Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Modeling and simulation analysis of electric vehicle thermal management system based on distributed parameter method

2022-03-29
2022-01-0211
In this paper, the distributed parameter method is used to establish the dynamic simulation model of the electric vehicle thermal management system and various parts, and the finite difference method is used to solve the calculation. A thermal management system model for electric vehicles is established by AMESIM to verify the accuracy of the model established in this paper. The model established in this paper is compared with the change trend of refrigerant temperature, pressure and flow rate at the outlet of each component of the system calculated based on the model established by AMESIM, which verifies the correctness of the model established in this paper. Using the established model, the influence of the refrigerant flow on the cooling performance of the battery pack and the influence on the heating comfort of the passenger compartment were studied, and a control strategy for the rapid cooling of the battery pack was proposed.
Technical Paper

1D-3D Coupled Analysis for Motor Thermal Management in an Electric Vehicle

2022-03-29
2022-01-0214
Motor thermal management of electric vehicles (EVs) is becoming more significant due to its close relations to vehicle aerodynamic performance and energy consumption, while computer aided engineering (CAE) plays an important role in its development. A 1D-3D coupled model is established to characterize transient thermal performance of the motor in an electric vehicle on a high performance computer (HPC) platform. The 1D motor thermal management model is integrated with the 1D powertrain model, and a 3D thermal model is established for the motor, while online data exchange is realized between the 1D and 3D models. The 1D model gives boundaries such as inlet coolant temperature, mass flowrate and motor heat generation to the 3D model, while 3D gives back boundaries such as heat transfer to coolant simultaneously. Transient simulations are performed for the 140kph(20℃) driving cycle, and the model is calibrated with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Development of Vehicle Thermal Management Model for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Electric Vehicle

2022-03-29
2022-01-0201
Recently, automobile manufacturers are interested in the development of battery electric vehicle (BEV) having a longer mileage to satisfy customer needs. The BEV with high efficiency depends on the temperature of the electric components. Hence it is important to study the effect of the cooling system in electric vehicle in order to optimize efficiency and performance. In this study, we present a 1-D vehicle thermal management (VTM) simulation model. The individual vehicle subsystems were modeled including cooling, power electric (PE), mechanical, and control components. Each component was integrated into a single VTM model and it would be used to calculate energy transfer among electrical, thermal, and mechanical energy. As a result, this simulation model predicts a plenty of information including the state of each component such as temperature, energy consumption, and operating point about electric vehicle depending on driving cycles and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

A Novel Tensile Testing Method to Characterize the Weld Metal Properties for Laser Welded Blank (LWB) with AHSS

2022-03-29
2022-01-0243
The automotive industry applies Laser Welded Blanks (LWB) to increase the material utilization and light-weighting of the vehicle structure. This paper introduces a novel tensile testing method to characterize the hardening behavior of the weld material with a digital image correlation (DIC) and apply it as a constitutive hardening model in forming simulations with the LWBs of GEN3 steel. Formability tests under biaxial conditions were performed with LWB of GEN3 steel. Experimental results were correlated with finite element analysis (FEA) predictions that were conducted with and without the weld material model. The results show the weld material model for the LWB improves the accuracy of FEA predictions of both necking failures on the base metal as well as cracking on the weld.
Technical Paper

Comparing stress gradient and other concepts for fatigue analysis of notched components

2022-03-29
2022-01-0252
Nowadays simulation of the fatigue life is an essential part of the development of components in the automotive and machinery industry. Weak points can be identified fast and reliable with respect to stiffness, strength and lightweight. A pure virtual optimization of the design can be performed without the need of prototypes. Only for the production release a final test is necessary. A lot of parameters influence the fatigue life as the local stress, material, surface roughness, size of the component, temperature etc. Notches have the strongest impact on fatigue life, depending on radius and shape. Stresses at the notch base are increased because the load flow is forced through a reduced cross section, or changes its direction around an inwardly curved edge. But notches cause not only an increase of the local stress. Also, the local fatigue strength is increased because of a support effect from the neighboring areas, where the stress is already reduced.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle State Segmentation and Failure Prediction Based on Big Data

2022-03-29
2022-01-0223
Vehicle failure prediction technology is an important part of PHM(Prognostic and Health Management) technology, which is of great significance to the safety of vehicles and to improve driving safety. Based on the vehicle operating data collected by the on-board terminal (T-box) of the telematics system, the research on the state of vehicle failure is conducted. First, this paper conducts statistical analysis on vehicle historical fault data. Preprocessing procedures such as cleaning, integration, and protocol are performed to group the data set. Then, three indexes including recency(R) frequency(F), and days(D) are selected to construct a vehicle security status subdivision system, and K -Means algorithm is utilized to divide different vehicle categories from the perspective of vehicle value. Labeled information of vehicles in different security status are further established.
Technical Paper

A Perspective on Materials Selection for Body Structure Lightweighting in Battery Electric Vehicles

2022-03-29
2022-01-0233
The secular trend of automotive body structure light-weighting for internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles is constrained by simultaneous and increasingly challenging vehicle cost, fuel economy and passenger safety standards. Mass optimization via materials selection in ICE vehicles, therefore, is ultimately dependent on the normalized cost of mass reduction solutions and the associated implications on passenger safety and vehicle performance metrics. These constraints have resulted in development and implementation of increasingly high specific-strength solutions for metallic components in the body structure and chassis. In contrast, mass optimization in battery electric vehicles is subject to alternative performance metrics to fuel efficiency, although considerations for vehicle safety and cost naturally remain directionally similar.
Technical Paper

The investigation of a contact and element-based approach for Cohesive zone modelling in the simulation of Delamination propagation

2022-03-29
2022-01-0259
The CAE industry always moves towards new ways to improve the productivity, efficiency and to reduce the solution times. Conventional method of Cohesive Zone Modelling has drawback of higher computation and modelling time. Due to this problem, sometimes Engineers need to avoid simulations and rely only on some sort of approximation of crack from previous designs. This approximation can lead to either product failure or overdesign of the product. A new approach is discussed in this paper to simulate crack initiation and propagation with Cohesive Zone Modelling. Conventional method uses Cohesive zone modelling with Hex or Penta elements by assigning material with cohesive properties, which increases computation and modelling time. The new approach models Cohesive zone as contact between two bodies, thus eliminating the need to use cohesive elements which will essentially reduce the computation time as well as modelling time.
Technical Paper

Fatigue life prediction method for natural rubber material based on Extreme Learning Machine

2022-03-29
2022-01-0258
Uniaxial fatigue tests of rubber dumbbell specimens under different mean and amplitude of strain are carried out. An Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) model optimized by Dragonfly Algorithm (DA) is proposed to predict the fatigue life of rubber based on measured rubber fatigue life data. Mean and amplitude of strain and measured rubber fatigue life are taken as input variables and output variables respectively in DA-ELM model. For comparison, genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are used to optimize ELM parameters, and GA-ELM and PSO-ELM models are established. The comparison results show that DA-ELM model performs better in predicting the fatigue life of rubber with least dispersion. The coefficients of determination for the training set and test set are 99.47% and 99.12%, respectively. In addition, a life prediction model equivalent strain amplitude as damage parameter is introduced to further highlight the superiority of DA-ELM model.
Technical Paper

Technical Keynote: Durability Validation for Variable Vehicle Usage

2022-03-29
2022-01-0255
Durability engineering for vehicles is about relating real operational loading to the actual strength of the product and its components. In the first part of this presentation, we show how to calculate failure probabilities and safety factors based on the load and strength distributions. We discuss the uncertainty within the estimations, which is considerably large in case of extremely small failure probabilities as required for safety critical components. In the second part, we focus on modelling and simulating the loads based on real vehicle usage, such that the resulting statistics allows to understand and quantify the usage variability. The idea is, to simulate thousands of vehicle life spans of, say, 300.000 km or 15.000 h of operation each. The input data for such simulations typically consists of a combination of geographic data (like road network, topography, road conditions, traffic data, and points of interest) and properly segmented rich data from measurement campaigns.
Technical Paper

A fatigue life prediction method of rubber material for Automobile vibration isolator under road load spectrum

2022-03-29
2022-01-0253
Automobile rubber isolator was subjected to random load cycle for a long time in the service process, and its main rubber material for vibration isolation was prone to fatigue failure. Since the traditional Miner damage theory overlooked the load randomness, it had a prediction error problem. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of rubber fatigue life, the traditional Miner damage theory was modified by random uncertainty theory to predict the rubber fatigue life under random load. Firstly, the rubber dumbbell-shaped test column, which was vulcanized from rubber materials commonly used in vibration isolators, was taken as the research object. The uniaxial fatigue test of rubber under different strain amplitudes and strain mean values was carried out. Then the fatigue characteristic curve of rubber with equivalent strain amplitude as the damage parameter was established.
Technical Paper

Structure Optimization and Improvement of Commercial Vehicle Control Arm Based on Topology Optimization Method

2022-03-29
2022-01-0266
Automobile control arm is the guide and force transmission component of automobile suspension system, which makes the lightweight design of automobile according to a certain trajectory beneficial to energy saving and emission reduction. In this paper, the structure of the lower control arm of the front McPherson suspension is modeled and cleaned by UG software to simplify the model. The hexahedral shell element is used to establish the finite element model in HyperMesh. Considering the force and constraint conditions of the control arm under three different load conditions, the strength analysis is carried out by using the finite element software. It is found that the control arm is over-designed and has great potential for lightweight. The load and boundary conditions under different working conditions are set in HyperMesh, and the variable density method in topology optimization method is used to optimize the structure of automobile control arm under different working conditions.
Technical Paper

Hierarchical Vehicle Stability Control Strategy Based on Unscented Kalman Filter Estimation

2022-03-29
2022-01-0294
High-speed vehicle is prone to instability under bad road conditions, causing many safety accidents such as tail-flicking and overturning. Stability control could assist vehicle to drive safely and stably by adjusting the additional yaw moment. However, most of the existing stability control strategies directly invoke the information of the sideslip angle of the centroid that is difficult to obtain on the vehicle, and carry out complex controller design, which deviates from the actual application. In order to achieve a complete set of stability control architecture oriented to practical applications, this paper designs a hierarchical vehicle stability control strategy based on differential braking and state estimation technology.
Technical Paper

Moisture absorption behavior and hygrothermal aging life prediction for CFRP adhesive-bonded joints

2022-03-29
2022-01-0327
Effects of moisture absorption on the strength degradation, energy absorption and failure mechanism of CFRP laminates and the adhesive-bonded joints in hygrothermal environment were investigated in this work. Experiments of accelerated moisture absorption, uniaxial tension and three-point bending were performed. SEM observations on the CFRP laminates and the fracture surfaces of the CFRP bonded joints were conducted. Strength degradation and failure mechanism induced by moisture absorption were discussed in detail. The results showed that the strength degradation in tension and in three-point bending of the CFRP laminate due to moisture absorption reached 7.4% and 17.1%, respectively. Different response of CFRP laminate and adhesive layer to the moisture determined the failure mode of the adhesive-bonded joints. Suitable match of CFRP laminate and adhesive was very important to make the failure mode of the joint under control.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the simulation of sintering distortion in a 316L Part manufactured using Bound Metal Deposition 3D printing

2022-03-29
2022-01-0346
Metal binderjetting is a high throughput additive manufacturing process that has the potential to meet the needs of automotive volume production. In many cases, this process requires a sintering post-process to meet final dimensions. Because the sintering stage is performed free standing (i.e. without the use of tooling) and can involve up to a 20% dimensional change from green part to the final part shape, part distortion can be a concern. In this study, the sintering stage of a bridge geometry was simulated under different parameter settings using a Finite Element Analysis. The sensitivity of the simulation to various process parameter inputs was examined. Parts were then produced in 316L using a bound metal deposition and sintering process and compared to prediction. The sintering simulation indicated good agreement with experiment for some dimensions but highlighted the need for additional analysis.
Technical Paper

Innovative vehicle battery pack design approach through multiphysics cells simulation

2022-03-29
2022-01-0267
This paper presents the design procedure of a vehicle battery pack, in terms of electrical and mechanical requirements with an innovative methodology to model Li-ion cells’ thermo-electro-mechanical behaviour. This modelling approach can predict, through FEM analysis, if short circuit happen with consequent generation of fire in case of vehicle crash. This last aspect has several issues related to the multiphysics characteristics of the phenomena due to the fact that battery cells are made up by really thin components and, as consequence, not significant works of an entire deformable battery pack simulation have been found in literature. For this reason, the design approach studied overcomes the classical methodology in which cells’ mechanical behaviour is considered unknown to understand if cell failure appears avoiding over-engineered battery pack structure. At the beginning, a benchmarking activity on existing FEM modelling methodologies of single cells has been conducted.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Heat Transfer Characteristics of Heavy-Duty Spark Ignition Natural Gas Engines Using Machine Learning

2022-03-29
2022-01-0473
Machine learning algorithms are effective tools to reduce the number of engine dynamometer tests during internal combustion engine development and/or optimization. This paper provides a case study of using such a statistical algorithm to characterize the heat transfer from the combustion chamber to the environment during combustion and during the entire engine cycle. The data for building the machine learning model came from a single cylinder compression ignition engine (13.3 compression ratio) that was converted to natural-gas port fuel injection spark-ignition operation. Engine dynamometer tests investigated several spark timings, equivalence ratios, and engine speeds, which were also used as model inputs. While building the model it was found that adding the intake pressure as another model input improved model efficiency.
Technical Paper

A New Pathway for Prediction of Gasoline Sprays using Machine-Learning Algorithms

2022-03-29
2022-01-0492
The fuel spray process is of utmost importance to internal combustion engine design as it determines engine performance and emissions characteristics. While designers rely on CFD for understanding of the air-fuel mixing process, there are recognized shortcomings in current CFD spray predictions, particularly under super-critical or flash-boiling conditions. In contrast, time-resolved optical spray experiments have now produced datasets for the three-dimensional liquid distribution for a wide range of operating conditions and fuels. Utilizing these detailed experimental results, we have explored a machine learning approach to prediction of fuel sprays. The ML approach for spray prediction is promising because (1) it does not require phenomenological spray models, (2) it can provide time-resolved spray data without time-stepping simulation, and (3) it is computationally faster than CFD. In this study, a pixel-regression model has been developed and applied for gasoline spray prediction.
Technical Paper

Fast Air-Path Modeling for Stiff Components

2022-03-29
2022-01-0410
Development of powertrain control systems frequently involves large-scale transient simulations, e.g. Monte Carlo simulations or drive-cycle optimizations, which require fast dynamic plant models. Models of the air-path—for internal combustion engines or fuel cells—can exhibit stiff behavior, though, causing slow numerical simulations due to either using an implicit solver or sampling much faster than the bandwidth of interest to maintain stability. This paper proposes a method to reduce air-path model stiffness by adding an impedance in series with potentially stiff components, e.g. throttles, valves, compressors, and turbines, thereby allowing the use of a fast-explicit solver. An impedance, by electrical analogy, is a frequency-dependent resistance to flow, which is used to suppress the high-frequency dynamics causing air-path stiffness, while maintaining model accuracy in the bandwidth of interest.
Technical Paper

An Accurate Analysis Method to Calculate Planetary Gear Set Load Sharing under Non-Torque Load

2022-03-29
2022-01-0653
Given their high-power density, large range of speed change, and reputation of being quieter than counter-shaft gear sets, planetary gear sets (PGS) have advantages to be applied in electric vehicle (EV) applications. Typical rear wheel drive automatic transmissions have only PGS in gearbox, and power is transferred by torque. Most electric drive units (EDU) equipped PGS are like a simplified front wheel drive automatic transmission. PGS is coupled with counter-shaft gear sets normally at planet carrier which has two functions: original planet pinion carrying and additional transfer gear mounting. The latter brings in non-torque power in PGS through the carrier. This condition hasn’t obtained enough attention by automotive gear researchers regarding to PGS load sharing calculation. Excluding non-torque load here causes underestimating gear and bearing uneven loads in both magnitude and variation. In extreme conditions, undersized parts would miss demanding durability requirements.
X