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Technical Paper

Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor [FlexPLI] - Examination for its Repeatability & Reproducibility

2021-09-22
2021-26-0011
Recently, the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor (or Flex-PLI) – an advancement over the existing EEVC legform – was included in the Global Technical Regulation for Pedestrian Safety viz. GTR-9. The legform tool undergoes impact testing with vehicle at 40kmph in order to evaluate the frontal structure of vehicle for Pedestrian Safety. Being more biofidelic design over the old EEVC legform, Flex-PLI is more flexible and sensitive towards different vehicle designs, shapes and inner bumper structure. This flexibility and sensitiveness of its design also calls for examining the Manufactured FlexPLI for its efficacy under impact testing in terms of its Durability, Repeatability and Reproducibility. This study aims at validating the performance of the test device by building a platform for computing the variations in test results. In this study, Three key aspects are identified to measure the performance of this device – Durability, Repeatability, and Reproducibility.
Technical Paper

Innovative Unique automatic front flap system design for buses

2021-09-22
2021-26-0021
The automotive industry is heading towards introduction of newer and newer technology aimed at providing better comforts and value to the customer. The public and private buses has wide level of acceptance in South Asian countries. In many areas acceptance of buses is because of its regulations, comfort features & safety. Hence to enhance comfort we have added one most innovative and unique feature for buses. We have designed a unique system for Front Openable Panel (FOP) open and closed activity which allows driver to open FOP by sitting on his seat itself. This unique feature will provide comfort and safety to driver; there is no need to DE board his seat for FOP opening. This is as similar as we open our car bonnet. Other challenges include optimum weight & cost impact, packaging within current boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Enhanced eCall and Crash Severity Estimation for Two Wheelers

2021-09-22
2021-26-0024
In 2017, 16 citizens were killed and 53 were injured every hour on Indian roads as per officially reported data, while a fair number go unreported. With more than 30% of road accident deaths attributed to motorcyclists, there is an unrelenting need for automotive solutions that can minimize traffic fatalities and improve the road safety scenario in the country. The correlation between collision notification, emergency response and accident severity can be driven from the data which indicates that over the last two decades, while the total number of accidents and injuries show a small dip, fatalities have increased sharply. As the automotive industry focuses to develop technologies that prevent accidents and reduce impact, it also stresses the significance of emergency response solutions that improves the response time and reduces casualties.
Technical Paper

Rider State Monitoring for Attentiveness Detection for Enhanced Two-wheeler Safety

2021-09-22
2021-26-0023
Statistics report that one death occurs on Indian roads every three and a half minutes. With discussions on regulating new safety technologies like ABS, ESC, Advanced Rider Assistance Systems (ARAS) etc. for two-wheelers in India, the automotive industry has been grappling with challenges, in terms of developing cost-effective and innovative solutions adapted to regional market and its customers. Also, regulations that mandate the use of rider assistive technologies not only present opportunities to improve road safety, but also challenges for safe adoption and implementation. Distracted and inattentive riding is one of the major causes for severe road accidents in two-wheeler segments . The causes of distraction can be many - but the foremost one - as indicated by the accident data analysis - is the distraction due to mobile phones.
Technical Paper

Innovative, Indigenous and economical on board weighting system for commercial vehicle

2021-09-22
2021-26-0005
Inspired from innovative global products, the domestic market is striving to develop novel technologies like the proposed On-Board weighing system, to enhance road safety and meet the upcoming challenging standards. Indigenous & economical payload sensing mechanism is essential to follow the stringent norms proposed to overlook the current scenario/issue of overloading in commercial vehicles. Over-loading results in tire damage with non-uniform tire degradation. The fuel economy is also severely affected due to excessive payload transportation. Proposed technology aims to provide effective payload data of vehicle, for very less investment and effort. Such a requirement calls for innovative designs and approaches to integrate them into commercial vehicles. The existing systems of this nature are not only expensive but also bulky, and often out of reach of the regular customer.
Technical Paper

Side Pole crash –Developing objective targets

2021-09-22
2021-26-0002
Side pole impact is one of the stringent load case for vehicle structural development. Due to its localized nature of loading, concentrated localized deformations are experienced on the vehicle structure. Developing the vehicle structure for structural integrity and occupant injuries with such local deformation is always a challenge. The vehicle structural development is done based on the cascaded structural level targets, these targets are generally set based on benchmarking studies and experience from previous projects. The structural targets setting based on benchmarking will not be always effective as the occupant injury performance depends on many vehicle specific aspects such as occupant package, occupant position with respect to B-pillar, interior packaging and local component stiffness etc. To set the structural targets, CAE based study is carried out for side pole impact to evaluate the effect of different parameters affecting occupant injury performance.
Technical Paper

Overview of truck accidents in India and its economic loss estimation

2021-09-22
2021-26-0007
India contributed to 11% of the global road crashes and was ranked 1st st among road deaths according to the World Health Organization report 20181. Indian highways is a meagre 5% of the country’s road network but accounts for 55% of the road crashes and 63% of the road deaths2. Majority of the freight traffic is ferried by trucks/lorries along these highways and this in turn increases the probability of them being involved in a road crash. In the year 2018, 15 000 road deaths were associated with truck/lorry occupants already. However, the country’s economy is forecasted to thrive in the coming years and hence the requirement of trucks in the supply chain shall play at pivotal role. The trucking industry is an unorganized sector wherein for example the illegal overloading of vehicles and over-the-limit driving hours pose a serious threat to road users. First objective of the paper is to outline a comprehensive overview and root cause analysis for truck accidents on national level.
Technical Paper

Efficient On-Premises Data Storage Solution for Autonomous Driving

2021-09-22
2021-26-0042
Numerous improvements of the algorithms are necessary to perfect the control software for autonomous driving. To train and test algorithm we need sensor data. One of the major challenges are to deal with deluge of digital content and unstructured data with growing importance of data protection. The recent trend in automotive industries is to move towards a cloud-based solution as the architecture is scalable, but organization which have already invested on a on-premises infrastructure for data storage needs to seamlessly leverage these without costly and complex migrations or user disruptions. This paper describes end to end solution and design of global Flexible Data Solution which covers Data protection, Data Integrity and Data availability by Load balancing & failover management. Data is one of the assets for an organization but without a robust data management it can also most vulnerable.
Technical Paper

Reinforcement learning technique for parameterization in powertrain controls

2021-09-22
2021-26-0045
As climate change looms large, the automotive industry gears up for an Electric Vehicle (EV) transition, together with the clean energy transition, to pull down our net global greenhouse emissions to zero. It becomes the need of the hour to optimize the use of our resources and meet the requirements of time, effort, cost, accuracy and transient performance brought in by the stringent emission norms and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test. In this paper, the authors present Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to address real-world challenges for accelerated product development in powertrain control. Genetic algorithm (GA) and Reinforcement Learning (RL) based techniques were effectively utilized to parameterize a time varying electromechanical system. The purpose of a controller is to have the actual value equal to the setpoint across various operating points.
Technical Paper

IP Analysis and Landscape for Emerging Automotive Power-Train Technologies

2021-09-22
2021-26-0044
The automotive industry is seeing significant growth in research and technology development across small, medium and heavy class of vehicles. The power train technology in specific is evolving at rapid rate and experiencing disruptions to respond to stringent emission norms, safety standards, growing energy infrastructure and new benchmarks for product performance. The emergence of new technologies is creating new players and start-ups in the industry. This is leading to corresponding increase in filing intellectual property and patents across the global players to gain competitive advantage. In the current paper, several state-of-the-art research papers, granted patents and live patent applications are analyzed across domains to provide total picture of power train technology landscape.
Technical Paper

AVL’s perspective on future powertrains for mobile agricultural and construction machinery

2021-09-22
2021-26-0047
Zero emission technologies are arriving in the OFF-Road industry, driven by government regulations to reduce emissions and noise. Furthermore, future city bans will prohibit transit of vehicles with diesel engines in the central areas. These stricter legal requirements force the manufactures of mobile agricultural and construction machinery to develop vehicles with diesel alternative powertrains. This paper will discuss the potential of different powertrains using full battery electric, hybrid, fuel cell or hydrogen ICE technology. The technologies we be evaluated and compared in terms of integration ability, operation- and refilling time and TCO. There are considerable challenges in bringing alternative powertrains into typical off-road applications. Especially the huge number of different applications with specific requirements will lead to high diversity of powertrain architectures, which have to be managed by vehicle manufactures.
Technical Paper

Modular HD Transmission Family for Fuel Consumption Reduction Tailored for Indian Market Needs.

2021-09-22
2021-26-0049
Global warming is the driver for the introduction of CO2 and Fuel Consumption legislation worldwide. Indian Truck manufacturers are facing the introduction of Indian Fuel Efficiency Phase 2. In the European Union the CO2 emission monitoring phase of the most relevant truck classes will be completed in June 2020 by usage of the Vehicle Energy Calculation Tool VECTO. Indian rulemaking is currently also considering an adaptation of VECTO for the usage in the India Indian truck market used always to be very cost sensitive. Introduction of Bharat Stage VI Phase I already led to a significant increase of product costs, which not directly manifest benefits to the end users. Therefore, it will be of vital importance to keep the additional product costs for achievement of future fuel consumption legislation as low as possible as long as they don’t refund them in real world operation.
Technical Paper

Strategies of powertrain selection based on Real World Usage profile and its impact on fuel efficiency and vehicle performance

2021-09-22
2021-26-0056
Driveline matching is one of the initial phases of product development to introduce a product into the market. It is a general practice followed by all automotive OEMs while launching the product. The introduction of a product begins with a concept definition where the need and usage of a product in the market is justified followed by benchmarking, driveline matching, driveline freezing and the design phases of the product. Driveline matching requires the assessment of competitors driveline in terms of performance namely gradability, acceleration and fuel economy which distinguish the product w.r.t competitor. This assessment is required to select a suitable driveline that can be well accepted in the market. In most of the cases the OEMs tend to give a similar driveline configuration w.r.t the competitor to match and meet the performance targets at the expense of higher cost.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Safety Performance Prediction Using Machine-Learning Techniques

2021-09-22
2021-26-0026
As per WHO 2018 report, pedestrian fatalities accounts for 23% of world road accident fatalities. Every day 850 pedestrians lose their lives in the world. As per MoRTH 2018 report, 16% of road accident fatalities are of pedestrians in India. Everyday 64 pedestrians lose their lives in India. Based on accident data, one of the most common reason for the pedestrian fatality is head injury due to primary contact from vehicle front-end structure. Pedestrian head injury performance is highly depended on front-end styling, bonnet stiffness, clearance with aggregates underneath the bonnet and hard contact points. During concept stage of vehicle development, safety recommendation on front-end design is provided based on geometric assessment of the class A surface, as the maturity of the geometry is insufficient to carryout CAE simulations.
Technical Paper

Lessons learnt from L1 Functional And Operational Safety For Tier 1 ADAS Suppliers

2021-09-22
2021-26-0029
ADAS systems in today’s world is a combination of complex electronic systems and human interaction. These complexities in ADAS systems mandates automotive industry to consider safety from point of view of E/E failures and also from operational point of view. Tier 1 supplier in the automotive industry are contributors in the advancements of ADAS systems. Hence Tier 1 suppliers sometimes work closely with OEM’s in piloting new ADAS features which can help create a safe driving experience. Tier 1 supplier also sometimes work independently on developing new ADAS features based on their experience, market conditions and regulations. Hence Tier 1 suppliers are required in variably to perform activities of functional and operational safety to understand the safety aspects of the new ADAS functions, derive new safety measures for these new ADAS functions.
Technical Paper

Design of a Vacuum Independent, Power Assisted Brake by Wire System using a Novel Electro-Magnetic Brake Booster

2021-09-22
2021-26-0031
With an increasing demand in the market towards electrical vehicles through technological advancements in the automotive field like, automated driving assistance that which have resulted in higher safety requirements and new solutions mainly in the brake system such as the vacuum-independent, automatic braking and regenerative braking, which plays a key role for the vehicle’s comfort and economy. However, the traditional vacuum brake booster is no longer able to meet these requirements. In this paper, a novel Electro-Magnetic brake booster system is proposed, this system is designed to achieve the function of boosting or multiplying the pedal force of driver being independent on the vacuum source. Such an Electro-magnetic brake booster is mainly composed of an Electro-magnetic core plate, a ferromagnetic actuating plate and an ECU.
Technical Paper

Tailored ADAS Functions Fulfilling Local Market Expectations – Time Saving Approach Without Compromising the Performance Quality

2021-09-22
2021-26-0038
The paper will describe an approach for advanced driving assistance systems (ADAS) with a tailored controller behavior optimized for country specific market expectations like in India. The development of objective performance criteria and calibration targets with automated evaluation of targets fulfillment will be deeply discussed. The methods are focused on saving time at calibration and validation without compromising the quality of ADAS features. Modern safety and comfort features must behave country specific requirements to the local environment and traffic conditions in order to gain end consumer's trustiness and strengthening OEMs market success respectively. Local market specific driving maneuvers are collected and analyzed in terms of objective definition of performance KPI targets. Calibration parameters of controller algorithm are then directly optimized regarding best fulfillment of the targets.
Technical Paper

Optimum performance of Steering System achieved in passenger cars through smart use of Four-Point Contact Ball Bearings (4PCBB)

2021-09-22
2021-26-0040
Passenger cars are equipped with most modern steering system that are integrated to ECU to provide effort less and pleasant experience to the driver. Acting as a backbone to such steering system is the four-point contact ball bearing (4PCBB) as a support bearing for pinion and worm shaft of the EPS electric motor. Gone are the days when conventional deep groove ball bearings (DGBB) were used in steering support for carrying both radial and axial loads. However, steering designers across the world are now adopting 4PCBB as a standard practice as the latter provides distinct advantage over the former in terms of steering reliability, reduced noise and driver’s comfort. An integrated approach is required right from selection of 4PCBB to design of its internal geometry to achieve desired accuracy in steering system.
Technical Paper

Challenges and opportunities of ADAS in India: Road Ahead

2021-09-22
2021-26-0041
ADAS provides comfort and safety solutions for the vehicles. These features mainly are evolved for passenger vehicles. Few of these features such as ABS and Park Assist are common and as government restrictions are being removed on the RADAR frequency there is an opportunity to introduce the popular features of ADAS such as ACC, FCW, BSD etc. ADAS is helpful in reducing road accidents and as per data in 2018 compared to 2017 the number of accidents increased to 0.46% whereas number of people killed in the same year increased to 2.37 %. The problem statement of the current study is to provide the required ADAS features to reduce road accidents by vehicles. The objective of the study is to identify the challenges and opportunities of ADAS features in India and provide feasible solution to the problems. Methodology: the current study is based on extensive literature review and secondary data of the sales of the car from any two manufacturing companies.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Light off Behaviour and conversion efficiency of three way catalytic convertor with Variation in Catalyst Position and Changes in Substrate Structure for CNG BS6 CV engine

2021-09-22
2021-26-0063
To keep Commercial Vehicles aligned to regulatory framework of meeting stringent BS6 emission norms, SI engines including CNG commercial vehicles manufactures are forced to use higher PGM loading along with bigger catalyst brick in three way catalytic converter. Due to this rapid increase in PGM concentrations, the cost of BS6 three way catalytic converters have been increased several times compare to BS4 catalytic convertor. The movement in PGM price in international market further increases the volatility in overall cost of catalytic converters. Although, the engine out emissions are tuned to lowest possible level, it is imperative to position the catalytic converter at best possible location to achieve highest conversion efficiency. The main objective of this work is to analyse variation in conversion efficiency of catalytic converter by varying catalyst distance from engine exhaust manifold.
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