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Technical Paper

Demonstrating UVC LED Inside Automobile HVAC Chambers for Clean Cabin Air and Airborne Transmission Risk Reduction

2022-03-29
2022-01-0197
The COVID-19 pandemic affected mobility in many ways- from changing business models of moving passenger to delivering packages and food, developing cleaning protocols for interiors and increasing the awareness of consumers to the hidden dangers of pathogens and viruses in an enclosed space. A trend towards healthy cars is believed to remain after the current pandemic and has led to the emergence of new safety features, from CO2 gas sensors, to antimicrobial fabrics, and enhanced air purifiers. While air purifiers trap contaminants using cartridge filters, they are not particularly efficient at removing viral particles and create large pressure drops, which must be compensated with larger fans, increasing noise and power consumption, both of which are not optimal for vehicle HVAC systems. However, air purifiers act as a pressure head, which limits their utility. UVC was not previously an option because mercury lamps pose their own electrical and chemical hazards.
Technical Paper

Forming Characteristics of Very Low Carbon High strength Dual Phase Steels Produced through a Flex Mill Continuous Galvanizing Line

2022-03-29
2022-01-0239
A low carbon, lean alloyed chemistry was selected for the development of high strength dual phase (DP) steels with enhanced global and local formability. Optimized best process conditions including clean steel practices, choice of suitable casting powder, hot rolling and continuous anneal set points resulted in excellent mechanical properties and formability characteristics of DP steels. The enhanced balance of strength and formability is attributed to the optimization of the microstructure through refinement, uniformity and balancing microconstituents mechanical response and guaranteeing outstanding internal cleanliness. In this contribution, production strategy and formability characterization of DP steels with tensile strengths of 780 MPa and above relevant to automotive body structure applications will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Comparing stress gradient and other concepts for fatigue analysis of notched components

2022-03-29
2022-01-0252
Nowadays simulation of the fatigue life is an essential part of the development of components in the automotive and machinery industry. Weak points can be identified fast and reliable with respect to stiffness, strength and lightweight. A pure virtual optimization of the design can be performed without the need of prototypes. Only for the production release a final test is necessary. A lot of parameters influence the fatigue life as the local stress, material, surface roughness, size of the component, temperature etc. Notches have the strongest impact on fatigue life, depending on radius and shape. Stresses at the notch base are increased because the load flow is forced through a reduced cross section, or changes its direction around an inwardly curved edge. But notches cause not only an increase of the local stress. Also, the local fatigue strength is increased because of a support effect from the neighboring areas, where the stress is already reduced.
Technical Paper

The investigation of a contact and element-based approach for Cohesive zone modelling in the simulation of Delamination propagation

2022-03-29
2022-01-0259
The CAE industry always moves towards new ways to improve the productivity, efficiency and to reduce the solution times. Conventional method of Cohesive Zone Modelling has drawback of higher computation and modelling time. Due to this problem, sometimes Engineers need to avoid simulations and rely only on some sort of approximation of crack from previous designs. This approximation can lead to either product failure or overdesign of the product. A new approach is discussed in this paper to simulate crack initiation and propagation with Cohesive Zone Modelling. Conventional method uses Cohesive zone modelling with Hex or Penta elements by assigning material with cohesive properties, which increases computation and modelling time. The new approach models Cohesive zone as contact between two bodies, thus eliminating the need to use cohesive elements which will essentially reduce the computation time as well as modelling time.
Technical Paper

Design and Optimization of an Electric Car Chassis and Body using Structural Analysis and CFD

2022-03-29
2022-01-0292
The transition from traditional gasoline-powered automobiles to electric vehicles (EVs) has taken time, two major challenges of engine- powered vehicles are greenhouse gas emissions and fuel economy. Electric cars require less maintenance. A lot of money can be saved while also helping the environment. In today's world, working with lightweight materials have emerged as a key area for improvement in the automotive industry. The most efficient method for increasing power output is to reduce the weight of vehicle components. Composite materials have benefited greatly from research and development because they are stronger, more recyclable, and easier to integrate into vehicles. The primary goal of this research is to design the body and chassis frame of a two-seater electric car.
Technical Paper

Anisotropic dynamic mechanical properties of 3D printed carbon fiber composites

2022-03-29
2022-01-0335
3D printing is a revolutionary manufacturing method that allows the productions of engineering parts almost directly from modeling software on a computer. With 3D printing technology, future manufacturing could become vastly efficient. However, it has been reported that the 3D printed parts exhibit anisotropic behaviors in microstructure and mechanical properties, that is, depending on the positions (infill orientations) that the parts are placed on a printer platform, the properties of resultant parts can vary greatly. Further, parts made from 3D printing are found to exhibit properties inferior to those made using more conventional manufacturing methods, e.g., compression molding. So far, studies on anisotropic behaviors of 3D printed parts have been mostly limited to the static properties (modulus of elasticity, failure strength, etc.); there is a lack of understanding on the mechanical responses of 3D printed parts under dynamic conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Assessment of Tribological Performance of Different Llow Viscosity Engine Oils in a 4-Stroke CI Light-Duty ICE

2022-03-29
2022-01-0321
Decreasing fuel consumption in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) is a key target for engine developers in order to achieve the CO2 emissions limits during a standard cycle. In this context, reduction of engine friction can help meet those targets. The use of Low Viscosity Engine Oils (LVEOs), which is currently one of the avenues to achieve such reductions, is studied in this manuscript through a validated numerical simulation model that predicts the friction of the engine’s piston-cylinder unit, journal bearings and camshaft. These frictional power losses are obtained for four different lubricant formulations which differ in their viscosity grades and design. Results show a maximum friction savings of up to 6% depending on the engine operating condition, where the major reductions come from hydrodynamic-dominated components such as journal bearings, despite an increase in friction in boundary-dominated components such as the piston-ring assembly.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the simulation of sintering distortion in a 316L Part manufactured using Bound Metal Deposition 3D printing

2022-03-29
2022-01-0346
Metal binderjetting is a high throughput additive manufacturing process that has the potential to meet the needs of automotive volume production. In many cases, this process requires a sintering post-process to meet final dimensions. Because the sintering stage is performed free standing (i.e. without the use of tooling) and can involve up to a 20% dimensional change from green part to the final part shape, part distortion can be a concern. In this study, the sintering stage of a bridge geometry was simulated under different parameter settings using a Finite Element Analysis. The sensitivity of the simulation to various process parameter inputs was examined. Parts were then produced in 316L using a bound metal deposition and sintering process and compared to prediction. The sintering simulation indicated good agreement with experiment for some dimensions but highlighted the need for additional analysis.
Technical Paper

A quick method to evaluate fuel chemistry on vehicle particulate emissions

2022-03-29
2022-01-0489
Fuel chemistry plays a crucial role in the continued reduction of particulate emission (PE) and cleaner air quality while using internal combustion engines (ICE). Over the past ten years, there has been great improvements in the measurements of particulate formation indices. Examples of these indices would be the Honda Particulate Matter Index (PMI) equation and the General Motors Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI), among others. Even though there have been improvements in particulate index (PI) measurement tools, the method analysis within these tools are still very time-consuming. These methods can include the use of chromatography separation techniques such as detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA), which have become very popular in the petrochemical industry. A review of historical PI methods will be discussed, along with a PE comparison to a less time-consuming simulated distillation method analysis.
Technical Paper

Laser-Based In-Exhaust Gas Sensor for On-Road Vehicles

2022-03-29
2022-01-0535
Indrio Technologies has developed a novel on-board sensor, named Ignis, for detecting oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and ammonia (NH3) in diesel exhaust streams with sensitivities and molecular specificity unmet by existing technologies. This is a key technological need for diesel engine manufacturers, who face difficulty in precisely controlling their exhaust aftertreatment systems due to the lack of widely deployable sensors capable of differentiating between NOx, NH3 and other species in the exhaust stream. The successful incorporation of the proposed sensor can result in greater fuel efficiency improvements while matching new stringent 2027 California and 2030 EPA NOx emissions standards. Once the product has reached deep market penetration, the fleet-wide fuel economy improvements and NOx emissions reductions enabled by this product will lead to reduced carbon emissions and healthier air with lower amounts of NOx-induced smog, ground-level ozone, and acid rain.
Technical Paper

Impact of Chemical Contaminants on Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engine Three-Way Catalysts with high mileage history

2022-03-29
2022-01-0542
Stoichiometric natural gas engines with Three-way catalysts (TWCs) more efficiently reduce NOx and CH4 emissions compared to lean burn natural gas engines. Even though TWCs are well known, there is a need for deeper understanding beyond hydrothermal aging (HTA) to explain the real-world performance and aging behaviors. In this investigation, we characterized the real-world TWC to specifically identify the contribution of chemical aging to overall performance. The sulfur (S) species was evenly distributed throughout the whole catalyst volume, whereas phosphorous (P) contamination was mainly observed at the inlet section of the TWC and its concentration sharply declined along the axial length. Sulfur amount on the catalyst surface is quantified by TPD and ICP. Performance is measured pre and post sulfur removal on TWC to isolate the contribution of degradation due to HTA+P and that due to S.
Technical Paper

A Review of Current Understanding of the Underlying Physics Governing the Interaction, Ignition and Combustion Dynamics of Multiple-injections in Diesel Engines

2022-03-29
2022-01-0445
This work is intended to be a comprehensive technical review of existing literature and a synthesis of current understanding of the governing physics behind the interaction of multiple fuel injectio ns, ignition and combustion behavior of multiple-injections in diesel engines. Multiple-injection is a widely adopted operating strategy applied in modern compression-ignition engines, which involves various combinations of small pre-injections and post-injections of fuel before and after the main injection and splitting the main injection into multiple smaller injections. This strategy has been conclusively shown to improve fuel economy in diesel engines while achieving simultaneous NOx, soot, and combustion noise reduction in addition to a reduction in the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons and CO by preventing fuel wetting and flame quenching at the piston wall.
Technical Paper

Development and validation of an EHN mechanism for fundamental and applied chemistry studies

2022-03-29
2022-01-0455
Autoignition enhancing additives have been used for years to enhance the ignition quality of diesel fuel, with 2-ethylexyl nitrate (EHN) being the most common additive. EHN also enhances the autoignition reactivity of gasoline, which has advantages for some low-temperature combustion techniques, such as Sandia’s Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) with Additive-Mixing Fuel Injection (AMFI). LTGC-AMFI is a new high-efficiency and low-emissions engine combustion process based on supplying a small, variable amount of EHN into the fuel for better engine operation and control. However, the mechanism by which EHN interacts with the fuel remains unclear. In this work, a chemical-kinetic mechanism for EHN was developed and implemented in a detailed mechanism for gasoline fuels. The combined mechanism was validated against shock-tube experiments with EHN-doped n-heptane and HCCI engine data for EHN-doped regular E10 gasoline. Simulations showed a very good match with experiments.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Methane-Hydrogen Mixtures for Enabling Stable Lean Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines for Automotive Applications

2022-03-29
2022-01-0471
Economy decarbonization will be one of the main goals for the following years. Research efforts are being focused on reducing carbon-based emissions, by increasing the efficiency of the transport power plants while developing new fuel production methods that reduce the environmental footprint of the refinement process. Consequently, the depletion of conventional fuels derived from petroleum with high carbon content, such as gasoline and diesel, motivated the development of propulsive alternatives for the automotive sector. In this paradigm, methane (CH4) fuel appears as a mid-term solution due to its low carbon content, if compared with traditional fuels, and the low CO2 emissions during its production from renewable sources. However, the intrinsic properties of methane compromise the combustion process, subsequently increasing the emission of CO2.
Technical Paper

Modeling of regeneration dynamics in gasoline particulate filters and sensitivity analysis of numerical solutions

2022-03-29
2022-01-0556
Gasoline Direct-Injection (GDI) engine technology improves vehicle fuel economy toward future targets and simultaneously decreases CO2 emissions. The main drawback of this technology is the increased emission of particulates (when compared to their indirect injection-based technology counterpart). Thus, aftertreatment devices such as Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPFs) are today considered the most promising and practically adoptable solution to limit PM/PN out of GDI exhaust. The particulate filter traps soot particles resulting from fuel combustion and prevents their release into the atmosphere. Soot oxidation (also known as regeneration) is required at regular intervals to clean the filter, maintain a consistent soot trapping efficiency, and avoid the formation of soot plugs in the GPF channel.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Impact of Driving in Charge Mode on Well-To-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2022-03-29
2022-01-0668
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) combine some of the attractive traits of both fully electric vehicles (EVs) and non-plug-in hybrid vehicles (HVs). EV traits shared by PHEVs include the capability to charge the battery via electricity from the grid while the vehicle is parked and the ability to drive an appreciable distance without having to turn the engine on, in what is known as charge depletion mode. HV traits shared by PHEVs include the ability to use the engine to maintain the state of charge (SOC) of the batteries within certain limits, in what is known as charge sustaining mode. Charge sustaining mode allows a PHEV to not be limited by battery charging time when undergoing long distance travel (unlike EVs), but comes at the trade-off in that gas (or more generally, any fuel) needs to be used, similar to an HV.
Technical Paper

Further Analysis of the Blockage Phenomenon During the Testing of Bluff Automotive Bodies in Closed Wall Wind Tunnels

2022-03-29
2022-01-0887
The difficulties of testing a bluff automotive body of sufficient scale to match the on-road vehicle Reynolds number in a closed wall wind tunnel has led to many approaches being taken to adjust the resulting data for the inherent interference effects. But it has been impractical if not impossible to experimentally analyze the effects that are actually occurring on and around the vehicle when these blockage interferences are taking place. The present study is an extension of earlier work by the author and similarly to that study uses the CFD analysis of several bodies of differing configurations to examine the interference phenomena in solid wall wind tunnels and the effects that they have on the pressures, forces and force increments experienced by the vehicle model. This is accomplished by executing a series of CFD configurations with varying sized of the cross section from 0.2% to 13% blockage enabling an approximation of free air conditions as a reference.
Technical Paper

Investigation of naphta-type biofuel from a novel refinery process

2022-03-29
2022-01-0752
In order to reduce the carbon footprint of the internal combustion engine (ICE), biofuels have been in use for a number of years. One of the problems with first-generation (1G) biofuels however is their competition with food agriculture. In search of second-generation (2G) biofuels, that are not in competition with food-grade agriculture, a novel biorefinery process has been developed to produce biofuel from woody biomass sources. This novel technique, part of the European funded Ad-Libio project, uses a two-phase (H2O:organic) liquid-phase chemical approach, that operates at low temperature, and is able to convert 2G feedstock into a stable light naphtha. The bulk of the yield consists out of hydrocarbons containing five to six carbon atoms, along with a fraction of oxygenates and aromatics. The oxygen content and the aromaticity of the hydrocarbons can be varied, both of which have a significant influence on the fuel’s combustion and emission characteristics when used in ICEs.
Technical Paper

Title: Numerical optimization of the piston bowl geometry and investigation of the key geometric parameters for the dual-mode dual-fuel (DMDF) concept under a wide load range

2022-03-29
2022-01-0782
Focusing on the dual-mode dual-fuel (DMDF) combustion concept, a combined optimization of the piston bowl geometry with the fuel injection strategy was conducted at low, mid, and high loads. By coupling the KIVA-3V code with the enhanced genetic algorithm (GA), a total of 14 parameters including the piston bowl geometric parameters and the injection parameters were optimized with the objective of meeting Euro VI regulations while improving the fuel efficiency. The optimal piston bowl shape coupled with the corresponding injection strategy was summarized and integrated at various loads. Furthermore, the effects of the key geometric parameters were investigated in terms of organizing the in-cylinder flow, influencing the energy distribution, and affecting the emissions. The results indicate that the behavior of the DMDF combustion mode is further enhanced in the aspects of improving the fuel economy and controlling the emissions after the bowl geometry optimization.
Technical Paper

US EPA NVFEL Repeatable-Vehicle Program – Emission Lab Testing System Performance Quality Monitoring

2022-03-29
2022-01-0568
According to US FCR the vehicle emission testing system must be monitored and checked periodically, and NVFEL TATD has developed a quality control monitoring program named “Repeatable-Vehicle Program”, the current vehicle selected is a proper sized and featured sedan, so called RepCar. The vehicle emission lab cell test used a chassis dyno to simulate some road driving conditions, a CVS system to collect exhaust sample and analyzed by a group of chemical benches. The testing condition is satisfied the FCR requirement and controlled during the testing procedure. A specific driving cycle including two phases was designed to evaluate vehicle power system at different speed load performance and measurement instruments accuracy under different concentration range. The phase1 is modified FTP505, phase2 is the most aggressive part of US06, and at the end of phase2 driving trace had a 30-second constant 75 mph cruising followed by a coast down.
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