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Technical Paper

FBS Decoupling at Suspension Level for Road Noise Applications

2022-06-15
2022-01-0977
With the electrification trend in the automotive industry, the main contributors to in-vehicle noise profile are represented by drivetrain, road and wind noise. To tackle the problem in an early stage, the industry is developing advanced techniques guaranteeing modularity and independent description of each contributor. Component-based Transfer Path Analysis (C-TPA) allows individual characterization of substructures that can be assembled into a virtual vehicle assembly, allowing the manufacturers to switch between different designs, to handle the increased number of vehicle variants and increasing complexity of products. A major challenge in this methodology is to describe the subsystem in its realistic operational boundary conditions and preload. Moreover, to measure such component, it should be free at the connection interfaces, which logically creates significant difficulties to create the required conditions during the test campaign.
Technical Paper

Medical Cargo Delivery using Blockchain Enabled Unmanned Aircraft Systems

2022-05-26
2022-26-0006
Significant growth of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) has unlocked many services and applications opportunities in the healthcare sector. Aerial transportation of medical cargo delivery can be an effective and alternative way to ground-based transport systems in times of emergency. To improve the security and the trust of such aerial transportation systems, Blockchain can be used as a potential technology to manage, operate and monitor the entire process. In this paper, we present a blockchain network solution based on Ethereum for the transportation of medical cargo such as blood, medicines, vaccines, etc. The smart contract solution developed in solidity language was tested using the Truffle program. Ganache blockchain test network was employed to host the blockchain network and test the operation of the proposed blockchain model. The suitability of the model is validated in real-time using a UAV and all the flight data are captured and uploaded into the blockchain.
Technical Paper

Artificial Intelligence in Air Cargo System

2022-05-26
2022-26-0022
Air Cargo is one of the major modes of cargo transportation in the world. It is helping to transport goods swiftly across the globe during emergencies like pandemic, evacuation, and natural calamities etc. It plays a key role in economy of a country by exporting and importing goods across the globe. This business is growing every YOY with increase in demand for e-Commerce and globalization. It is also important to keep up the efficiency of the system as the business demand grows. This paper focuses on Artificial Intelligence (AI) implementation can reduce the inefficiency and inconsistency due to the manual intervention in cargo operation in different areas.
Research Report

The Right Level of Automation for Industry 4.0

2022-05-16
EPR2022013
In its entirety, automation is part of an integrated, multi-disciplinary product development process including the design, process, production, logistics, and systems approach—it depends on all these areas, but it also influences them as well. Automation in aerospace manufacturing is present throughout the entire supply chain, from elementary part manufacturing at suppliers up to final assembly, and a clear understanding of all the benefits (and drawbacks) of automation would help designers and engineers select the right designs for and levels of automation. The Right Level of Automation Within Industry 4.0 examines all impacts of automation that should be known by designers, manufacturers, and companies before investments in automation-related decisions are made—regardless of the which industry they work in. The process and the set of criteria discussed in this report will help decision makers select the right level of automation.
Technical Paper

Development of Steady State NO2:NOX Control via an Independent Nitric Decomposition System for the Exhaust Composition Transient Operation Laboratory

2022-03-29
2022-01-0548
Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) utilizes the burner-based Exhaust Composition Transient Operation LaboratoryTM (ECTO-Lab) to accurately simulate transient engines and replicate real exhaust that is produced by light and heavy-duty engines for aftertreatment aging and evaluations. This system can generate and dose NOX over transient cycles from a range of 20 ppm to 1200 ppm where the NOX is generated by the in-situ decomposition and combustion of a fuel-bound, nitrogen containing compound. During the combustion and decomposition of the nitrogen containing compound over 95 % of the NOX generated is in the form of NO. To authentically simulate exhaust gases, it is necessary to account for the distribution of the NO to the NO2. Since previous work has established that the decomposition of nitric acid can be utilized as a method to generate NO2, the objective of this project was to develop control of NO and NO2 within SwRI’s ECTO-Lab through the decomposition of nitric acid.
Technical Paper

Performance and Activity Characteristics of Zero Emission Battery-Electric Cargo Handling Equipment at a Port Terminal

2022-03-29
2022-01-0576
Goods movement and port related activities are a significant source of emissions in many large urban areas. Electrification of diesel cargo handling equipment is one method of reducing community exposure to these emissions, that also provides the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This study evaluated the performance of several pieces of zero emission cargo transfer equipment for a demonstration conducted at two terminal locations at the Port of Long Beach (POLB). This included the data logging of three battery-electric top handlers and one battery-electric yard tractor, as well as two baseline diesel top handlers and one diesel yard tractor. The battery-electric equipment typically operated about 5 hours per day, while using between 34 to 50% of the battery pack state of charge (SOC). In general, the battery-electric equipment was able to provide comparable hours of operation to the diesel equipment over a typical 8-hour shift.
Technical Paper

Quantifying the Information Value of Sensors in Highly Non-Linear Dynamic Automotive Systems

2022-03-29
2022-01-0626
In modern powertrains systems, sensors are critical elements for advanced control. The identification of sensing requirements for such highly nonlinear systems is technically challenging. To support the sensor selection process, this paper proposes a methodology to quantify the information gained from sensors used to control nonlinear dynamic systems using a dynamic probabilistic framework. This builds on previous work to design a Bayesian observer to deal with nonlinear systems. This was applied to a bimodal model of the SCR aftertreatment system. Despite correctly observing the bimodal distribution of the internal Ammonia-NOx Ratio (ANR) state, it could not distinguish which state is the true state. This causes issues for a control engineer who is less interested in how precise a measurement is and more interested in the location within control parameter space. Information regarding the dynamics of the systems is required to resolve the bimodality.
Technical Paper

Variable Axial Composite Lightweight Automotive Parts Using Anisotropic Topology Optimization and Tailored Fiber Placement

2022-03-29
2022-01-0344
This paper presents a design method for continuous fiber composites in three-dimensional space with locally varying orientation distribution and their fabrication method. The design method is formulated based on topology optimization by augmented tensor field design variables. The fabrication method is based on Tailored Fiber Placement technology, whereby a CNC embroidery machine prepares the preform. The fiber path is generated from an optimized orientation distribution field. The preform is formed with vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding. The fabricated prototype weighs 120 g, a 70% weight reduction, achieving 3.5× mass-specific stiffness improvement.
Technical Paper

A Constant Equivalence Ratio Multi-Zone Approach for a Detailed and Fast Prediction of Performances and Emission in CI Engines

2022-03-29
2022-01-0381
The paper illustrates and validates a novel predictive combustion model for the estimation of performances and pollutant production in CI engines. The numerical methodology was developed by the authors for near real-time applications, while aiming at an accurate description of the air mixing process by means of a multi-zone approach of the air-fuel mass. Charge stratification is estimated via a 2D representation of the fuel spray distribution that is numerically derived by an axial one-dimensional control-volume description of the direct injection. The radial coordinate of each control volume is reconstructed a posteriori by means of a local distribution function. Fuel mass clustered in each zone is further split in ‘liquid’, ‘unburnt’ and ‘burnt’ sub-zones, given the local properties of the fuel spray control volumes with respect to space-time location of modelled ignition delay, liquid length, and flame lift-off.
Technical Paper

Develop Best Practices for Correlating Body Pressure Distribution Test to Simulation

2022-03-29
2022-01-0809
As automotive seating comfort is expected to see an upward trend, virtual comfort analysis is expected to pick up its importance and Body Pressure Distribution (BPD) is foreseen to be the flag bearer in this race towards seat comfort. The shift of focus from BPD testing to virtual comfort analysis has been a positive sign for market. This paper will discuss in detail several different human seating postures during BPD measurement and their influence on seat BPD with the help of virtual comfort analysis tool. This knowledge will be helpful to put more emphasis on several key aspects for capturing BPD maps during real BPD testing (This paper does not discuss any physical testing). When the real-time-tested BPD map would be produced repeatedly with less variation with the analytical BPD map, a comfortable seat design would be achieved in a shorter period in terms of production with greater accuracy
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Set Based Concurrent Engineering Method for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

2022-03-29
2022-01-0793
In the development of multi-disciplinary systems, many experts in different discipline fields need to collaborate with each other to identify a feasible design where all multidisciplinary constraints are satisfied. This paper proposes a novel data-driven set-based concurrent engineering method for multidisciplinary design optimization problems by using machine learning techniques. The proposed set-based concurrent engineering method has two advantages in the concurrent engineering process. The first advantage is the decoupling ability of multidisciplinary design optimization problems. By introducing the probabilistic representation of multidisciplinary constraint functions, feasible regions of each discipline sub-problem can be decoupled by the rule of product. The second advantage is an efficient concurrent study to explore feasible regions. A batch sampling strategy is introduced to find feasible regions based on Bayesian Active Learning (BAL).
Technical Paper

Illuminated Vehicle Logos - Investigation on Potential Distraction and Their Influence on Road Safety

2022-03-29
2022-01-0797
The current development of automotive lighting strives towards more and more lighting installations on vehicles. Additionally, to that, manufacturers start animating these lighting installations as coming home or leaving home greetings from the car to the driver. In a previous paper we have shown, that these additional animations are in fact not distracting to other road users and when used correctly, e.g. in a sequential turn indicator, can be beneficial to the overall traffic safety. This study then aims to investigate the potential influence of illuminated logos on road safety. European lawmakers forbid the use of illuminated advertisements on vehicles to minimize the danger of distraction for other road users and thereby negatively influencing traffic safety. As of now, active illumination of the manufacturer’s logo is considered an advertisement.
Technical Paper

Towards a Standardized Assessment of Automotive Aerodynamic CFD Prediction Capability - AutoCFD 2: Windsor Body Test Case Summary

2022-03-29
2022-01-0898
To improve the state of the art in automotive aerodynamic prediction using CFD, it is important to compare different CFD methods, software and modelling for standardized test cases. This paper reports on the 2nd Automotive CFD Prediction Workshop for the Windsor body squareback test case. The Windsor model has high quality experimental data available and a simple geometry that allows it to be simulated with limited computational resources. The model is 1 metre long and operates at a Reynolds number of 2.7 million. The original Windsor model did not include wheels, but a second variant was added here with non-rotating wheels. Experimental data is available for integrated forces, surface pressure and wake PIV surveys. Eight standard meshes were provided, covering the two geometry variants, two near wall mesh spacings (relating to wall resolved and wall modelled) and two mesh densities in the wake (relating to RANS and eddy resolving).
Technical Paper

A New Predictive Vehicle Particulate Emissions Index Based on Gasoline Simulated Distillation

2022-03-29
2022-01-0492
Fuel chemistry plays a crucial role in the continued reduction of particulate emissions (PE) and cleaner air quality from vehicles and equipment powered by internal combustion engines (ICE). Over the past ten years, there have been great improvements in predictive particulate emissions indices (correlative mathematical models) based on the fuel’s composition. Examples of these particulate indices (PI) are the Honda Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and the General Motors Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). However, the analytical chemistry lab methods used to generate data for these two PI indices are very time-consuming. Because gasoline can be mixtures of hundreds of hydrocarbon compounds, these lab methods typically include the use of the high resolution chromatographic separation techniques such as detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA), with 100m chromatography columns and long (3 - 4 hours) analysis times per sample.
Technical Paper

The Proper Orthogonal and Dynamic Mode Decomposition of Wake Behind a Fastback DrivAer Model

2022-03-29
2022-01-0888
The aerodynamic design optimization of a ground vehicle highly depends on the wake region behind it. Vehicle's wake and its instability have a major contribution to the drag, lift, and side forces experienced by the vehicle. In this paper, we investigate numerically the dynamic characteristics of the wake downstream of a realistic generic car model, DrivAer Fastback, at a Reynolds number of 4.8 million based on the free stream velocity and wheel-base as the characteristic velocity and length scales, respectively. Two methods, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) are applied to symmetric the 2D plane, taken at the centerline of the geometry, to decompose the unsteady wake to its major dynamic modes. We simulated the flow field using a validated IDDES approach and then applied POD and DMD on the streamwise velocity field.
Technical Paper

EV Battery Charger Impacts on Power Distribution Transformers Due to Harmonics

2022-03-29
2022-01-0749
Increasing the demand for EV charging has increased the burden and accretion of the power quality issues. Harmonic voltages and currents have a significant negative influence on power system components, specifically power transformers. The voltage and current harmonics created by EV chargers and their impacts on power transformers have been discussed in this paper, and an approach is proposed to reduce such harmonics in the system. For this purpose, firstly, the total harmonic distortion (THD) of a typical EV charger is evaluated. Then an analysis is performed utilizing Fast Fourier Transform (FTT) to extract individual harmonics. To this end, this paper addresses the power quality issues on the power transformers by implementing a passive filter. The harmonic voltages and currents were measured on different levels of charging loads. The simulation results show that more than 30% of total harmonic distortions were reduced to 1.16% using a passive filter.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Migrating from Decentralized to Centralized E/E Architectures

2022-03-29
2022-01-0750
As centralization of automotive E/E (Electrical and/or Electronic) architectures becomes reality for future vehicles, it is crucial that existing assets be reused in the most efficient and effective manner. We report on our experience developing a new centralized E/E architecture for a propulsion domain, and migrating the corresponding propulsion elements of an existing decentralized, CAN-based architecture to a prototype of the centralized propulsion domain. Our migration adopts automotive Ethernet and supporting standards as a next-generation communications backbone technology; a next-generation computation platform from automotive supplier NXP; and a new automotive virtualization solution from OpenSynergy. We discuss aspects of legacy software reuse and adaptation; modification of vehicle HiL simulation models used in testing; existing vendor tool support; and implications arising from functional safety and the ISO 26262 standard.
Technical Paper

Research on the Dual-Motor Coupling Power System Strategy of Electric Sweeping Vehicle

2022-03-29
2022-01-0673
The sweeping vehicle has made a great contribution to the cleaning of urban roads. The traditional electric sweeping vehicle uses the main and auxiliary motors to drive the driving system and the operating system respectively. However, because the sweeper is in a low-speed working condition for a long time, and the drive motor must meet the demand for high power, there exist problems of low motor utilization and high cost. Aiming at this phenomenon, a dual-motor power coupling system based on planetary gears is proposed. First, analyze the driving mode of the dual-motor coupling power system according to the actual working scheme of the sweeper, and match the parameters of the motor based on this. Second, on the premise of meeting the power requirements, analyze and divide the working range of each drive mode based on the principle of minimum energy consumption, and then obtain the best drive mode switching control and speed and torque distribution strategy.
Technical Paper

Criticality Assessment of Simulation-Based AV/ADAS Test Scenarios

2022-03-29
2022-01-0070
Testing any new safety technology of Autonomous Vehicles (AV) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) requires simulation-based validation and verification. The specific scenarios used for testing, outline incidences of accidents or near-miss events. In order to simulate these scenarios, specific values for all the above parameters are required including the ego vehicle model. The ‘criticality’ of a scenario is defined in terms of the difficulty level of the safety maneuver. A scenario could be over-critical, critical, or under-critical. In over-critical scenarios, it is impossible to avoid a crash whereas, for under-critical scenarios, no action may be required to avoid a crash. The criticality of the scenario depends on various parameters e.g. speeds, distances, road/tire parameters, etc. In this paper, we propose a definition of criticality metric and identify the parameters such that a scenario becomes critical.
Technical Paper

22M-0156, Loading Classification for Fatigue Design Applied to Automotive Time-Series

2022-03-29
2022-01-0254
This study focuses on variable amplitude loadings applied to automotive chassis parts experiencing carmaker’s specific proving grounds. They are measured with respect to time at the wheel centres and composed of the six forces and torques at each wheel, within the standard vehicle reference frame. In the scope of high cycle fatigue, the loadings considered are supposedly acting under the structure yield stress. Among the loadings encountered during the vehicle lifetime, two classes stand out: Driven Road: loads measured during the vehicle manoeuvre; Random Road: loads mainly coming from the road asperity. To separate both effects, a frequency decomposition method is proposed before applying any lifetime assessment methods. The usual Rainflow counting method is applied to the Driven Road signal. These loadings, depending on the vehicle dynamics, are time-correlated. Thus, the load spectra is set only thanks to the vehicle accelerations time-measurement.
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