Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Standard Approach to Identifying and Defining Functions for Systems Development and Safety Assessments

2022-03-08
2022-01-0008
The Safety Assessment Process, defined by SAE ARP 4761, associated regulatory guidance, and the system development process defined by SAE ARP 4754 are built on an understanding of the functions performed by a system or systems. These recommended practices do not provide, or reference, specific guidance regarding function definition, though they do provide some conventional airplane examples. The function is central to the entire development effort, and it is essential that the functions be identified and described such that the development and safety assessment processes can be applied consistently throughout the development program, and beyond. Without a systematic process for establishing and describing functions, the application of the development and safety assessment processes can be complicated by overly inclusive functions and functions applied at the wrong level of abstraction.
Technical Paper

Custom Bench Top Testing as a supplement for Reverse Engineering for MIL-Aero systems

2022-03-08
2022-01-0001
Military and Aerospace systems electronics operate with extended lifetimes beyond normal commercial system. It’s not uncommon for printed circuit board manufacturers to go out of business or the integrated circuit manufacturer to discontinue their line of parts. This creates an obsolescence issue for the sustainment of the system. One solution of obsolescence is for an organization to reverse engineer the hardware and then replicate the design. Traditional methods involve continuity checking of the original board in order to create a netlist, schematic, and then Gerber files used to manufacture the board. However, electrical testing is required in order to verify results. This paper explores benefits of leveraging custom bench top testing in conjunction with the reverse engineering processes, to not only verify the results of the continuity checking, but to enhance efficiency and reduce the time to completion of a sustainment effort.
Technical Paper

Information Retrieval for Aviation Applications

2022-03-08
2022-01-0044
There is a recurring need for automatic Information Retrieval (IR) from quality documents, price tags, part markings, receipts, purchase orders and technical manuals - which are otherwise non-parsable. IR coupled with search functionalities has a wide range of applications from warehouses, shop floors, marketplaces to even cockpits in the aviation sector. It helps in semi-automating workflows like document reviews, quality checks, collaborative Q&As and contextual extraction of information. These workflows make laborious tasks more intuitive and easier, thereby reducing the workload of the engineers using them. The paper describes an AI based IR platform which caters to the aforesaid scenarios in a scalable manner and integrates seamlessly with similar problems across different domains.
Technical Paper

Automatic segmentation of aircraft dents in point clouds

2022-03-08
2022-01-0022
Dents on the aircraft skin are frequent and may easily go undetected during airworthiness checks, as their inspection process is tedious and extremely subject to human factors and environmental conditions. Nowadays, 3D scanning technologies are being proposed for more reliable, human-independent measurements, yet the process of inspection and reporting remains laborious and time consuming because data acquisition and validation are still carried out by the engineer. For full automation of dent inspection, the acquired point cloud data must be analysed via a reliable segmentation algorithm, releasing humans from the search and evaluation of damage. This paper reports on two developments towards automated dent detention. The first is a method to generate a synthetic dataset of dented surfaces to train a fully convolutional neural network. Training machine learning algorithms need a substantial volume of dent data, which is not readily available.
Technical Paper

Achieving compliance with RTCA DO-254/EUROCAE ED-80 Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware: Quality Management Perspective

2022-03-08
2022-01-0007
RTCA DO-254/ED-80 “Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware” is a widely accepted industry standard to ensure safety in avionics hardware. FAA and EASA have recognized DO-254 as an acceptable means of compliance with the applicable airworthiness regulations for the electronic hardware. While microprocessor based complex hardware utilization in safety critical avionic hardware are increasing, and DO-254 compliance is mandated by the certification authorities, development of DO-254 compliant or safety certifiable hardware is becoming more and more important and provides competitive advantage in the industry. The avionics manufacturers need to correlate their existing processes and procedures with DO-254 in order to satisfy DO-254 objectives in their own quality management system structure, which may be challenging and tricky.
Technical Paper

Approach for Digitalization of Maintenance Processes within the Aircraft Cabin

2022-03-08
2022-01-0021
Enhancing the comfort for passengers, airlines are constantly increasing the number of services within the aircraft cabin such as meal ordering directly from passenger seats. The payment and menu selection can be completely processed by means of a passenger-individual airline user account also considering the remaining inventory of the galley. The implementation of such type of services is supported by digitalization of cabin business processes. For these new services the airline requires a high availability of the process-related system functions to ensure airline’s revenue and customer satisfaction. A possible approach to reach the target of high availability of these functions is to use the trend of digitalization for improving function-relevant maintenance processes within the aircraft cabin.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Method to Substructure Crash Simulation Model

2021-12-03
2021-01-5107
This work presents a statistical method to use a portion of a full finite element vehicle model on a crash analysis event. The substructure model is linked to the full model by recording the interface boundary history. The lateral moving deformable barrier (MDB) test by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) is used to demonstrate this substructure method: Substructure portion is identified by energy absorption distribution, and noise elements are filtered out by density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN), a nonsupervised machine learning method. Crashworthiness simulation is performed in LS-DYNA software, and results between substructure vehicle model, full vehicle model, and physical vehicle test results are compared. It shows the result from the substructure model is more effective without accuracy compromise.
Research Report

Unsettled Aspects of Insourcing and Outsourcing Additive Manufacturing

2021-10-15
EPR2021023
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as “3D printing,” has transitioned from concepts and prototypes to part-for-part substitution—and now to the creation of part geometries that can only be made using AM. As a wide range of mobility OEMs begin to introduce AM parts into their products, the question between insourcing and outsourcing the manufacturing of AM parts has surfaced. Just like parts made using other technologies, AM parts can require significant post-processing operations. Therefore, as AM supply chains begin to develop, the sourcing of AM part building and their post-processing becomes an unsettled and important issue. Unsettled Aspects of Insourcing and Outsourcing Additive Manufacturing discusses the approaches and trade-offs of the different sourcing options for production hardware for multiple scenarios, including both metallic and polymer technologies and components. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Research Report

Unsettled Economic, Environmental, and Health Issues of Ammonia for Automotive Applications

2021-10-15
EPR2021022
Ammonia has been previously trialed as an automotive fuel; however, it was hardly competitive with fossil fuels in terms of cost, energy density, and practicality. However, due to climate change, those practical and cost-related parameters have finally become secondary deciding factors in fuel selection. Ammonia is safer than most fuels and it offers superior energy densities compared to compressed or liquefied hydrogen. It is believed that ammonia might be an ultimate clean fuel choice and an extension to the emerging hydrogen economy. Unsettled Economic, Environmental, and Health Issues of Ammonia for Automotive Applications examines the major unsettled issues of using ammonia as a clean automotive fuel alternative, including the lack of regulations and standards for automotive applications, technology readiness, safety perception, and presently limited supply.
Technical Paper

Sensor-controlled Friction Materials based on Liquid Friction Compounds, Chip-in-Pad Concept

2021-10-11
2021-01-1296
In this paper, the concept of integrating thin-film piezo transducers into friction pads by using a liquid friction material compound (LIQFRIC® HP), which is capable of completely embedding the sensor surface and allowing for the force transfer due to a direct contact between sensor and friction material, is explained. The low thickness of the sensor allows for an excellent ratio of sensor volume / friction volume in the pad. The piezo transducer, besides being able to detect positive and negative pressure changes, can also be used via its EMI capability to allow measurements of changes in the shape (and therefore thickness) of the pad during and after testing. Measuring the pressure distribution, the wear and possible defect situations of the pad potentially opens up new means of friction pad- and brake operations or developments.
Technical Paper

Predictive Maintenance of Commercial Vehicle Brakes using Acoustic Monitoring

2021-10-11
2021-01-1280
This study evaluated the performance of a new approach for detecting problems with commercial vehicle brakes based on the analysis of sounds emitted during braking. Commercial vehicle brakes emit ultrasonic energy inaudible to humans as part of the friction process, and the spectral distribution of these sounds is highly dependent on the mechanical condition of the brakes. Data collected from a commercial vehicle fleet found that the acoustic signature changes as friction linings wear. This conforms with the acoustic theory that the resonant frequency of an object increases with its decrease in mass. The use of this information to inform maintenance operations is promising in that the scheduling of visual brake inspections could be based on acoustic wear patterns rather than arbitrary time intervals and the observation of anomalous signals that might indicate more immediate concerns.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Wheel Rotations to the Lateral Runout of a Hybrid Material or Dimensionally Reduced Wheel Bearing Flange

2021-10-11
2021-01-1298
The automotive industry is continuously striving to reduce vehicle mass by reducing the mass of components including wheel bearings. A typical wheel bearing assembly is mostly steel, including both the wheel and knuckle mounting flanges. Mass optimization of the wheel hub has traditionally been accomplished by reducing the cross-sectional thickness of these components. Recently bearing suppliers have also investigated the use of alternative materials. While bearing component performance is verified through analysis and testing by the supplier, additional effects from system integration and performance over time also need to be comprehended. In a recent new vehicle architecture, the wheel bearing hub flange was reduced to optimize it for low mass. In addition, holes were added for further mass reduction. The design met all the supplier and OEM component level specifications.
Technical Paper

Customer Usage Profile based Luggage Compartment Development at Concept Phase

2021-10-01
2021-28-0153
The SAE J1100 based standard cargo volume index methods and predefined luggage objects are very specific to United States population. The European luggage volume calculation and standard luggage calculations are primarily based on DIN and ISO standards. Luggage volume declaration by manufacturers are based on any of these methods. The calculations are complicated and there is a possibility of declaring different values for similar luggage compartments. The major purchase decision of vehicle is based on its luggage capacity and current methods are very limited to make an intelligent decision by a customer. Market specific customer usage patterns for luggage requirements and protecting them in vehicle architecture upfront in concept stage is important to retain the market position and buying preference of customers. The usage patterns is collected from customer clinics and marketing inputs.
Technical Paper

Towards Establishing Continuous-X Pipeline Using Modular Software-in-the-Loop Test Environments

2021-09-22
2021-26-0412
Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) test environments are the ideal virtual platforms for enabling continuous-development, -integration, -testing -delivery or -deployment commonly referred as Continuous-X (CX) of the complex functionalities in the current automotive industry. This trend especially is contributed by several factors such as the industry wide standardization of the model exchange formats, interfaces as well as architecture definitions. The approach of frontloading software testing with SiL test environments is predominantly advocated as well as already adopted by various Automotive OEMs, thereby the demand for innovating applicable methods is increasing. However, prominent usage of the existing monolithic architecture for interaction of various elements in the SiL environment, without regarding the separation between functional and non-functional test scope, is reducing the usability and thus limiting significantly the cost saving potential of CX with SiL.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Protected Boot Mechanism in Automotive Domain

2021-09-22
2021-26-0506
In the recent years the electronics and software in the car has been increased with the request of new features. Todays vehicles are vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to their connectivity with internet and infrastructure. Due to this security in the automotive domain has gained importance. Earlier the software updates were done at the service station and probability of tampering the software was less. As the vehicles are connected through internet, the car manufacturers are shifting towards over the air updates (OTA). It should be ensured that only authentic software is executed on the micro controller. Protected boot is a security control used to ensure authentic software is executed on the microcontroller. Protected boot is a mechanism in which authenticity and integrity of the software is checked during the booting phase by using the chain of Trust mechanism. Protected boot can be achieved by using authenticated boot or secure boot mechanism.
Technical Paper

Frictional Power Loss Distribution of Automotive Axles - Experimental Evaluation and Analysis

2021-09-22
2021-26-0483
The given paper presents the main elements of frictional power loss distribution in an automotive axle for passenger car. For reference two different axles were compared of two different sizes to understand the impact of size and ratio of gear and bearings on power loss characteristics. It was observed that ~50% of total axle power loss is because of pinion head-tail bearing and its seals, which is very significant. Roughly 30% of total power loss is contributed by pinion-ring gear pair and differential bearings and remaining ~20% by wheel end bearing and seals. With this study the automotive companies can take note of the area where they need to focus more to reduce their CO2 emissions to meet the stringent BS6, CAFÉ and RDE emission norms.
Technical Paper

Study of Vehicular CO2 Variations in MIDC

2021-09-22
2021-26-0196
With introduction of CAFÉ norms in India from Apr’17, the manufacturer of all M1 Category vehicles (not exceeding 3,500kg GVW) has to ascertain that they comply with Annual Corporate Average CO2 Target as defined in AIS-137 regulation which is becoming stricter in future. Hence CO2 emissions are becoming one of the major focus parameters during vehicle development. The assessment of CAFÉ compliance involves multiple steps. Firstly, test agency provides Type Approval and Conformity of Production emission test reports to the Designated Agency. Accordingly, every manufacturer submits Fuel consumption report/Passbook to the Designated Agency on annual basis. After verification of all data, the Designated Agency issues a status of compliance to the Manufacturer. Such detailed assessment protocol presents a huge challenge for any manufacturer in maintaining the consistency/accuracy of CO2 produced by manufactured vehicles within the Type Approved Limit.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Drum-Brake Squeal Noise Prediction by Including the Effect of Brake-Liner Wear

2021-09-22
2021-26-0287
Drum brake squeal noise has been under investigation by automotive companies for decades due to consistent customer complaints and high warranty costs. Unstable natural frequencies of a brake system are closely linked with brake squeal noise. Complex eigenvalues are widely used to predict unstable frequencies of brake systems. Unstable frequencies are very sensitive to various system parameters such as vehicle speed, coefficient of friction, contact pressure distribution at the liner-drum interface, brake pressure, etc. In this paper, the author has focused on the brake pad wear effects on pressure distribution and eventually on the squeal noise propensity of a commercial vehicle drum-brake system. Wear at brake pads interface is simulated using simplified wear rate formula followed by complex eigenvalue analysis. Predicted unstable frequencies considering the effect of pad wear are found closer to the frequencies of measured noise in physical testing.
Technical Paper

Overview of Truck Accidents in India and Its Economic Loss Estimation

2021-09-22
2021-26-0007
India contributed to 11% of the global road accidents and was ranked 1st among road deaths according to the latest World Health Organization (WHO) report 2018. Indian National Highways (NH) is a meagre 5% of the country’s road network but accounts for 55% of the road accidents and 61% of the road deaths. Majority of the freight traffic is ferried by Commercial Vehicles (CV) or trucks along these highways and this in turn increases the probability of them being involved in a road accident. The country’s economy is forecasted to thrive in the coming years and hence the requirement of CVs is aligned to international categorisation in the supply chain and shall play a pivotal role. In the year 2019, 13,532 road deaths were associated with CV occupants. The trucking industry is an unorganized sector wherein the illegal overloading of vehicles and over-the-limit driving hours pose a serious threat to road users.
Technical Paper

Android Automotive Testing Solution

2021-09-22
2021-26-0454
In current automotive industry OEMs and suppliers are facing the ever-increased challenge to provide in-vehicle infotainment features that are exciting to their customers. Hence android devices are becoming exceptionally adopted because of its enhanced customer experience with mobility and connectivity, Increased customization, openness, and scalability. With android automotive, car makers can create powerful infotainment systems designed for the digital age. This paper deals with the various testing solutions for Android infotainment System. It covers functional and non-functional testing solution and tools for an android rear seat entertainment system manually and with automation. Automation includes the use of generic test automation framework with the help of automated test failure log analyzer and integration of car simulation. In the fast-moving era, there is always a need of faster delivery and feedback with better quality.
X