achieved.
Research Report

Autonomous Field Robotics

The market penetration of highly automated agricultural vehicles in crop farming and arable environments is still very low. However, the unsettled issues and market barriers stem from three main topics. The first is the technical development and appropriate framework conditions for hardware and software required for autonomous field vehicles. The second is the regulatory framework needed to facilitate investment by manufacturers and users. Finally, the third topic is the willingness of the user to accept the non-deterministic systems that are common in agricultural practices today. Autonomous Field Robotics is a joint report between SAE International and the German Institute for Standardization (DIN) developed to enable relevant stakeholders—including users, regulators, researchers, and manufacturers, among others—to discuss the barriers facing automated agricultural vehicles.
Journal Article

Development and Application of J3112: A/C Compressor Oil Separator Effectiveness Test Standard

SAE Standard J3112 – “A/C Compressor Oil Separator Effectiveness Test Standard” - has been developed to provide an analytical means of determining if an a/c compressor with oil separator functionality meets the U.S. EPA criteria of a minimum 50% effectiveness in order to qualify for menu credits for greenhouse gas reduction, as specified in the U.S Government Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, §86.1868-12. At the start of the EPA’s a/c efficiency credit program in 2017 OEMs could qualify for greenhouse gas menu credits without providing data on the effectiveness of the product being implemented, but EPA regulations required supporting data from 2020 MY through the end of the current published regulations in 2026 MY. J3112 was developed by the SAE Interior Climate Control MVAC Supplier Committee (TEVBES2E) in order to provide a standardized procedure for determining oil separator effectiveness in order to comply with the EPA requirements for 2020-2026 model years.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Ride Characteristics of Four-Wheel Vehicle under Random Road Surface Undulations

The vehicle performance is examined based on its specific performance indices. These specific performance indices include stability, ride comfort, steering ability, etc. The vehicle ride comfort is an important factor of vehicle quality and receiving large attention. The majority of previous investigations are focused on vertical vibration analysis of the sprung mass of the vehicle subjected to vertical excitations from the road surface. This study evaluates the ride characteristics of a coupled vertical-lateral 13 degrees of freedom (DoF) full-car model of a light passenger four-wheel vehicle developed with the Lagrangian method. The random vertical and lateral undulations of the road surface have been accounted for in the analysis and represented by the Power Spectral Density (PSD) function. The vehicle ride is assessed based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 2631-1 annexure and the vehicle overall ride index is determined.
Technical Paper

Towards Establishing Continuous-X Pipeline Using Modular Software-in-the-Loop Test Environments

Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) test environments are the ideal virtual platforms for enabling continuous-development, -integration, -testing -delivery or -deployment commonly referred as Continuous-X (CX) of the complex functionalities in the current automotive industry. This trend especially is contributed by several factors such as the industry wide standardization of the model exchange formats, interfaces as well as architecture definitions. The approach of frontloading software testing with SiL test environments is predominantly advocated as well as already adopted by various Automotive OEMs, thereby the demand for innovating applicable methods is increasing. However, prominent usage of the existing monolithic architecture for interaction of various elements in the SiL environment, without regarding the separation between functional and non-functional test scope, is reducing the usability and thus limiting significantly the cost saving potential of CX with SiL.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Driver IC in LED Rear Combination Lamp for Circuit Standardization

Today, many automakers are using LED lamp sources in exterior lamps to establish brand awareness and introduce specialized lamp designs. These eye-catching LED lamp source solutions require many control functions as the lamp functions are diversified and advanced, and accordingly the requirements for standardization and optimization of controllers are increasing. In particular, our LED rear combination lamps have a variety of LED loads according to the design of the lamp model, the installation position, and the diagnostic regulations, so that the design complexity and the number of specifications of the controller are increased [4]. In recent years, more and more aesthetic designs and new technologies are used by various automakers to optimize their controllers in cooperation with global partners to optimize costs [1].
Journal Article

Use of Digital Olfaction to Standardize Cabin Odor Testing in Automotive Interiors

Subjectivity in testing for automotive validation processes is typically a sticking point for many suppliers and OEMs. For vehicle interiors, in addition to the laboratory testing, human panels of “trained noses” are used to judge the different components and the completed vehicle. In the automotive industry, there is no standardization as each OEM has their own testing specifications, rating scale and methods. In addition to the variation in OEM specification, there are also global specifications issued by SAE, VDA, and ISO. This lack of unified quantitative norms leads to increased costs and timing for suppliers, lab-to-lab variations in results and ultimately longer development times for the OEMs. With the advances in sensors, biochemistry and machine learning, odor detection and classification can be achieved with the use of a digital olfaction device, or “electronic nose”.
Journal Article

Cybersecurity Metrics for Automotive Systems

Cybersecurity for automotive systems is challenging, and one of the major challenges is how to measure this specific system property. With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming International Organization for Standardization and the Society for Automotive Engineers (ISO/SAE) 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (UNECE WP.29), it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles. The main contribution of this article is the contextualization of existing metrics from literature and mapping out how they may fit within a standardized framework.
Technical Paper

Automotive Network Management Impacts on Vehicle Key-off Load Current

This paper approaches a short introduction of AUTOSAR applied to vehicle CAN Network Management. The implementation of vehicle network wake-up and sleep strategies is essential to guarantee an efficient power management to avoid key-off load issues that are very common in a vehicle development phase and sometimes become a cause of customer dissatisfaction. The majority of the vehicle connected features linked to cellphone applications need to be available and accessible even with the vehicle turned off. In the other hand keep the vehicle ECUs awake waiting for a cloud command is not desired once this behavior would quickly drain the battery. A development and usage of a common standardized software platform on automotive industry shall be pursued in order to reduce costs, timing and optimize the new connected features that are being implemented and minimize the impacts on power supply.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Brazilian standards used for railway noise assessment

Exposure to transport systems with high noise levels can be harmful to health, depending on the sound pressure level (SPL) that the system can generate. To avoid these problems, there are specific laws that must be followed in each country where the freight railways pass through the cities. However, obtaining results from SPL measurements in railways is a complex task, since many variables can interfere with this measurement, as temperature, air humidity, wind, train speed, number of wagons, among other factors. Therefore, standardization organizations have developed standards to establish the requirements and methodologies to measure noise levels emitted by transporting systems. Currently, in Brazil, the standard NBR 10151 is being used to measure noise from moving sources, but the application of a new standard ABNT NBR 16425-4 is in the process to be implemented, which will be specific to railway transport.
White Paper

Digital Standards Systems—An Integrated Approach to Engineering Standards Usage

Industry standards are key enablers in helping businesses around the meet regulatory requirements, keep costs down, gain market access, and instill consumer confidence. SAE International, a standards development organization (SDO) critical to the transportation industry, works in partnership with industry to develop and distribute standards important in automotive and aerospace product development, product performance, and quality management. Historically, industry standards were formatted with the intention of being distributed in print. This changed with the evolution of new electronic formats, and now most standards are available in PDF or EPUB. While progressive at the time, these formats are now proving inadequate due their optimization for readability by the human eye versus consumption by electronic endpoints.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Standardize and Improve the Calibration Process of a 1D Model of a GTDI Engine

The present paper aims at developing a novel methodology to create a one-dimensional simulation model for an automotive turbocharged gasoline engine. The gas-path modeling of the engine, which includes a variable nozzle turbine (VNT) and variable valve timing (VVT) strategies, is described in detail. The model calibration procedure is mainly distinguished by isolating the different engine parts, decoupling the turbocharger, using PI controls to find fitting parameters and checking and validating mean and crank-angle resolved variables. To handle model limitations, it requires experimental data and a previous combustion analysis of some steady operating points. The methodology is completed with the determination of fitting correlations to estimate heat losses and pressure drops in engine systems. It also includes the training of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to predict the combustion process and the integration into the model and final validation.
Technical Paper

Comparison between the WLTC and the FTP-75 driving cycles applied to a 1.4 L light-duty vehicle running on ethanol

The forecast scenarios regarding the environmental pollution raises a question whether the current vehicle emission certification is reliable enough to assure fleet agreement with the legal limits. Type approval tests have been performed on chassis dynamometer in order to evaluate the emission factors and fuel consumption for passenger cars. Standardized procedures such as the FTP-75 proposed in the United States (currently incorporated in the Brazilian legislation) and the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC), a transient driving cycle model designed by the European Union to overcome the shortcomings of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), are discussed in this paper. Both cycles were performed in a chassis dynamometer with a flex-fuel passenger car running on ethanol blend (E92W08). The driver, vehicle and fuel were kept constant so the comparison between the cycles would not be compromised.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Numerical Simulation Applied to Design of Stamping Dies

The stamping process is commonly used, it is easily found in vehicles manufacturing. The stamping tool is composed by elements such as: die, punch, drawbeads and blankholder. The objective of this paper is to improve the structural stiffness and to reduce the weight of die through numerical optimization. Usually are used standardized stamping tool's parts that follows standard guidelines. The only part of stamping tool considered in the methodology was the die, other parts like punch and blankholder can also be optimized. A vehicle hood was designed in CAD and after that it was exported to CAE to start the simulations, the first step was the die generation. After that, a stamping process was simulated and the contact forces in the die were extracted and then applied in the control volume designed in CAD. Finally, the constraints, objectives and parameters were changed, so the topological optimization was generated.
Technical Paper

V2X Standardization in Over-the-Air Solution

Today in-vehicle software is growing significantly resulting into increase in importance of over-the-air software/firmware updates dramatically. Various suppliers are providing the update-over-the-air solution in the automotive sector. Due to limited standardization in solution, each supplier needs more customization for specific customer. This paper is to bring in the required standardization in V2X resulting into ‘vehicle on-board components’ as one solution to multiple customer. “Update over-the-air improved solution through various standardization resulting into ‘vehicle on-board components’ as the product”
Technical Paper

Development of Firing Fuel Economy Engine Dyno Test Procedure for JASO Ultra Low Viscosity Engine Oil Standard (JASO GLV-1)

Fuel economy measurement test is one of important engine tests to establish fuel economy engine oil performance standard to support CO2 emission reduction efforts in the automotive industry. On the other hand, it is difficult to develop an engine test without appropriate engine hardware that is designed to utilize low viscosity engine oils. A new firing fuel economy test was developed based on 2ZR-FXE engine designed for hybrid powertrain. The new test procedure aimed to provide the tool to evaluate new low viscosity grades such as 0W-8 and 0W-12 that were adapted in SAE J300 in 2015.
Technical Paper

Determination of Validation Testing Scenarios for an ADAS Functionality: Case Study

As the engineering community continues working on automated driving (AD) functionalities, the topic of safety validation still provides fuel for discussions. Despite the vehicles equipped with higher level AD functionalities ready to enter service on public roads, there is still no state-of-the-art process created for safety validation procedures. In this situation, vehicles with similar functionalities may end up coming through fundamentally different validation procedure, and the public may be exposed to additional risks. This paper fist formulates requirements which safety validation process needs to fulfill. The requirements are based on ISO 26262, PAS 21448 (SOTIF), and the state of the art requirements typical for safety applications. Then, the process of implementation of those requirements is sketched.
Technical Paper

A Driving Simulator Study of Young Driver’s Behavior under Angry Emotion

The driving behaviors of young drivers under the influence of anger are analyzed by driving simulator in this paper. A total of 12 subjects are enrolled during the experiment. Standardized videos are utilized to induce the driver's anger emotion. And the driver's electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is collected synchronously and compared before and after emotional trigger, which prove the validity of emotional trigger. Based on the result, the driver's driving performance under the straight road and the curve under normal state and angry state are compared and analyzed. The results of independent sample t-test show that there are significant differences in the running time of straight sections and the standard deviation of steering wheel angle in curves between normal and angry states. In conclusion, the longitudinal and lateral operation of drivers is unstable in angry state and the driver will be more destructive to the regular driving behavior.
Technical Paper

Glare Investigations and Safety Research on Digital Light Technologies

New human-machine interfaces are the direct result of digitalization. So also in lighting, new constellations have to be taken into account when looking to the possibilities of giving additional informations to the driver. Lighting and furthermore information given by light is a clear preference during nighttime driving. The global interest in standardization of light driven messages from autonomous vehicles to other traffic participants has opened new research needs in order to prepare full view on such new human-machine interface. In Europe, GTB (Group de Travail de Bruxelles) has established a working group dedicated to this topic. In order to provide a complete picture of the effects of digital light, the question of additional glare contribution by digital informations, i.e. extra projected light in form of patterns, symbols or areas was addressed in this research study. This article will show the investigations on wet and dry road glare while driving with digital informations.
Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.