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Technical Paper

Research on Locked Wheel Protection Function of Aircraft Brake System

2021-10-11
2021-01-1269
Locked wheel protection is an important part of antiskid control for aircraft brake control system. Locked wheel protection compares the wheel speed of two or more wheels, if one of the wheels is too slow, locked wheel protection releases the brake pressure on the slow wheel. This work aims to study the control logic for locked wheel protection. Locked wheel protection control logic consists of 3 key factors: paired wheels, active threshold and inhibit velocity. Focus on comparison different options of these 3 factors, all aspects of control logic for locked wheel protection had been expounded in this study. Simulation and calculation analysis is applied for different locked wheel strategies to evaluate the effect. One conclusion is that the greatest wheel speed of the wheel under control shall be set as a reference speed for locked wheel protection. This study provide the basis to design a proper locked wheel protection function of aircraft brake control system.
Technical Paper

Potential and Challenges for Application-Specific Friction Characteristics of Race Brake Pads

2021-10-11
2021-01-1282
As a race driver hits the pedal to trigger the braking event, a dynamic load transfer takes place in the car. This is a similar kind of weight transfer experienced on the road while stopping any vehicle abruptly. Modern race cars such as FIA-regulated Grand Touring Car classes GT3 and LMGTE produce a significant aerodynamic downforce at a reasonably high efficiency level. In this type of high downforce race cars, load variations originated by aerodynamics are added onto the mass transfer. The combination of these effects provide a braking effect with this type of cars a highly transient character. At the same time, our customers are facing the challenge of strict technical regulations, usually forbidding brake control systems. In motorsport competition, car performance is of primary priority to help our customers win championships.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Particle Dynamics on the Real Vehicle in Different Driving Scenarios with Swarm Sensors

2021-10-11
2021-01-1299
Due to the increase in public attention in the analysis of non-exhaust emission sources because of the growing electrification of vehicles, measurements have been performed in recent years to develop a consistent test standard. In particular, the consideration of tyre and brake abrasion took a predominant position due to the small particle sizes. With measurements under controlled and laboratory-like athmosphere, for example for brakes on dynamometers, attempts have been made to create a uniform test standard according to the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). However, a transfer to the real driving environment is not yet feasible because of many external disturbance variables, such as the wheel housing or atmospheric variables. Typical reference measurement sensors in the vehicle are only suitable to a limited extent for mobile operation due to their size and the necessary measurement infrastructure.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Deposition Behaviour of Brake Wear Particles on the Wheel Surface

2021-10-11
2021-01-1301
The deposition behavior of brake wear particles on the surface of a wheel and the mechanisms on it have not been fully understood. In addition, the proportion of brake wear particles deposited on the wheel surface compared to the total emitted particles is almost unknown. This information is necessary to evaluate the number- and mass-related emission factors measured on the inertia dynamometer and to compare them with on-road and vehicle-related emission behaviour. The aim of this study is to clarify the deposition behavior of brake particles on the wheel surface. First, the real deposition behaviour is determined in on-road tests. For particle sampling, collection pads are adapted at different positions of a front and rear axle wheel. In addition to a Real Driving Emissions (RDE)-compliant test cycle, tests are performed in urban, rural and motorway sections to evaluate speed-dependent influences.
Technical Paper

Systems of Automatic Brake Torque Reduction on the Wheels of One Axle of the Car

2021-10-11
2021-01-1266
Braking mechanisms have the most variation in performance of all of the elements of the braking system. Instability of braking torques on the wheels of one axle of the vehicle leads to the appearance of the braking forces unevenness, and then- to the vehicle skidding during braking. At one time, the appearance of open-type disc brakes made it possible to reduce the unevenness of the braking forces on the sides of the car due to their higher characteristics of energy intensity and stability. However, the lack of feedback between the left and right disc brakes mounted on the same axle of the vehicle does not allow reducing the unevenness of the braking forces to an acceptable minimum. The authors of the work studied and proposed several systems for automatic reduction of the braking torques unevenness for braking mechanisms mounted on the wheels of one axle.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Wheel Rotations to the Lateral Runout of a Hybrid Material or Dimensionally Reduced Wheel Bearing Flange

2021-10-11
2021-01-1298
The automotive industry is continuously striving to reduce vehicle mass by reducing the mass of components including wheel bearings. A typical wheel bearing assembly is mostly steel, including both the wheel and knuckle mounting flanges. Mass optimization of the wheel hub has traditionally been accomplished by reducing the cross-sectional thickness of these components. Recently bearing suppliers have also investigated the use of alternative materials. While bearing component performance is verified through analysis and testing by the supplier, additional effects from system integration and performance over time also need to be comprehended. In a recent new vehicle architecture, the wheel bearing hub flange was reduced to optimize it for low mass. In addition, holes were added for further mass reduction. The design met all the supplier and OEM component level specifications.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effect of the Wedged Type Brake Caliper Piston on Brake Drag

2021-10-11
2021-01-1293
Recently, there’s a massive flow of change in the automotive industry with the coming era of electric vehicles and self-driving (autonomous) vehicles. The automotive braking system field is not an exception for the change and there are not only lots of new systems being developed but also demands for researches for optimizations of conventional brake systems fitting to the newly appeared systems such as E-Booster and Electric Motor Brake (EMB) Caliper. Taking the Electric Motor Brake Caliper for example, it is considered as a very important and useful system for autonomous vehicles because the motor actuator of the caliper is much easier to control with ECUs compared to the conventional hydraulic pressure system. However, easy of control is not the only thing that excites brake system engineers.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Effect of Subsequent Operations on Shot Peened Crown Wheel Pinion (Hypoid Gear Set) & Compressive Residual Stress Analysis

2021-09-22
2021-26-0252
The prime function of crown wheel pinion is to receive the power from transmission & distribute to two-wheel ends. Doing so these members will experience the tremendous bending fatigue. Shot peen is the one of the latest technology used to improve the bending fatigue of the CWP [1]. In this particular case- six CWP are taken for the study to understand the effect of the operations after shot peen process. Three Samples are named as batch A, another 3 samples are named as batch B. Both the batch CWP are shot peened. Then as a regular production practice the batch A CWP are process through hard turning ➔ Abrasive lapping ➔ Hot lubriting (manganese phosphate) ➔ Fully finish ready for assembly. Then both the batch A & batch B samples are taken for residual stress analysis using X-Ray diffraction technique. The measurement location is 50 microns below the surface. The results tabulated, found that batch A samples shows decrease in Residual stress relatively to batch B.
Technical Paper

A Detail Study of Axle Shaft Stress State Change due to Vertical Bending Load in a Commercial Vehicle Axle

2021-09-22
2021-26-0328
Heavy commercial vehicle axle shafts are designed for torsion load. Typically, axle shaft fracture mode during the test is torsional in nature through either shaft body diameter or spline end. However, some of the field return axles shows fracture mode on axle shaft flange. This fracture mode does not resemble with a typical lab test torsional fracture. Metallurgical investigation report indicated that the fracture mode is bending in nature. This paper thus focuses on detail study of change in boundary condition and load transfer path under abusive vertical bending load on axle. A detail finite element analysis is performed to understand stress state change in axle shaft under this condition. A fracture hypothesis is proposed based on observations of finite element analysis results. A detail case study is presented depicting correlation of proposed hypothesis with physical fracture mode.
Technical Paper

FEA Based Approach for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles Lift Axle Weld Analysis and Physically Correlated

2021-09-22
2021-26-0316
Highway transportation using truck is an important transport mode of goods and product to their destination. Commercial vehicle is expensive mode of transportation so it will be protected from failure. For Heavy duty truck they are fully loaded at one side of transportation and other side empty transportation. In such case lift axle grounded when truck is loaded and when truck is empty it is in lift condition. Lift axle is play important role while loading so it is important that it should not fail. Many times lift axle fails at weld location due several load come on the axle. In this paper study of weld failure to vertical, braking and lateral load come on lift axle when truck is in loading condition. Weld failure check in CAE analysis with various load cases and compare with actual physical vehicle failure. Weld failure correlation well correlate when actual loading are consider in analysis. For analysis loading data is measure from RLDA data that will be used for analysis.
Technical Paper

Bogie Wear Pad - A Comparative Study

2021-09-22
2021-26-0442
Bogie-type suspensions for trucks are comprised of two axles and a central spring pack on each side of the truck chassis. Bogie suspensions have a good load distribution between the axles and are used for severe applications in trucks, in off-road conditions thereby subjecting them to extreme stain and load. In today’s competitive market scenario, it of utmost importance to minimize down time in commercial vehicles as it directly corresponds to loss in business which leads to customer dissatisfaction. It is therefore essential to optimize and select the right material for each component in the bogie suspension system. This paper deals with the material selection and testing of one such component - Bogie Wear Pad. The bogie wear pad undergoes sliding friction throughout its lifetime during loading and unloading of bogie suspension. Three different materials are selected and their wear is measured under the same conditions of loading.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Lift Axle Control System at Vehicle Level Using AMESim

2021-09-22
2021-26-0427
Lift axle is essentially provided in commercial vehicles to increase the vehicle’s load-carrying capacity. The axle is lowered in the case of a high payload and the load is evenly distributed among the wheels both on fixed axles and the lift axle. This ability to lift the axle implies better maneuverability in turns, better fuel consumption, and less wear and tear on the tires and brake shoes. Also, it will reduce the damage to the road surfaces. This lowering and lifting of the lift axle are controlled by a series of valves together called the Lift Axle Control System (LACS). This LACS must consider the vehicle load condition, the ignition state, and gear state to decide if the axle must be lifted or lowered. This paper deals with the modeling and simulation of the LACS system at the vehicle level and optimize the design for the respective desired design solution.
Technical Paper

Influence of Asymmetrical Design Parameter on Vehicle Pull During Brake Application

2021-09-22
2021-26-0354
The steering system of commercial vehicle is asymmetrical to left side and rightside, this causes vehicle pull during braking application. This directly affects the safety of the driver and vehicle ride & handling performance. In a similar way, the asymmetrical suspension parameter unintentionally set during vehicle assembly arealso major contributors for creating a vehicle pull. After application of brake force, the tire contact patch creates a moment about the kingpin axis. However, this moment generated is different on left and right-side due to asymmetrical design parameters resulting in vehicle deviation from its intended path. A large deviation may lead to on road accidents. Some of the major factors which are responsible for the vehicle pulling phenomenon are the asymmetrical steering system compliance, asymmetrical suspension geometry, tire, braking system, road camber etc.
Technical Paper

Impact of Wheel Cover Design on Brake Component Temperature

2021-09-22
2021-26-0511
Typically, during a braking maneuver vehicle converts kinetic energy into heat energy. Heat energy thus generated must be dissipated in order to prevent brake overheating. One of the primary factors influencing the temperature of brake components is the amount of ventilation in wheel covers. The objective of this paper is to study the impact on temperature of brake discs and pads by varying ventilation area of wheel cover in Brake Dynamometer. The methodology focuses on collecting objective data in different vehicle models with multiple wheel cover designs. The results are analyzed to study the trend of brake disc and pad temperature with respect to ventilated area of wheel cover. The present work is further correlated with different segment wheel sizes and steel and alloy wheel.
Technical Paper

Methodology & Experimental Study to Reduce Steering Effort and Improve Directional Stability in Three Wheeled Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0083
With an intense competitive automotive environment, it becomes imperative for any OEM to launch their products into the market in a short span of time & with a ‘First Time Right’ approach. Within the current scenario in the Automotive Industry, the selection of optimum set of hard points and wheel geometry often becomes an iterative or a trial-and-error process which is both time consuming and involves higher development cost as there may be instances where 2 to 3 sets of iterations are needed before specification is finalized for production. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a methodology for deciding wheel geometry parameters (covered in the later section of this paper like Caster, Camber, Mechanical trail, etc.) [1, 2, 3, 4] for a three wheeled vehicle as a First Time Right (FTR) approach to cut down on conventional, expensive & time-consuming iterative approach.
Technical Paper

Analytical Study on Influence of Shape of Bucket Cutting Edge of a Wheel Loader on Load Transfer

2021-09-22
2021-26-0136
Wheel loader is a heavy construction equipment, which is commonly used in construction, mining, transferring material etc. According to off highway research about Construction Equipment analysis in India, Wheel loader market is continuously growing because of road construction and mining [1]. One of the parameters which influences the productivity of the machine, is shape of the cutting edge of loader bucket. Poor design of bucket cutting edge results in poor digging, which ultimately affects machine performance and durability. In a wheel loader working cycle, the trajectory of the bucket structure is complicated and variable, which lead to complex working conditions. Cutting edge is the part of Wheel loader bucket, on which the OEMs put a lot of efforts in improving the penetration into the pile and performance. The maximum applied force on bucket cutting edges depend on working load conditions.
Technical Paper

A Detailed Study on Differential Bearing Adjuster Ring Thread Engagement and Joint Strength, under Combined Bending and Axial Loading

2021-09-22
2021-26-0370
Adjuster rings are used in commercial vehicle axle assembly to preload differential bearings and provide support in the axial direction. Adjuster along with the carrier and bearing cap combined to form a threaded joint. Adjuster with external threads engages with internal threads formed in carrier and bearing cap. Preload in differential assembly maintains the system rigidity and helps to maintain an optimized hypoid gear engagement. An adequate preload is important to achieve a desirable bearing life. Reduction in thread engagement at adjuster joint fully or partially will cause a reduction in preload and can lead to gear misalignment. This can cause severe durability concerns. In some cases, it is observed that under vehicle operating loads adjuster ring is backed off from its assembled condition by bending the split pin (split pin is, positive lock, used to maintain adjuster position) and adjuster threads were stripped off.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Multi Axis Suspension Test Rig from Reaction Type to Inertial Type

2021-09-22
2021-26-0471
This paper highlights the transition of multi-axis suspension test rig from fixed reacted type to semi-inertial type and the benefits derived thereof in simulation accuracies. The critical influence of ‘Mx’ and ‘Mz’ controls on simulation accuracies has been highlighted. The vital role of ‘Mz’ control in the resonance of wheel pan along ‘Z’ axis and thereof arresting unwanted failures modes in spindle has been duly emphasized. Finally, the role of constraints and boundary conditions on simulation accuracies has been demonstrated by replacing the reaction frame with vehicle body.
Technical Paper

Front Axle Kingpin Bush - Evaluation of Wear in Operating Conditions

2021-09-22
2021-26-0473
In automobiles, front axle assembly is a main load bearing member and houses steering linkages. Front axle assembly has two main parts namely axle beam and axle arm, interconnected by a kingpin. This kingpin allows the rotation of axle arm during steering events. To avoid metal to metal contact between axle arm and kingpin, bushes are housed on the top and bottom half of the axle arm & in axle beam. Due to radial load and steering rotation, as a weak member, bushes will wear out faster. This affects the proper functioning of steering mechanism. Hence, the bushes need to be evaluated prior to its implementation in vehicle. In general, bushes are evaluated using Pin-On-Disc test as a comparative study, but it does not simulate exact boundary conditions as in vehicle. Next option is vehicle level validation but leads to more testing time and cost. Hence, as an optimized solution, the same vehicle operating conditions can be replicated in component level testing.
Technical Paper

Frictional Power Loss Distribution of Automotive Axles - Experimental Evaluation and Analysis

2021-09-22
2021-26-0483
The given paper presents the main elements of frictional power loss distribution in an automotive axle for passenger car. For reference two different axles were compared of two different sizes to understand the impact of size and ratio of gear and bearings on power loss characteristics. It was observed that ~50% of total axle power loss is because of pinion head-tail bearing and its seals, which is very significant. Roughly 30% of total power loss is contributed by pinion-ring gear pair and differential bearings and remaining ~20% by wheel end bearing and seals. With this study the automotive companies can take note of the area where they need to focus more to reduce their CO2 emissions to meet the stringent BS6, CAFÉ and RDE emission norms.
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