Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Commercial Vehicle Platooning

2021-11-15
EPR2021027
While platooning has the potential to reduce energy consumption of commercial vehicles while improving safety, both advantages are currently difficult to quantify due to insufficient data and the wide range of variables affecting models. Platooning will significantly reduce the use of energy when compared to trucks driven alone, or at a safe distance for a driver without any automated assistance. However, drivers typically drive closer to each other than recommended to achieve drafting efficiencies, which may shift the benefit of automated platooning to safety gains. More data will be needed to conclusively demonstrate these gains. Unsettled Issues in Commercial Vehicle Platooning discusses the technologies needed to enable close platooning, including brake system condition monitoring, vehicle-to-vehicle communication, and concrete infrastructure assessment. The report also looks at driver acceptance of platooning technology from a safety and job security perspective.
Technical Paper

Seat Belts: A Review of Technological Milestones, Regulatory Advancements, and Anticipated Future Trajectories

2021-10-21
2021-01-5097
Decades after their introduction, seat belts remain the most important safety innovation in automotive history. Seat belt usage remains the single most effective way to minimize the risk of injury or death in severe crash events. Despite having matured, seat belts continue to evolve and improve and are expected to play an equally critical role in future passenger vehicles as increasing automation leads to changes in occupant compartment design and occupant-to-vehicle interaction. In this paper, an overview of major technical milestones in the development of seat belts is presented, ranging from the earliest lap belts to today’s systems that seamlessly synthesize and integrate information from a variety of sensors to prepare the restraints for an imminent crash. A brief overview of contemporary regulatory events is also provided, illustrating how regulatory actions have followed and occasionally driven the development and proliferation of various aspects of occupant restraints.
Technical Paper

Decoding Genuine Ceramic Pad Formulations- Materials and Processing

2021-10-11
2021-01-1277
The need to develop genuine ceramic composites for PV applications arose to overcome the challenges associated with traditional semi-metallic pads. The main focus is to achieve better performance, low noise, better pad and rotor wear, and low dust compared to semi- metallic pads. In general, brake pads convert kinetic energy to thermal energy through friction, and operating temperature in semi-metallic brake pads is higher due to the presence of steel having high thermal conductivity. Over the last decade, the customer preference has moved over to ceramic pads due to light coloured pad surface, low rotor and pad wear and low dust compared to semi-metallic pads. The traditional steel has been replaced by Aramid, engineered ceramic fibre, potassium titanate (TISMO D), lapinus fibre (RB 250) to impart similar/better performance. The current work investigates the characterisation of genuine ceramic and semi-metallic composites.
Technical Paper

Development of a Simulation for a Shim Durability Test

2021-10-11
2021-01-1283
Shim durability is an important aspect of shim performance. During the brake operation, no mechanical failure of the shim is allowed. Typically, when releasing a shim into production, durability tests must be performed to ensure no failure occurs around the locator holes, and the shim does not walk over the locators. Since the durability test requires an actual pad and shim, the mechanical retention mechanism for the shim (locators) need to be designed, and backplates must be produced. If a failure is detected during these durability tests, either the shim needs to be changed or the retention locators have to be redesigned, which could negatively impact NVH performance and project timing/costs. In this paper, a finite element model is developed to simulate a stop in a shim durability test. The model can be used to predict stress levels at the shim’s locator holes and the failure mode of a shim during a durability test stop.
Technical Paper

Potential and Challenges for Application-Specific Friction Characteristics of Race Brake Pads

2021-10-11
2021-01-1282
As a race driver hits the pedal to trigger the braking event, a dynamic load transfer takes place in the car. This is a similar kind of weight transfer experienced on the road while stopping any vehicle abruptly. Modern race cars such as FIA-regulated Grand Touring Car classes GT3 and LMGTE produce a significant aerodynamic downforce at a reasonably high efficiency level. In this type of high downforce race cars, load variations originated by aerodynamics are added onto the mass transfer. The combination of these effects provide a braking effect with this type of cars a highly transient character. At the same time, our customers are facing the challenge of strict technical regulations, usually forbidding brake control systems. In motorsport competition, car performance is of primary priority to help our customers win championships.
Technical Paper

Divergence of Thickness Losses and Weight Losses of Disc Pads for Passenger Cars: High-Copper NAOs and Copper-Free Low Mets

2021-10-11
2021-01-1290
The current investigation was undertaken to find out if lighter-weight passenger car disc pads would exhibit wear behaviors similar to pickup truck pads and commercial heavy truck drum linings in terms of the permanent volume expansion of the friction material contact surface region. 2 high-copper NonAsbestos Organic formulations and 3 copper-free LowMet formulations were tested according to the SAE J2522 test procedure. In all cases, the measured pad thickness loss was found to be less than the thickness loss calculated from the weight loss, indicating pad volume expansion in the pad surface region, in full agreement with the results from the pickup truck and heavy trucks. The heataffected swollen/expanded layer ranges from 0.27 to 0.61 mm in thickness depending on the formula and test conditions. Due to the expansion, pad durability projections made from test results based on high temperature city traffic tests can result in underestimating the actual durability.
Technical Paper

In-Depth Considerations for Electric Vehicle Braking Systems Operation with Steep Elevation Changes and Trailering

2021-10-11
2021-01-1263
As the automotive industry prepares to roll out an unprecedented range of fully electric propulsion vehicle models over the next few years - it really brings to a head for folks responsible for brakes what used to be the subject of hypothetical musings and are now pivotal questions for system design. How do we really go about designing brakes for electric vehicles, in particular, for the well-known limit condition of descending a steep grade? What is really an “optimal’ design for brakes considering the imperatives for the entire vehicle? What are the real “limit conditions” for usage that drive the fundamental design? Are there really electric charging stations planned for or even already existing in high elevations that can affect regenerative brake capacity on the way down? What should be communicated to drivers (if anything) about driving habits for electric vehicles in routes with significant elevation change?
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of an Auto-Rickshaw Frontal Crash using FE Simulation with Validation using Captured Crash Video from India

2021-10-01
2021-28-0257
The three-wheeled "Auto-Rickshaws" [Auto] plays a significant role in road transportation, especially in India. The crash safety and reconstruction studies have been widely used in four-wheelers, whereas the availability of such data for Auto was limited. In recent times, accident data processing from available videos is being utilized to observe the crash scenario. The crash parameters can be given as inputs to the crash analysis. This paper focuses on the process the real-world accident data and study crash characteristics. With limitation in the availability of detailed injuries post-crash, the study was restricted to reconstructing crash kinematics and estimating indicative injuries to the driver. The source of video data is videos of crash available in public domains like YouTube. PYTHON video processing tool has been used to process the set of real-world accident video data.
Technical Paper

Detailed Concept Selection Strategy for Rear Suspension Design Entailing Comparison Between H-Arm and Trailing-Arm Geometries for ATV Application

2021-10-01
2021-28-0245
Choice of suspension geometry is an integral part of an ATV design. It has a direct role in ride comfort and vehicle-dynamic characteristics, the most prominent one being the unsprung mass. In the rear vehicle suspension, teams often face the decision to select either a Trailing-Arm suspension design or an H-Arm design. Teams must take into account their existing parameters to rightly decide which geometry is suitable for their application. In this paper, a concept selection strategy is proposed. This strategy combines the conventional way of analyzing mechanical systems and machines with product design aspects. We analyze several characteristics of the geometry and assign a criteria weight to each of these. These criteria include the cost to manufacture, unsprung mass, load handling capacity, acceleration gain ratio during bumps, ease of manufacturing, and ergonomics of the design.
Technical Paper

Front Suspension Joint Integrity Analysis for Addressing Noise Issue Due to Torque Loss at Lower Control Arm Joint

2021-10-01
2021-28-0246
The lower control arm (LCA) is a part of the front suspension system which is mounted on chassis with flexible rubber bushing through-bolted joint which allows the control arm to swing up and down, absorb road bumps and reduce noise and vibrations as front wheels roll over bump or potholes. In bolted joints, torque is applied so as the joint develops a certain preload that is higher than the external loads and losses acting on the joint. But the loss of preload is evident over time which causes quality problems, reworks, or even joint failures. While moving over speed breakers/obstacles abnormal squeak noise is observed in the vehicle due to torque loss in the LCA joint. The intent of this study is to determine preload requirements in LCA joint and various factors contributing to preload loss by performing joint integrity analysis in CAE. Road load data acquisition (RLDA) with Wheel Force Transducer (WFT) is performed for different testing tracks.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation Methodology for Robust Optimization Using Six Sigma Analysis

2021-10-01
2021-28-0248
Climate change and global warming are the main threats to our planet. CO2 emissions contribute vastly to climate change and automobiles contribute to CO2 emissions. We can reduce the CO2 emissions from vehicles by various measures, out of which shredding weight is one of the solutions, and even for hybrid or electric vehicles there will be a need for weight reduction for the control of global CO2 emission. We can shred the weight of the automobiles by replacing the components with lighter materials or by optimizing the components by removing excessive material. It is not always possible to change the materials due to its mechanical, thermal properties, manufacturability etc. This leads to the other method which is removing excessive material. Today, we use different simulation tools like ANSYS for topology or shape optimization. During the traditional optimization, we perform the simulation, based on the available design limits and propose the best optimized design to the customer.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Approach to Monitor the Clutch Thermal Condition to Increase the Clutch Life

2021-10-01
2021-28-0281
One of the top problems that every Indian automobile manufacturer struggles to manage is the clutch early failure less than 30000 Km. This is mainly due to the extreme heating of the friction lining due to the real-world user profile in the Indian market and users inappropriate driving behaviors like Overloading the goods more than the manufacturer’s recommendation, non-recommended attachments and increased wheel size, Thick traffic leading to high level of clutch modulation and Clutch riding while running and launching the vehicle at higher gears. Although many simulation and testing are done during the development phase, above listed real world user profile and customer driving habits are inevitable by any automobile manufacturer. Hence the prime goal of this experimental research is to indicate or alert the user on the clutch thermal condition due to the driving habit and to encourage the user on right driving habits.
Technical Paper

Customer Usage Profile based Luggage Compartment Development at Concept Phase

2021-10-01
2021-28-0153
The SAE J1100 based standard cargo volume index methods and predefined luggage objects are very specific to United States population. The European luggage volume calculation and standard luggage calculations are primarily based on DIN and ISO standards. Luggage volume declaration by manufacturers are based on any of these methods. The calculations are complicated and there is a possibility of declaring different values for similar luggage compartments. The major purchase decision of vehicle is based on its luggage capacity and current methods are very limited to make an intelligent decision by a customer. Market specific customer usage patterns for luggage requirements and protecting them in vehicle architecture upfront in concept stage is important to retain the market position and buying preference of customers. The usage patterns is collected from customer clinics and marketing inputs.
Technical Paper

Development of Thermal Detection Device for Automotive Vehicles to Monitor Human Body Heat

2021-09-22
2021-26-0232
According to research studies, epidemics such as SARS, COVID-19 spread have caused huge negative impacts on population, health and the economy around the globe. The outbreak places a huge burden on international health systems that were already straining to address AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and a host of other conditions. Research has proven that incase infected person is not traced timely then the spread of infection in society will take the shape of large-scale community transmission. Most of the infections spread because they got unnoticed by the infected person. One part of the access checker scans is a person’s body temperature by measuring infrared radiation emitted by their skin. Fever screening by infrared thermal imaging has become more widespread following the SARS infection, and particularly during the pandemic H1N1 and COVID-19 outbreak. Skin temperature is measured without contact by monitoring the emitted infrared radiation.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficiency Simulation Methodology for Commercial Vehicles: Approach to Generate Dynamic Duty Cycles for Simulation

2021-09-22
2021-26-0343
Fuel efficiency is critical aspect for commercial vehicles as fuel is major part of operational costs. To complicate scenario further, fuel efficiency testing, unlike in passenger cars is more time consuming and laborious. Thus, to save on development cost and save time in actual testing, simulations plays crucial role. Typically, actual vehicle speed and gear usage is captured using reference vehicle in desired route and used it for simulation of target vehicle. Limitation to this approach is captured duty cycle is specific to powertrain and driver behavior of reference vehicle. Any change in powertrain or vehicle resistance or driver of target vehicle will alter duty cycle and hence duty cycle of reference vehicle is no more valid for simulation assessment. This paper demonstrates approach which uses combination of tools to address this challenge. Simulation approach proposed here have three parts.
Technical Paper

Mitigation of Engine Sub-System Noise in Two Wheeler Using Crank Angle Domain Analysis

2021-09-22
2021-26-0306
One of the main objective of manufacturer is to achieve high productivity with low cost while increasing the customer satisfaction. With increased competition in the automotive sector the product quality is defined not only from fuel economy and durability perspective but also Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH), which plays a vital role in attracting the customers. In two wheelers, engine is dominant noise source and its quality improvement is utmost priority. Now a days, several signal processing and sensing techniques are developed for noise source identification of an engine but precise source identification can be achieved only by advanced analysis technique. This paper focuses on a procedure for noise source identification from engine sub-system viz. valve operation and its generation mechanism using crank angle domain analysis in two wheeler engine. Baseline noise measurements were carried out for critical frequency identification.
Technical Paper

Virtual Validation of Electric Vehicle NVH by Architecture Changes

2021-09-22
2021-26-0302
As the technology is growing and the development of electric vehicles is advancing, though there are advancements in technology, an automobile will always have the challenges of Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH). With several years of study and research, various methodologies have been developed for the refinement of NVH in conventional vehicles (IC engines). But in terms of Battery Electric vehicles (BEV), we have new areas to explore to refine NVH. Currently, in the competitive market, developing a fully ground-up Electric vehicle (EV) is a challenge due to the aggressive product development timelines and high cost of development. As a result, many OEMs are considering converting their conventional existing vehicle to battery electric vehicles as they will need lesser product development timelines with their go-to-market strategy.
Technical Paper

A Continuum Design Sensitivity Analysis of Vehicle Aggregates for Refined NVH Performance

2021-09-22
2021-26-0294
Transmission of vibration and noise to the occupants and especially driver contributes significantly to the quality perception of the motor vehicle and eventually, it affects the overall ride comfort. These forces mainly reach to customer through tactile locations, i.e. floor, gearshift lever, steering wheel and seat. Showroom/Parking customer drive pattern of a vehicle evinces the steering system and driver’s seat rail vibration as strikingly linked aspect to evaluate human comfort [1]. This paper deals with the study of vibration at steering wheel and seat affecting human comfort at engine idle rpm with AC ON and OFF condition for passenger vehicles. The transmissibility of engine and radiator induced vibrations has been investigated with respect to modal alignment of steering and seat system.
Technical Paper

Self-Governing Commute for People with Disability in Autonomous/Shared Mobility by Universal Design Process

2021-09-22
2021-26-0122
Self-driving cars are the future of mobility systems and should be a helping hand for Peoples with Disability (PWD) for their daily commute. The current technologies are addressing only some of the needs/specific type of disability or an application in mobile that helps them during their journey in Autonomous Vehicle (AV). PWD will be looking for opportunities for self-governing commute and will be willing to travel independently with their portable helping aids, personalized configurations in vehicle, along with organized help based on their need. Our study is to understand the mobility needs and challenges for all types of PWD and enable them by a universal/inclusive design approach in autonomous vehicles. The inclusive design/features in Autonomous/Shared vehicle could motivate the PWD to travel independently or with minimum help based on type of challenge they have.
Technical Paper

Simulation based Verification & Validation of AEBS

2021-09-22
2021-26-0128
ADAS and AV technologies are going to disrupt the entire transportation industry, as we know it, with a profound impact on human life. They promise to enhance human lives by providing a safer and much more accessible transportation ecosystem to all of society. However, to deliver on all of its promises, they need to be at least as good as a ‘good’ human driver. Therefore, they need to be very safe and robust, with the ability to perform in a variety of driving scenarios, and be very secure, being immune from any external cyberattacks. Hence, such technologies need to be tested very extensively. However, from various studies, it has been found that, to declare a full AV as good as a human driver, the AV will be required to drive more than a billion miles on real roads, taking tens and sometimes hundreds of years to drive those miles, considering even the most aggressive testing assumptions.
X