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Technical Paper

Decoding Genuine Ceramic Pad Formulations- Materials and Processing

2021-10-11
2021-01-1277
The need to develop genuine ceramic composites for PV applications arose to overcome the challenges associated with traditional semi-metallic pads. The main focus is to achieve better performance, low noise, better pad and rotor wear, and low dust compared to semi- metallic pads. In general, brake pads convert kinetic energy to thermal energy through friction, and operating temperature in semi-metallic brake pads is higher due to the presence of steel having high thermal conductivity. Over the last decade, the customer preference has moved over to ceramic pads due to light coloured pad surface, low rotor and pad wear and low dust compared to semi-metallic pads. The traditional steel has been replaced by Aramid, engineered ceramic fibre, potassium titanate (TISMO D), lapinus fibre (RB 250) to impart similar/better performance. The current work investigates the characterisation of genuine ceramic and semi-metallic composites.
Technical Paper

Thermomechanical Instabilities in Metal-Free Friction Materials Using a Nonlinear Transient Simulation Approach

2021-10-11
2021-01-1286
The invention of metal-free friction materials is gaining popularity in the manufacturing of brake pads and clutch friction discs because of the negative factors associated with metals such as copper. To gain more insight into the failure mechanism of the recent invention during brake or clutch applications, a nonlinear transient thermomechanical model is established using Finite Element Code. The model is based on a two-dimensional configuration for an investigation on the onset of TMI (Thermo-Mechanical Instability) during sliding contact in such material. The model is validated by comparing the transient simulation results for a full-contact regime to the result from the existing eigenvalue method. A parametric study is carried out to examine how the thermal conductivities and the elastic moduli influence TMI. The simulation results show that the thermal conductivities in the transverse direction and elastic moduli in the longitudinal direction can stabilize the system.
Technical Paper

A Molecular Dynamics Study of Tribological Properties of Silicon Carbide as a Metal-Free Friction Material

2021-10-11
2021-01-1284
Friction materials containing metal ingredients used in the automotive industry can cause unfavorable environmental impacts. Existing laws and regulations require heavy metals in brake pads to be phased out of production. Substitutions for metals in friction materials, however, may introduce operational safety issue and other unforeseen problems. In the current study, a molecular dynamics model based on LAMMPS has been developed to study the effect of material composition, density, and geometric configurations on the tribological, mechanical, and thermal properties of silicon carbide under various contact conditions at the atomic level. Simulations which incorporate interfacial contact between surface asperities were performed to predict the elastic modulus, thermal conductivity, wear rate, and coefficient of friction. The resulting predicted properties may help enhance the performance of engineered metal-free friction materials against thermal-mechanical failures.
Technical Paper

Comparing and Analysing the Static and Thermal Characteristics of Brake Disc for Three Different Materials

2021-10-01
2021-28-0253
Disc brake is the customarily used braking system in automobiles. In the disc brake assembly, rotor is subjected to rotation and the brake pads are operated by the driver through mechanical action. So, the disc plays a decisive role in dropping the speed or stopping the vehicle. These discs were commonly made of cast iron conventionally. But the limitations with respect to cast iron are that they have less corrosion resistance and heavy in weight. In order to overcome the above-said complications, alternate materials for disc have to be found. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of three different materials and their characteristics and recommend a fitting material that highly replaces the conventional material and has better performance at on-road braking conditions.
Technical Paper

Modelling of a Transient VCRS and Virtual Optimal Charge Determination for Automobiles

2021-10-01
2021-28-0255
Experimental research on the Vapor Compression Refrigeration System (VCRS) used in automobiles and other air conditioning systems is abundant in literature but it comes with inherent problems like the cost of the setup, time consumption, and tediousness of the process. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the fully-fledged transient or dynamic model of R134a based VCRS and further utilize it to virtually determine the optimal refrigerant charge quantity. The Simulink model developed in this work is an integration of physics-based mathematical models for each component (compressor, heat exchangers, and expansion valve), working together in a cycle where the compressor dictates the transient process. A sample simulation has been performed by taking 5 bar as the initial pressure of suction and discharge tanks and the steady state results (Discharge pressure, suction pressure, refrigerant mass flow rate, superheat and subcool temperatures) obtained.
Technical Paper

A Unique Methodology to Evaluate the Metallic Noise Concern of a Dual-Mass Flywheel in Real-World Usage Conditions

2021-10-01
2021-28-0249
Dual mass flywheel (DMF) is an excellent solution to improve the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) characteristic of any vehicle by isolating the driveline from the engine torsional vibrations. For the same reason, DMF’s are widely used in high power-density diesel and gasoline engines. However, the real-world usage conditions pose a lot of challenges to the robustness of the DMF. In the present work, by capturing the Real-World Usage Profile (RWUP) conditions, a new methodology is developed to evaluate the robustness of a DMF fitted in a Sports utility vehicle (SUV). Ventilation holes are provided on clutch housing to improve convective heat transfer. Improvement in convective heat transfer will increase the life and will reduce clutch burning concerns. Cities like Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, roads will have clogged waters during rainy season. When the vehicle was driven in such roads, water enters inside the clutch housing through ventilation holes.
Technical Paper

Effect of Single Layer Thin Film Thermal Barrier Coatings on Mechanical, Thermal and Tribological Characterization of Cast Iron (GJL 300)

2021-10-01
2021-28-0285
Thermal Barrier Coating (TBCs) is one of the most promising technologies for reducing heat dissipation through the combustion chamber in Internal Combustion (IC) Engines. In this paper, Gadolinium Zirconate (GZ) was chosen as a coating material and prepared using a solid-state synthesis process. Cast iron (GJL 300) was selected as the substrate, which is predominantly used as the cylinder head material, and GZ was deposited using Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition technique (EB-PVD). The mechanical, thermal, and tribological properties were evaluated as per the ASTM standards. Improved hardness and wear resistance is noted on coated substrates. The thermal conductivity and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of the coated substrates decreased by 3.43% and 5.03% respectively when compared with uncoated substrates. Hence, it is confirmed that thin-film TBCs has potential to provide the thermal and wear protection inside the combustion chamber of IC engines.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis on Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Nickel Alloy Using Taguchi Based Grey Relational Analysis

2021-10-01
2021-28-0273
Stellite is a nickel based superalloy and expansively adopted in higher temperature engineering applications. This alloy possesses better mechanical properties such as strength and hardness. Due to its lesser thermal conductivity, it is difficult to machine by conventional methods of machining. For avoiding such kind of demerits, advanced methods of machining have been introduced. Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) is one of category of thermal energy based machining methods which is developed from the concept of Electrical Discharge Machining. This kind of machining method is preliminarily engaged for making complex shaped components especially in harder and electrically conductive materials. In this present experimental study, an endeavour has been taken to analyse the optimized process parameters for achieving better machining performance during WEDM of Stellite using Taguchi-Grey approach.
Technical Paper

Tribological Behavior of Thermal and Mechanical Composite Reinforced Sisal Characteristics and Influence SiC Filling Material

2021-10-01
2021-28-0277
In order to investigate the possible use of normal capital, we have tried by hand to manufacturing sisal fibre polymer composites. Natural fibre composites are reusable, low-cost and biodegradable. Simple source, lesser compactness, superior basic property, lower quality, acceptable physical and mechanical properties, non-acidic in the environment, make them a good-looking biological substitute for glass, carbon or other artificial fibres. The outcome of SiC on the physical and mechanical properties of organic sisal composite materials is studied in this work. The composite was manufactured with and devoid of SiC, mixing natural sisal fibre with polyester as a reinforcement medium. The investigational results showed that the tensile force of the mixture with 12 % SiC was 2.52 times better than that of the composite devoid of SiC. The collision strength of the 12% SiC merged is 1.72 times higher than that of the SiC pure polyester composite.
Technical Paper

Battery Heat Load Estimation and Modeling its Thermal Management Using Air Conditioning Cooling System of an Electric Vehicle

2021-10-01
2021-28-0231
The performance of lithium-ion batteries and its service life depends on its operating temperature. Operating the battery above 45 °C degrades the performance of the battery and reduces its service life. The high-temperature operation also leads to thermal runaway. So there is a need to monitor the operating temperature and voltage output of the battery using a battery thermal management system to ensure its safety. Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS) is a part of the battery management system. The effectiveness of the battery thermal management system depends on the battery pack design, battery chemistry, vehicle operating characteristics and ambient conditions. In this work, a refrigerant-based BTMS is modeled using MATLAB Simulink. Refrigerant R134a used in the air conditioning system of an Electric Vehicle is used as an evaporative cooling medium to cool the batteries.
Technical Paper

Integrated Exhaust Manifold Design & Optimization of it through HCF and LCF Simulations for a BS6 Compliant Diesel Engine

2021-10-01
2021-28-0168
This paper discusses design and optimization process for the integration of exhaust manifold with turbocharger for a 3 cylinder diesel engine, simulation activities (CAE and CFD), and validation of manifold while upgrading to meet current BS6 emissions. Exhaust after-treatment system needs to be upgraded from a simple DOC (Diesel Oxidation Catalyst) to a complex DOC+sDPF (Selective catalytic reduction coated on Diesel Particulate Filter) to meet the BS6 emission norms for this engine. To avoid thermal losses and achieve a faster light-off temperature in the catalyst, the exhaust after-treatment (EATS) system needs to be placed close to the engine - exactly at the outlet of the turbocharger. This has given to challenges in packaging the EATS. The turbocharger in case of BS4 is placed near the 2nd cylinder of the engine, but this position will not allow placing the BS6 EATS.
Technical Paper

“EVO: New Metallic Substrate Development for Commercial Vehicle and Non-Road Applications”

2021-09-22
2021-26-0211
Affordable, efficient and durable catalytic converters for the Commercial Vehicle and Non-Road industry in all countries are required to reduce vehicle emissions under real world driving conditions and fulfill future legal requirements. Specially for India traffic conditions and payload to engine size conditions new cost-effective solutions are needed to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. Metallic substrates with structured foils like the Transversal StructureTM (TS) or the Longitudinal StructureTM (LS) have been proved to be capable of improving conversion behavior, even with smaller catalyst size. Now Vitesco Technologies is developed a new Substrate for Heavy duty applications that specifically maintains the geometric surface area at a very high level and improves further the mass transport of the pollutants, which potentially leads together to very high pollutant conversion rates.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Aluminum Metal Foam Material on Heat Transfer Performance

2021-09-22
2021-26-0239
Electrification is one of the megatrends across the industries, like electric vehicles, electric aircraft, etc. which needs advancement in power electronics component technology. As technology advances in miniaturization of power electronics, thermal-management issues threaten to limit the performance of these devices. These may force designers to derate the device performance and ultimately these compromise in design may increase the size & weight of the application. One of the technologies capable of accomplishing these goals employs a class of materials know as metal foam. Metal foams are lightweight cellular materials inspired by nature. The main application of metal foams can be grouped into structural and functional and are based on several excellent properties of the material. Structural applications take advantage of the light-weight and specific mechanical properties of metal foam.
Technical Paper

Improving the Clutch Design Robustness by Virtual Validation to Predict Clutch Energy Dissipation and Temperature in Clutch Housing

2021-09-22
2021-26-0329
During the vehicle launch (i.e. moving the vehicle from “0” speed), the clutch would be slowly engaged by the Driver or Transmission Control Unit (in Automatic Transmission/Automatic Manual Transmission vehicle) for smooth torque transfer between engine and transmission. The clutch is designed to transfer max engine torque with min heat generation. During the clutch engagement, the difference in flywheel and gearbox input shaft speed is called the clutch slipping phase which then leads to a huge amount of energy being dissipated in terms heat due to friction. As a result, clutch surface temperature increases consistently, when the surface temperature crosses the threshold limit, the clutch wears out quickly or burns spontaneously. Hence it is crucial to predict the energy dissipation and temperature variation in various components of clutch assembly through virtual simulation.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Vehicle Headlamp Condensation Phenomenon Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2021-09-22
2021-26-0325
The main task of the automotive headlights on cars is to illuminate the roadway and facilitate the driver fatigue-free and safe driving. An automotive headlamp is exposed to thermal variations during its operations and also exposed to the different environmental conditions. Automotive headlamp compartment is not completely sealed and vents are provided to exchange the air between environment and headlamp compartment for thermal cooling of the internal components. An automotive headlamp compartment is an environment with high thermal and low air flow exchanges with the ambient as results humidity can accumulated inside the headlamp compartment and there is a possibility of thin mist layer formation on the lens inner surface [1]. The combined use of numerical simulation and experimental studies is an important approach for headlamp design. This paper summarizes CFD simulation results for automotive headlamp condensation and de-condensation using ANSYS FLUENT.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management of the Li-Ion Battery Pack with Phase Change Material (PCM)

2021-09-22
2021-26-0140
In electric vehicles, Li-ion battery pack is the most expensive subsystem. Therefore, extending the life of the battery pack and thereby reducing the need for battery pack replacement is necessary to offer a viable product at a competitive cost of ownership. Thermal management of battery pack plays an important role in achieving the above mentioned objective since the performance and life of lithium ion batteries is greatly influenced by temperature. There are various thermal management strategies available to keep the temperature under control like air cooling, chilled liquid cooling and hybrid cooling systems. In this paper, a comparison between phase change material (PCM) and PCM/liquid hybrid cooling is made. The result of the study to understand the applicability of PCM for thermal management of Li-ion batteries is presented. CFD thermal analysis under constant electrical load of 1C rate is carried out.
Technical Paper

Optimized Cooling System Concept for Electric Compact-SUV with Indian Environmental Conditions

2021-09-22
2021-26-0410
With the rising pollutant emission level in Indian cities, the focus on pure BEVs is also increasing in India. Therefore, the Indian Government is currently preparing suitable policies to promote the acceptance of BEVs (e.g., FAME-2) [1]. The goal is to provide subsidies and develop the required infrastructure for battery charging. The environmental conditions in India differ significantly from those in other developed countries in Europe or China. The maximum temperatures can rise to 55 °C in the summertime [2]. In winter, temperatures in the northern Himalayan regions can fall below -25 °C [3]. Within this wide range of environmental conditions, all components, such as the electric motor and battery, must be conditioned by the thermal system of the vehicle. On the one hand, HV battery packs are one of the main cost drivers. On the other hand, currently, the battery size must be maximized to improve the driving range and ensure customer acceptance.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Coolant System Simulation for Vehicle Drive-Cycle

2021-09-22
2021-26-0407
The present work deals with the 3-D, transient, system level CFD simulation of an automotive coolant system using a 3D CFD solver Simerics MP+®. The system includes actual CAD of radiator, cooling jacket, coolant pump, bypass valve and thermostat valve. This work is in continuation of the work done by Srinivasan et al. [1] where wax melting, conjugate heat transfer, Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) of the valve had been solved. Thermostat valve was controlled by wax phase change model which also incorporates the hysteresis effect of wax melting and solidification. The previous work dealt with the simulation of complete cycle, opening, and closing of the thermostat valve system. Besides the physics considered in the previous study, the current model also includes the treatment of cavitation to account for the presence of dissolved gases and vaporization of the liquid coolant.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Approach to Improve the Engine Oil Warmup Behavior Using Exhaust Gas During NEDC Cycle

2021-09-22
2021-26-0422
During the cold start conditions engine must overcome higher friction loss, at the cost of fuel penalty till the optimum temperatures are reached in coolant and lubrication circuits. The lower thermal capacity of the lubrication oil (with respect to the coolant) inverses the relation of viscosity with temperature, improves engine thermal efficiency benefit. Engine oil takes full NEDC test cycle duration to reach 90°C. This leads to higher friction loss throughout the test cycle, contributing a significant increase in fuel consumption. Increasing oil temperature reduces viscosity, thereby reducing the engine friction. This helps to identify the focus for thermal management in the direction of speeding up the temperature rise during a cold engine starting. This work aims at the study and experiment of an exhaust recovery mechanism to improve the NEDC fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Approach to Model AC Compressor Cycling in 1D CAE with Enhanced Accuracy of Cabin Cooldown Performance Prediction

2021-09-22
2021-26-0430
In previous work, AC Compressor Cycling (ACC) was modeled by incorporating evaporator thermal inertia in Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) performance simulation. Prediction accuracy of >95% in average cabin air temperature has been achieved at moderate ambient condition, however the number of ACC events in 1D CAE simulation were higher as compared to physical test [1]. This paper documents the systematic approach followed to address the challenges in simulation model in order to bridge the gap between physical and digital. In physical phenomenon, during cabin cooldown, after meeting the set/ target cooling of a cabin, the ACC takes place. During ACC, gradual heat transfer takes place between cold evaporator surface and air flowing over it because of evaporator thermal inertia.
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