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Research Report

Unsettled Issues Concerning Urban Air Mobility Infrastructure

2021-11-15
EPR2021025
Urban air mobility (UAM) refers to urban transportation systems that move people by air. UAM offers the potential for reducing traffic congestion in cities and providing an integrated approach to urban mobility. With the emergence of electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft, drone technology, and the possibility of automated aircraft, interest in this topic has grown considerably for private sector solution providers—including aerospace and technology companies—as well as urban planners and transportation professionals. Unsettled Issues Concerning Urban Air Mobility Infrastructure discusses the infrastructure requirements to effectively integrate UAM services into the overarching urban transportation system to enable multimodal trips and complete origin to destination travel. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Commercial Vehicle Platooning

2021-11-15
EPR2021027
While platooning has the potential to reduce energy consumption of commercial vehicles while improving safety, both advantages are currently difficult to quantify due to insufficient data and the wide range of variables affecting models. Platooning will significantly reduce the use of energy when compared to trucks driven alone, or at a safe distance for a driver without any automated assistance. However, drivers typically drive closer to each other than recommended to achieve drafting efficiencies, which may shift the benefit of automated platooning to safety gains. More data will be needed to conclusively demonstrate these gains. Unsettled Issues in Commercial Vehicle Platooning discusses the technologies needed to enable close platooning, including brake system condition monitoring, vehicle-to-vehicle communication, and concrete infrastructure assessment. The report also looks at driver acceptance of platooning technology from a safety and job security perspective.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Regarding First- and Last-mile Transport

2021-10-15
EPR2021024
Sustainable first/last/only-mile (FLO-mile) transport is the key to sustainable travel. It could directly replace private car use for short urban journeys, which account for 1% of global greenhouse gas emissions. More importantly, it could enable public transport to be used for longer journeys, which account for 6% of emissions. Active travel, such as walking and cycling, has the lowest emissions and provides huge economic benefits that pay for the required infrastructure many times over. Unsettled Issues Regarding First- and Last-Mile Transport discusses the mass switch to more sustainable modes of transport and how to increase their perceived value to users. It also covers the prioritization of publicly owned cycles over rideshare options due to the latter’s higher lifecycle emissions, including manufacture, redistribution, and service operations and station construction. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Technical Paper

Customer Usage Profile based Luggage Compartment Development at Concept Phase

2021-10-01
2021-28-0153
The SAE J1100 based standard cargo volume index methods and predefined luggage objects are very specific to United States population. The European luggage volume calculation and standard luggage calculations are primarily based on DIN and ISO standards. Luggage volume declaration by manufacturers are based on any of these methods. The calculations are complicated and there is a possibility of declaring different values for similar luggage compartments. The major purchase decision of vehicle is based on its luggage capacity and current methods are very limited to make an intelligent decision by a customer. Market specific customer usage patterns for luggage requirements and protecting them in vehicle architecture upfront in concept stage is important to retain the market position and buying preference of customers. The usage patterns is collected from customer clinics and marketing inputs.
Technical Paper

“EVO: New Metallic Substrate Development for Commercial Vehicle and Non-Road Applications”

2021-09-22
2021-26-0211
Affordable, efficient and durable catalytic converters for the Commercial Vehicle and Non-Road industry in all countries are required to reduce vehicle emissions under real world driving conditions and fulfill future legal requirements. Specially for India traffic conditions and payload to engine size conditions new cost-effective solutions are needed to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. Metallic substrates with structured foils like the Transversal StructureTM (TS) or the Longitudinal StructureTM (LS) have been proved to be capable of improving conversion behavior, even with smaller catalyst size. Now Vitesco Technologies is developed a new Substrate for Heavy duty applications that specifically maintains the geometric surface area at a very high level and improves further the mass transport of the pollutants, which potentially leads together to very high pollutant conversion rates.
Technical Paper

Development of Thermal Detection Device for Automotive Vehicles to Monitor Human Body Heat

2021-09-22
2021-26-0232
According to research studies, epidemics such as SARS, COVID-19 spread have caused huge negative impacts on population, health and the economy around the globe. The outbreak places a huge burden on international health systems that were already straining to address AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and a host of other conditions. Research has proven that incase infected person is not traced timely then the spread of infection in society will take the shape of large-scale community transmission. Most of the infections spread because they got unnoticed by the infected person. One part of the access checker scans is a person’s body temperature by measuring infrared radiation emitted by their skin. Fever screening by infrared thermal imaging has become more widespread following the SARS infection, and particularly during the pandemic H1N1 and COVID-19 outbreak. Skin temperature is measured without contact by monitoring the emitted infrared radiation.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Assess Headlamp Performance in Virtual Environment and its Correlation with Real World Driving Conditions

2021-09-22
2021-26-0130
Automotive exterior lighting systems has to meet several regulatory requirements & manufacture specific internal standards to achieve desired performance. These test specifications are usually generic in nature and formulated mainly to validate the standalone product under standard laboratory conditions. Most of the time these specifications are common for entire vehicle portfolio. The rationale of these standards is to define the basic illuminance in the safe braking distance. Thus, however, using the requirements in these standards to evaluate the performance of front lighting systems is only qualitative. Research on working out method for quantitative evaluation of front lighting system is necessary [1] In practice, however, the luminance levels at road surfaces are usually very dynamic; depend largely on the variations in vehicle parameters, ambient weather conditions, road surface uniformities and effects of light intensity & color contrasts on target visibility.
Technical Paper

Automatic Torque Mode Selection Based on Vehicle Load for Commercial Electric Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0141
Range of an electric vehicle is one of the most prominent decisive factors for a person willing to buy an electric vehicle. In this paper an algorithm is developed to estimate the load carried by the truck or passengers in case of a bus and accordingly switch between ECO, ECO+, Normal, Power, and Power+ modes. This is similar to the ECO/Power switches available in the vehicles, but here auto switching is done to reduce driver dependability and allow vehicle to operate in 5 different modes without driver intervention. Optimum utilization of available torque is done for efficient operation of the vehicle in all load and road conditions. The model-based software development using MATLAB Simulink is used to develop an algorithm which will switch to Power or Power+ torque mode if the vehicle is fully laden or if the vehicle is going on a steep hill, whereas the algorithm will switch to ECO+ or ECO mode if the vehicle is empty or carrying less load.
Technical Paper

Self-Governing Commute for People with Disability in Autonomous/Shared Mobility by Universal Design Process

2021-09-22
2021-26-0122
Self-driving cars are the future of mobility systems and should be a helping hand for Peoples with Disability (PWD) for their daily commute. The current technologies are addressing only some of the needs/specific type of disability or an application in mobile that helps them during their journey in Autonomous Vehicle (AV). PWD will be looking for opportunities for self-governing commute and will be willing to travel independently with their portable helping aids, personalized configurations in vehicle, along with organized help based on their need. Our study is to understand the mobility needs and challenges for all types of PWD and enable them by a universal/inclusive design approach in autonomous vehicles. The inclusive design/features in Autonomous/Shared vehicle could motivate the PWD to travel independently or with minimum help based on type of challenge they have.
Technical Paper

Machine Learning Based Model Development with Annotated Database for Indian Specific Object Detection

2021-09-22
2021-26-0127
Now-a-days, Advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) is equipping cars and drivers with advance information and technology to make them become aware of the environment and handle potential situations in better way semi-autonomously. High-quality training and test data is essential in the development and validation of ADAS systems which lay the foundation for autonomous driving technology. ADAS uses the technology like radar, vision and combinations of various sensors including LIDAR to automatize dynamic driving tasks like steering, braking, and acceleration of vehicle for controlled and safe driving. And to integrate these advance technologies, the ADAS needs labeled data to train the algorithm to detect the various objects and moments of driver. Image annotation is one the well-known service to create such training data for computer vision. There are number of open source annotated datasets available viz. COCO, KITTI etc.
Technical Paper

A Modular Approach to Vehicle Management in a Platoon Group

2021-09-22
2021-26-0125
Platooning is a key research area where increased focus and interest is shown in order to maximize the transport efficiency of road vehicles. Although the key benefits are projected as increased fuel efficiency especially when it comes to commercial vehicles, allied benefits such as convoy pack efficiency, traffic throughput rate, increased life cycle of components and a source of monetary benefit when using a subscription model are areas which need to be explored. Existing literature points to control strategies predominantly focused on longitudinal control and traffic management in bottlenecks.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Lift Axle Control System at Vehicle Level Using AMESim

2021-09-22
2021-26-0427
Lift axle is essentially provided in commercial vehicles to increase the vehicle’s load-carrying capacity. The axle is lowered in the case of a high payload and the load is evenly distributed among the wheels both on fixed axles and the lift axle. This ability to lift the axle implies better maneuverability in turns, better fuel consumption, and less wear and tear on the tires and brake shoes. Also, it will reduce the damage to the road surfaces. This lowering and lifting of the lift axle are controlled by a series of valves together called the Lift Axle Control System (LACS). This LACS must consider the vehicle load condition, the ignition state, and gear state to decide if the axle must be lifted or lowered. This paper deals with the modeling and simulation of the LACS system at the vehicle level and optimize the design for the respective desired design solution.
Technical Paper

Component S/N Curve Testing Methodology for Exhaust System Validation

2021-09-22
2021-26-0451
The exhaust system design and development need to be more flexible and easily adaptable for the requirement of dynamic changes to meet the upcoming emission and noise regulations. Durability of exhaust system components are evaluated through conventional bending moment testing using specified standard load conditions. Road load re-production test is an improvement of the conventional approach to predict component weld durability. It involves the systematic and sequential process of acquiring road load data such as sensor instrumentation, strain measurement at the test track, data processing and input to Bi-Ax testing. S/N Curve testing is introduced recently as an alternate method to minimize the use of road load reproduction testing. It involves prediction of rough force using transient response analysis followed by Bi-Ax testing for the derived high and low load forces to meet the target number of cycles to failure.
Technical Paper

Multi-Axial Road Simulation for Component Level Validation of Engine Mount Structure and Elastomer

2021-09-22
2021-26-0452
Today, reducing the vehicle development time is a very crucial task. In the early development stages, the limited time and few vehicle prototypes are available for validation. In such scenarios, durability validation of different design iterations of critical components like engine mounts, with respect to the real road usage is a challenge. Road simulation testing in a laboratory is a reliable approach to fatigue and durability tests for the evaluation of platforms, components and subassemblies. Durability evaluation of engine mount is, generally, performed either at assembly level, using multi-axial road simulation approach or at component level, using uniaxial sinusoidal load testing. The new testing approach here allows testing of engine mounts at component level using road simulation approach by applying multi-axial loads or deflections as per the real road usage conditions.
Technical Paper

Rider State Monitoring for Attentiveness Detection for Enhanced Two-wheeler Safety

2021-09-22
2021-26-0023
Statistics report that one death occurs on Indian roads every three and a half minutes. With discussions on regulating new safety technologies like ABS, ESC, Advanced Rider Assistance Systems (ARAS) etc. for two-wheelers in India, the automotive industry has been grappling with challenges, in terms of developing cost-effective and innovative solutions adapted to regional market and its customers. Also, regulations that mandate the use of rider assistive technologies not only present opportunities to improve road safety, but also challenges for safe adoption and implementation. Distracted and inattentive riding is one of the major causes for severe road accidents in two-wheeler segments. The causes of distraction can be many - but the foremost one - as indicated by the accident data analysis - is the distraction due to mobile phones.
Technical Paper

Application of Electric Cam Phaser System (ECP) for Smooth Engine Starting Behavior in Hybrid Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0057
In the current situation and upcoming government regulations, hybrid vehicles are very promising in terms of meeting fuel economy and stringent requirements of emission norms. Herein, hybridization will be mostly done with gasoline and CNG vehicles. As a normal practice, engine is switched off at the signal and again restart with engine start-stop technology. So, instances of engine start/stop are increased in hybrid vehicle in comparison with standard IC engine vehicle. In order to achieve smooth engine start, engine starting torque can be optimized by adjusting engine valve timing. As Electric Cam Phaser (ECP) meets valve timing target even before first engine combustion start, this is one of the critical technologies in reducing engine starting torque and time reaching to idle speed. This engine starting strategy also gives benefits in terms of reducing engine start emissions and improving fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Coastdown Road Load Coefficients of Passenger Vehicles - Variation Analysis and its Correlation with Temperature

2021-09-22
2021-26-0487
Road Load parameters (rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag) of a vehicle have strong impact on overall Vehicle Emissions and Fuel Economy. The road load coefficients are simulated on chassis dynamometer to carryout emission and fuel economy measurement and are hence required to be found beforehand. A realistic measure of road load parameters can be obtained by conducting a coastdown test. Coastdown test results are hugely impacted by various environmental parameters like ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed etc. Though performed in standard boundary conditions, results of multiple tests performed on a vehicle vary from one another due to variations in the mentioned environmental parameters over and above standard test to test variation. This paper aims at studying the variation in test results due to ambient temperature as one of the parameters responsible.
Technical Paper

Customer-Centric Subjective Vehicle Evaluation by Assigning Weights to Attribute Parameters using Analytic Hierarchy Process

2021-09-22
2021-26-0492
Subjective vehicle evaluation is a critical and established method to validate, engineer, and refine vehicle attributes. Organizations have an array of products catering to different customer requirements and expectations. To achieve better customer centricity and focused vehicle product attribute targets, weightage factoring of its corresponding parameters is essential. Subjective evaluations by vehicle evaluators comprise of providing ratings and feedback about attributes during different development stages of the product. All attribute parameters are presumed to have equal significance to the end customer. At times the end customers have different preferences for different vehicle attribute parameters. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to obtain the weightage factors for attribute parameters.
Technical Paper

Bus NVH Refinement: A Journey towards Comfortable Future

2021-09-22
2021-26-0272
The future of bus transit in new millennium is promising. This optimism is based on an anticipated long-term slowdown in growth of suburbs and revitalization of central cities. It reflects and escalates the public concern with traffic congestion, sprawl and pollution. This calls for double the use of public transport to address above issues. It calls for changing the mind-set of society towards public transports like buses, coaches etc. This could happen if bus design ensures right comfort, safety and TCO by ensuring refined bus transport. Hence, it is responsibility of OEMs to provide the new generation buses and coaches, which will ensure the public demands of comforts in terms of NVH refinement. This paper covers the unique approach used to convert the existing bus NVH refinement to next level as a short-term solution and with the intention of articulating NVH strategies for new generation bus development.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Socio-Economic Loss due to Road Traffic Accidents in India

2021-09-22
2021-26-0012
India witnessed 151,113 road deaths in the year 2019 and this alarming number is due to increased urbanization, motorization and per capita income. India is home to the 2nd largest road network in the world and accounts for the highest number of road deaths globally. Curbing the menace of road accidents requires tactical road safety policies and their effective implementation. The meagre availability of factual data regarding socio-economic loss due to road accidents is proving to be a hindrance to the ideation and implementation of the policies. The Planning Commission estimated the social costs of road accidents to be 7.9 billion $ in 1999/2000 which was roughly 3% of the country’s GDP and this value was revised to 14.3 billion $ in 2011. Absence of data regarding the loss due to road accidents in the recent times, has been a motivating factor to estimate the socio economic loss due to accidents on Indian roads.
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