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Technical Paper

Direct Yaw Control Based on Optimal Longitudinal Tire Forces for 8×8 Combat Vehicle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0261
This paper proposes an active chassis control strategy for an Eight-wheel drive/Four-wheel steering (8WD/4WS) combat vehicle, where only the first and second axles’ wheels are steerable, while the third and fourth axles’ wheels are non-steerable. Utilizing torque vectoring and differential braking control to improve its lateral dynamics at limit handling. Due to the non-linear characteristics of the tires and its friction limit, the vehicle may exhibit instable behavior during cornering maneuvers. It is well known that the tire longitudinal and lateral forces are shared, if longitudinal forces increased, slip ratio will increase and causing reduction in lateral forces that may cause the vehicle to drift out or spinning. Accordingly, the tires forces need to be optimally distributed based on vertical loads for each tire to prevent it from reaching the friction limit based on Friction Ellipse Theorem.
Technical Paper

Traction Control System of Electric Vehicle with 4 In-Wheel Motors using Lyapunov Stability Analysis Algorithm

2021-04-06
2021-01-0122
A TCS strategy of electric vehicle with 4 in-wheel motors is proposed in this paper. The control method consists of three parts: target slip rate calculation, target torque calculation and coordination control. By using Lyapunov stability analysis algorithm, the target slip rate boundary which makes the system stable is obtained. The target torque of each wheel is calculated by PI controller. According to the engineering experience, the TCS coordinated control strategy under split friction coefficient (split-μ) road, and friction coefficient jump(μ jump) road is proposed. The test results show that this strategy can improve the acceleration comfort and yaw stability of vehicles on uniform low friction coefficient (low μ) , split-μ and μ jump road.
Technical Paper

Reconstructing Vehicle and Occupant Motion from EDR Data in High Yaw Velocity Crashes

2021-04-06
2021-01-0892
Among the several data recorded by a typical motor vehicle’s event data recorder (EDR) prior to, during and after a crash event, are sampled time histories of longitudinal and lateral components of delta-v. The delta-v components are not measured directly but are calculated by numerically integrating the outputs of two perpendicular accelerometers contained within the EDR box. As currently designed and implemented a typical EDR does not measure yaw velocity or track vehicle heading during the impulse phase of a crash. Without this yaw information to orient the accelerometers relative to the fixed ground, the delta-v values calculated by the EDR through direct integration of its measured acceleration components should not be interpreted as representing absolute changes in vehicle velocity, especially in cases where the yaw velocity is high. EDR-calculated delta-v components must be adjusted to account for the yaw motion that occurred during acquisition of the data.
Technical Paper

Torque Vectoring Control Strategies for Distributed Electric Drive Formula SAE Racing Car

2021-04-06
2021-01-0373
This paper presents a two-layer torque vectoring control strategy for the Formula SAE racing car of Tsinghua University to enhance steering response, lateral stability and track performance. Firstly, the dynamic model of the existing FSAE car is built as parameters of tires, suspensions, motors and aerodynamics are measured and identified. Secondly, this paper develops a two-layer torque vectoring strategy, the upper-layer direct yaw moment (DYC) controller and the lower-layer torque distribution controller are developed in Simulink. The upper-layer sliding mode control DYC controller calculates the target additional yaw moment according to the target yaw rate based on the two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) reference model, and the sideslip angle is constrained as well.
Technical Paper

Large-Scale Vehicle-Wake Characterization Using a Novel, Single-Camera Particle Tracking Technique

2021-04-06
2021-01-0940
The aerodynamic forces experienced by vehicles depend on a variety of factors including wind direction, traffic, and roadside vegetation. Such complex boundary conditions often result in unsteady flow separation and the formation of large-scale coherent structures, which, in turn, significantly influence the aerodynamics of following vehicles. To gain a deeper understanding of the unsteady behaviour of such vehicle wakes under large-scale conditions, a time-resolved field measurement technique is required. Existing methods, such as tomographic particle image velocimetry and three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry are unfortunately quite limited at these scales. Furthermore, such techniques require complex multi-camera calibrations, hazardous lasers, and optical access from many vantage points.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Different Parameter Based Control Strategies for Active Independent Front Steering (AIFS) System

2021-04-06
2021-01-0967
The previous research work on Active Independent Front Steering (AIFS) system concluded an enhanced vehicle response and tire adhesion utilization. Some research emphasizes the importance of Tire Work load (TWL) in the generation of maximum possible tire forces that ensures vehicle controllability and stability. In this study, a mathematical model is constructed to investigate the effect of TWL as a parameter on AIFS performance. Toward such a target, a new Fuzzy control strategy is developed based on TWL and vehicle yaw rate as control inputs for the AIFS controller. Unfortunately, the TWL is not a measurable parameter or even easy to be estimated. Consequently, another control strategy was implemented based on slip angle and vehicle yaw rate as inputs for the AIFS controller.
Technical Paper

Effects of Anti-Sway Bar Separation on the Handling Characteristics of a SUV

2021-04-06
2021-01-0976
A single-vehicle crash involving an SUV led to the study of the failure of the anti-sway bar linkage and tire pressure and their relative effects on the handling characteristics of the vehicle. The SUV, having been involved in a rollover, was found with the anti-sway bar drop link disconnected from the suspension lower A-arm assembly. Also, after the crash, the tire pressure in the front tires on the subject vehicle was measured to be above the value specified by the SUV manufacturer; however, the pressure for one of the rear tires was measured to be roughly half of the SUV manufacturer’s recommended pressure. The other rear tire was deflated. The testing described herein addresses the question of what effects the anti-sway bar drop link disconnection or reduced rear axle tire pressure would have on the SUV’s pre-accident handling and driveability.
Technical Paper

A Research on Autonomous Vehicle Control in Track Beyond Its Limits of Handling

2021-04-06
2021-01-0977
This paper presents the research related to the self-driving system that has been actively carried out recently. Previous studies have been limited to ensure the path following performance in linear and steady state-alike handling region with small lateral acceleration. However, in the high speed driving, the vehicle cornering response is extended to nonlinear region where tire grips are saturated. This requires a technology to create the driving path for minimum time maneuvering while grasping the tire grip limits of the vehicle in real time. The entire controller consists of three stages-hierarchy: The target motion is determined in the supervisor phase, and the target force to follow the target behavior is calculated in the upper stage controller. Finally, the lower stage controller calculates the actuator phase control input corresponding to the target force.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficiency of Distributed-Drive Articulated Vehicle by Differential Steering

2021-04-06
2021-01-0969
Differential steering mode of distributed-drive articulated vehicle is proposed by using the characteristics of independent in-wheel motor. The compound steering system of articulated vehicle is composed of fully hydraulic steering system and differential steering. Several differential steering modes of articulated vehicle are presented, and the differential steering dynamic model of articulated vehicle is built to investigate the relationship of yaw moment and turning radius. The differential steering control strategy of articulated vehicle is studied while maintaining the vehicle in the stability domain. The energy consumption of articulated vehicle with differential steering is calculated by simulating vehicle single shift lane steering process. The simulation results show that the articulated vehicle with differential steering can reduce the energy consumption of hydraulic steering system up to 3.8%.
Technical Paper

New Results from the Evaluation of Drag Reduction Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0943
Aerodynamic technologies for light-duty vehicles were evaluated through full-scale testing in a large low-blockage closed-circuit wind tunnel equipped with a rolling road, wheel rollers, boundary-layer suction and a system to generate road-representative turbulent flow. This work was part of a multi-year, multi-vehicle study commissioned by Transport Canada and Environment and Climate Change Canada, and carried out in cooperation with the US EPA, to support the evaluation of light-duty-vehicle greenhouse-gas-emission regulations. A 2016 paper reported drag-reduction measurements for technologies such as active grille shutters, production and custom underbody treatments, air dams, ride height control and combinations of these. This paper describes an extension to that work and addresses vehicle aerodynamics in three ways.
Journal Article

Validation of a PC-Crash Multibody Sport Bike Motorcycle Model

2021-04-06
2021-01-0893
PC-Crash is an accident reconstruction program allowing the user to perform simulations with multibody objects that collide or interact with 3D vehicle mesh models. The multibody systems can be a pedestrian, a motorcycle, or a motorcycle with a rider. The multibody systems are comprised of individual rigid bodies connected by joints. The bodies can be of various size and stiffness along with varying coefficients of friction and restitution. Additionally, the joints can be tailored to define pivot types and range of motion. The current motorcycle models in PC-Crash are generic and do not resemble a sport bike type motorcycle. They are only globally scalable such that you cannot adjust length, width, or height independently. However, the user can adjust each body and/or joint individually as needed. A model was created that resembled a modern sport bike motorcycle. In addition, a multibody rider was mounted on the motorcycle in a typical sport bike riding position.
Journal Article

Near-to-Far Wake Characteristics of Road Vehicles Part 2: Influence of Cross Winds and Free-Stream Turbulence

2021-04-06
2021-01-0949
Conventional assessments of the aerodynamic performance of ground vehicles have, to date, been considered in the context of a vehicle that encounters a uniform wind field in the absence of surrounding traffic. Recent vehicle-platooning studies have revealed measurable fuel savings when following other vehicles at inter-vehicle distances experienced in every-day traffic. These energy savings have been attributed in large part to the air-wakes of the leading vehicles. This set of three papers documents a study to examine the near-to-far regions of ground-vehicle wakes (one to ten vehicle lengths), in the context of their potential influence on other vehicles. Part two of this three-part paper documents the influence of the ambient winds on the development of the wake behind a vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Structural Design and Experimental Study of Integrated Stability Control for Distributed Driven Electric Vehicle

2021-01-22
2020-01-5174
Due to the individual controllability of each motor, the distributed driven electric vehicle has provided a broad research domain for vehicle integrated control. This paper focuses on vehicle stability control by the integration of three systems, the hydraulic brake unit, active steering unit, and motor torque control unit. Firstly, the hierarchical control strategy has been designed generally, which is divided into three levels, the upper controller, medium controller, and lower controller. Secondly, based on the hierarchical structure, each controller has been introduced in detail. The upper controller is the application layer, which has implemented the functions such as the estimations of vehicle states and road conditions, calculation of nominal control variables, identification of vehicle stability and steering characteristics, and the coordinated algorithm of additional yaw moment and active front angle, etc.
Technical Paper

Research on Stability Control of a Rear-Wheel Distributed Drive Electric Formula SAE Vehicle Based on Differential Drive

2020-12-14
2020-01-5234
Vehicles can achieve yaw moment control through longitudinal force distribution. For distributed drive electric vehicles, longitudinal force can be controlled by differential drive. It can correct vehicle attitude without limiting the traction performance, thereby improving vehicle stability and steering response. This paper presents a differential drive control strategy for a rear-wheel distributed drive electric Formula SAE (FSAE) race car. The control strategy aims at improving vehicle stability and steering response. The control variables are the yaw rate and the sideslip angle, and the sideslip angle is estimated by Kalman filter. Cascade control is used in the control strategy. The outer loop is responsible for correcting the yaw rate and the sideslip angle and distributing the tire longitudinal force. The combined controller of yaw rate and sideslip angle is based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR).
Technical Paper

Characterization of Aerodynamic Impact of Build Variation in Class 8 Tractor Trailers

2020-05-27
2020-01-5054
Build variation and tolerance stack up are unavoidable in the vehicle manufacturing process, not only for individual components and assemblies but also for the vehicle at large. Deviations across several components, each within tolerance limits, could ultimately have a significant effect on vehicle aerodynamic performance. The objective of this study is to quantify the impact of several such build variations on vehicle drag. A Lattice-Boltzmann-based simulation method was used in conjunction with design of experiments to construct a Kriging response surface interpolation model to efficiently characterize the impact of 17 different body and chassis build variations on the aerodynamic drag of a VNL 780 tractor trailer at a nonzero yaw angle. The top three parameters with greatest aerodynamic impact were then evaluated at the opposite symmetric yaw angle to understand the impact of build variation on vehicle asymmetry.
Technical Paper

Direct Yaw Moment Control of Electric Vehicle with 4 In-Wheel Motors to Improve Handling and Stability

2020-04-14
2020-01-0993
More and more OEMs are interested in in-wheel-motor drive vehicles. One of the in-wheel-motor drive vehicle key technologies is multi-motor torque distribution. A direct yaw moment control strategy for torque distribution was introduced in this paper to improve 4 in-wheel-motor electric vehicle’s handling and stability. The control method consists of three components: feedback control based on target yaw rate, feedforward control based on current lateral acceleration and deceleration control based on under/oversteer situation. Feedback control is used to make vehicle’s real yaw rate following the driver’s target yaw rate and improve vehicle yaw rate response and stability. The target yaw rate is calculated by 2DOF vehicle model and limited by lateral acceleration and vehicle current steering condition. The feedforward control is used to increase the vehicle yaw rate gain and reduce the vehicle understeer characteristic when accelerating in a curve.
Technical Paper

Quantitative High Speed Stability Assessment of a Sports Utility Vehicle and Classification of Wind Gust Profiles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0677
The automotive trends of vehicles with lower aerodynamic drag and more powerful drivetrains have caused increasing concern regarding stability issues at high speeds, since more streamlined bodies show greater sensitivity to crosswinds. This is especially pronounced for high vehicles, such as sports utility vehicles. Besides, the competitiveness in the automotive industry requires faster development times and, thus, a need to evaluate the high speed stability performance in an early design phase, preferable using simulation tools. The usefulness of these simulation tools partly relies on realistic boundary conditions for the wind and quantitative measures for assessing stability without the subjective evaluation of experienced drivers. This study employs an on-road experimental measurements setup to define relevant wind conditions and to find an objective methodology to evaluate high speed stability.
Technical Paper

SUV Kinematics during a Steer-Induced Rollover Resolved Using Consumer-Grade Video, Laser Scans and Match-Moving Techniques

2020-04-14
2020-01-0642
Rollover crashes are complex events that generate motions in all six degrees of freedom (6DOF). Directly quantifying the angular rotations from video can be difficult and vehicle orientation as a function of time is often not reported for staged rollover crashes. Our goal was to evaluate the ability of using a match-moving technique and consumer-grade video cameras to quantify the roll, pitch and yaw angles and angular velocities of a rollover crash. We staged a steer-induced rollover of an SUV at 106 km/h. The vehicle was fitted with tri-axial accelerometers and angular rate sensors, and five consumer-grade video cameras (2 on tripods, 2 on drones, 1 handheld, ~30 fps) captured the event. Roll, pitch and yaw angles were determined from the video using specialized software.
Technical Paper

A Tire Work Load (TWL) Based Controller for Active Independent Front Steering System (AIFS)

2020-04-14
2020-01-0648
Vehicle Handling performance depends on many parameters. One of the most important parameters is the dynamic behavior of the steering system. However, steering system had been enhanced thoroughly over the past decade where Active Front Steering (AFS) is now present and other system as Active Independent Front Steering (AIFS) is currently in the research phase. Actually, AFS system adopt the front wheels’ angles base on the actual input steering angle from the driver according to vehicle handling dynamics performance. While, the AIFS controls the angle of each front wheel individually to avoid reaching the saturation limits of any of the front wheels’ adhesion. In this paper modeling and analysis of an AIFS is presented with Tire Work Load (TWL) based controller. Magic Formula tire model is implemented to represent the tire in lateral slip condition.
Technical Paper

Alleviating the Magnetic Effects on Magnetometers Using Vehicle Kinematics for Yaw Estimation for Autonomous Ground Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1025
Autonomous vehicle operation is dependent upon accurate position estimation and thus a major concern of implementing the autonomous navigation is obtaining robust and accurate data from sensors. This is especially true, in case of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor data. The IMU consists of a 3-axis gyro, 3-axis accelerometer, and 3-axis magnetometer. The IMU provides vehicle orientation in 3D space in terms of yaw, roll and pitch. Out of which, yaw is a major parameter to control the ground vehicle’s lateral position during navigation. The accelerometer is responsible for attitude (roll-pitch) estimates and magnetometer is responsible for yaw estimates. However, the magnetometer is prone to environmental magnetic disturbances which induce errors in the measurement.
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