Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Hot Cracking and Properties of TIG Welded AA2014 Alloy using Continuous and Pulsed Current

2021-10-01
2021-28-0262
AA2014 Aluminum alloys are most widely used for automobile and aerospace structures where specific strength is important. Hot cracking is a major problem while welding these alloys. In the present investigation, the metallurgical studies, viz, hot cracking sensitivity, microstructure and the mechanical properties, viz, hardness and tensile strength of the 4 mm thickness AA2014 aluminum alloy were studied using two different methods. The first method involves TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding with continuous current process and the second method involves TIG welding with pulsed current process. In both the process commercial argon pure gas was used as a shielding gas. The results showed that hot cracking sensitivity was decreased when the specimen was welded using pulsed current process compared to continuous current process.
Technical Paper

Studies on Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Aerospace 80A Grade Alloy

2021-10-01
2021-28-0241
This work inspects the metallurgical and tensile demeanor of pulsed current gas tungsten arc welded ERNiCrCoMo-1 filler wire on alloy 80A weldment. Defect free weldment was achieved in a four pass through PCGTA welding. The center of the weld microstructure is decorated with equiaxed dendritic structure and columnar dendritic structure. SEM analysis showed the existence of Mo, Fe and Ti secondary phase precipitation in the grain boundary region of the weld zone. Tensile testing was conducted to analysis the strength and ductility of weldment. The result showed that the tensile strength and ductility were lower than that of base metal (BM).
Technical Paper

Reduction of Aero-Acoustics Tonal Noise for a Tractor Cooling Fan

2021-09-22
2021-26-0299
Currently, noise pollution has become one of the major environmental concerns. To address this, new noise standards and regulations are being introduced and mandate the tractor OEM’s (Original Equipment Manufacturer) to meet the defined noise levels. Fan noise from the cooling fan is one of the key contributors to the overall vehicle noise. Hence, the reduction of fan noise at the source is a very important and critical task. Even though fan noise is broadband in nature its aerodynamic noise sources are most dominant at the higher harmonics of the blade pass frequency (BPF). The aerodynamic noise of a fan can be varied by changing the fan geometry viz., blade profile, fan width and diameter, number of blades, and ring on its periphery. A cooling fan is an important component of the cooling system which ensures adequate airflow for radiator cooling and avoids engine overheating with uniform heat dissipation.
Technical Paper

Aero Drag Improvement Study on Large Commercial Vehicles Using CFD Lead Approach

2021-09-22
2021-26-0424
Nowadays, E- commerce and logistics business model is booming in India with road transport as a major mode of delivery system using containers. As competition in such business are on rise, different ways of improving profit margins are being continuously evolved. One such scenario is to look at reducing transportation cost while reducing fuel consumption. Traditionally, aero dynamics of commercial vehicles have never been in focus during their product development although literature shows major part of total fuel energy is consumed in overcoming aerodynamic drag at and above 60 kmph in case of large commercial vehicle. Hence improving vehicle exterior aerodynamic performance gives opportunity to reduce fuel consumption and thereby business profitability. Also byproduct of this improvement is reduced emissions and meeting regulatory requirements.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of 6M Methodology as a Design for Assembly Tool for Developing Effective Aerostructures Assembly Process Designs

2021-08-27
2021-01-6001
Aerostructures assembly (ASA) is a vital process in any aircraft production phase that integrates individual detail parts, sub-assemblies, major assemblies, components, and systems into a final deliverable, a completed aircraft structure fit for flight. ASA in an aircraft’s entire product life cycle represents more than half the cost and time that is a significant portion of the total aircraft production cost. ASA depends on highly skilled manual labor work across the global aerospace supply chain for various assembly processes and subprocesses required for assembling detail parts into sub-assemblies and components to achieve the design intent of the load-carrying aerostructure that is airworthy for the complete operational cycle till disposal of an aircraft. The assembly processes can significantly impact quality, safety, and reliability and can affect an aircraft structure’s performance and design intent.
Research Report

Unsettled Technology Areas in Deterministic Assembly Approaches for Industry 4.0

2021-08-20
EPR2021018
Increased production rates and cost reduction are affecting manufacturing in all mobility industry sectors. One enabling methodology that could achieve these goals in the burgeoning “Industry 4.0” environment is the optimized deterministic assembly (DA) approach. It always forms the same final structure and has a strong link to design-for-assembly and design-for-automation. The entire supply chain is considered, with drastic savings at the final assembly line level through recurring costs and lead-time reduction. Unsettled Technology Areas in Deterministic Assembly Approaches for Industry 4.0 examines the evolution of previous assembly principles that lead up to and enable the DA approach, related simulation methodologies, and undefined and unsolved links between these domains. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Additive Manufacturing and Improved Sustainability in the Mobility Industry

2021-07-30
EPR2021015
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as “3D printing,” is often touted as a sustainable technology, especially for metal components, since it produces either net or near-net shapes versus traditionally machined pieces from larger mill products. While traditional machining from mill products is often the case in aerospace, most of the metal parts used in the world are made from flat-rolled metal and are quite efficient in utilization. Additionally, some aspects of the AM value chain are often not accounted for when determining sustainability. Unsettled Issues in Additive Manufacturing and Improved Sustainability in the Mobility Industry uses a set of scenarios to compare the sustainability of parts made using additive and conventional technologies for both the present and future (2040) states of manufacturing. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Technical Paper

Overload Identification System Based on Vibration State of Two-Axle Vehicle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0172
The non-contact overload recognition method refers to the method of detecting the vibration state of the vehicle through visual recognition without touching the vehicle, and then calculating the vehicle load in combination with the vehicle dynamics model to determine whether the passing vehicle is overloaded. Due to the convenience of detection, low cost of infrastructure and informatization, this method has great advantages in the field of overload identification. However, the model used in this recognition method is the single mass vibration model at present, which will have a large error due to the interaction between the front and rear suspension, and the position of the center of mass needs to be acquired in the recognition process, which is difficult in the actual identification process. In this paper, a vehicle vibration model containing two modes of vibration is proposed, and uses Sobol algorithm to analyze the parameter sensitivity of the model.
Technical Paper

Design, Aerodynamic Analysis, and Fabrication of Agricultural Drone

2021-04-06
2021-01-0809
In the present era adding technology and innovations in agriculture will help in increasing crop productivity. The motive to use development in agriculture is not only to increase productivity but also to take care of our farmers and future generations and one such way to achieve it is by using agricultural drones. One of the main sources (around 70%) of income in India is agriculture. The production rate of crops in agriculture is based on various parameters like temperature, humidity, rain, etc. which are natural factors and are not in farmer’s control. The field of agriculture also depends on some other factors like pests, disease, fertilizers, etc. which can be controlled by giving proper treatment to crops. Pesticides may increase the productivity of crops but they also affect human health. The WHO (World Health Organization) estimated one million cases of ill effects when spraying the pesticides in the crop filed manually.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Aerodynamic Development Using a Novel Reduced Turn-Around Time Approach

2021-04-06
2021-01-0944
Automotive manufacturers are under continuous pressure to satisfy changing consumer demands and regulatory requirements in an increasingly competitive landscape. This requires Aerodynamic departments to evaluate more design ideas in less development time. Aerodynamic departments are seeking to speed up their analysis in order to provide more feedback on performance to design and styling. Vehicle designers already leverage Computational Fluid Dynamics in order to quickly assess vehicle aerodynamic performance during product development. However, in order to meet modern development challenges, reducing simulation cost and turn-around-time is necessary. To that end, a novel approach to reducing simulation time of vehicle aerodynamics without sacrificing accuracy was tested in this paper. The methodology is called Transient Boundary Seeding, and enables the usage of a reduced simulation domain without the loss of information from the omitted region.
Technical Paper

Case study of scale pads height variation influences on vehicle mass distribution

2021-03-26
2020-36-0040
The mass monitoring of assembled vehicles is mandatory to understand if the current production vehicles is in accordance with the already certificated mass and in agreement with Inovar-Auto, Rota 2030 requirements and support vehicle development special the chassis components sizing and vehicle dynamics performance. It is important to highlight that a great part of that measurements happens on the field in a not ideal condition. However, must be a natural deviation of the measured masses due to environmental influences, as the height differences between scale pads for each vehicle corner. Once that a height difference must be impact the vehicle measured mass distribution it is necessary to understand these influences on the measurements results.
Technical Paper

Integrated Design and Control of Active Aerodynamic Features for High Performance Electric Vehicles

2021-03-26
2020-36-0079
Aerodynamics plays a major role in the design of all kinds of vehicles throughout automotive history. Initially the main topic under investigation was the aerodynamic drag reduction to achieve high-energy efficiency, however in the late ‘60s the vertical aerodynamic forces gained traction, particularly in high performance cars. The automotive market usually treats design, aerodynamics and vehicle dynamics in different departments. This paper proposes an integrated approach for the aerodynamics development in which a sport car is defined as reference vehicle. The objective of the concurrent engineering operation is to control the aerodynamic forces by implementing active surfaces control finally improving vehicle lap time. The vehicle dynamics analysis is carried out in cooperation with vehicle aerodynamics in order to perform the hardware and software design of the active system.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Programming for Optimization of Integrated Modular Avionics

2021-03-02
2021-01-0009
Every state-of-art aircraft has a complex distributed systems of avionics Line Replaceable Units/Modules (LRUs/LRMs), networked by several Data buses. These LRUs are becoming more complex because of an increasing number of new functions need to be integrated into avionics architecture. Moreover, the complexity of the overall avionics architecture and its impact on cable length, weight, power consumption, reliability and maintainability of avionics systems encouraged manufacturers to incorporate efficient avionics architectures in their aircraft design process. The evolution of avionics data buses and architectures have moved from distributed analog and federated architecture to digital integrated modular avionics (IMA). IMA architecture allows suppliers to develop their own LRUs/LRMs capable of specific features that can then be offered to Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) as Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) products.
Technical Paper

Augmentation of Gas-Turbine Performance Using Inlet Air Cooling and Turbine Blade Cooling: A Thermodynamic Approach

2021-03-02
2021-01-0031
A systematic and comprehensive first law analysis of a cooled gas turbine cycle subjected to vapor compressor inlet air cooling (VC-IAC) has been conducted in our study. Film air cooling technique has been implemented to cool the gas turbine (GT) buckets. The gas turbine is subjected to variation of various operating and ambient parameters and the corresponding effect is analyzed to find out the optimal one. The integration of VC-IAC has been reported to further enhance the plant specific work and plant efficiency of gas turbine cycle, the enhancement being higher in regions having a hot and dry climate. This increase in cycle performance due to VC-IAC has been found superior in case of bucket cooled GT cycle when compared to uncooled one. It has further been witnessed that the plant specific work increases by more than 0.35 % and the plant efficiency increases by little above 0.1 % for every 1o C drop in CIT.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Dynamic Contact Analysis in the Course of Aircraft Assembly Simulation

2021-03-02
2021-01-0004
A new numerical approach is proposed for studying possible vibrations caused by drilling during the assembly of aircraft structures. It is based on modelling of the stress-strain state of assembled structures by solving the corresponding transient contact problem. This approach is intended for fast dynamic analysis of the structure in the drilling area. It includes a time discretization algorithm, a special reduction technique and a reformulation of contact problem in terms of quadratic programming. The high speed of the algorithm allows one to combine the non-stationary calculations with variation analysis in order to check the possible deviations in the shape of assembled parts. The proposed approach is validated by commercial software and it is also applied for analysis of a test problem.
Technical Paper

Use of Cavitation Abrasive Surface Finishing to Improve the Fatigue Properties of Additive Manufactured Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V

2021-03-02
2021-01-0024
To improve the fatigue properties of additive manufactured (AM) titanium alloy Ti6Al4V, cavitation abrasive surface finishing (CASF) was proposed. With CASF, a high-speed water jet with cavitation, i.e. a cavitating jet, was injected into a water-filled chamber, to which abrasives were added. Abrasives accelerated by the jet created a smooth surface by removing un-melted particles on the surface. Simultaneously, cavitation impacts induced by the jet introduced compressive residual stress and work hardening into the surface, similar to cavitation peening. In this study, to demonstrate the improvement of the fatigue properties of AM Ti6Al4V owing to CASF, Ti6Al4V specimens manufactured through direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) and electron beam melting (EBM) were treated using CASF and cavitation peening, and tested using a plane bending fatigue test.
Journal Article

Application of Metrology, Statistics, Root Cause Analysis, and Cost of Quality to Enable Quality Improvements and Implementation of Statistical Process Controls for Acceptance of Large Complex Assemblies

2021-03-02
2021-01-0025
For new aircraft production, initial production typically reveals difficulty in achieving some assembly level tolerances which in turn lead to non-conformances at integration. With initial design, tooling, build plans, automation, and contracts with suppliers and partners being complete, the need arises to resolve these integration issues quickly and with minimum impact to production and cost targets. While root cause corrective action (RCCA) is a very well know process, this paper will examine some of the unique requirements and innovative solutions when addressing variation on large assemblies manufactured at various suppliers. Specifically, this paper will first review a completed airplane project (Project A) to improve fuselage circumferential and seat track joins and continue to the discussion on another application (Project B) on another aircraft type but having similar challenges.
Journal Article

High Strength Corrosion Resistant Steel for Aircraft Landing Gears and Structures

2021-03-02
2021-01-0028
High stressed aircraft landing gear and structural components are subjected to severe loading, corrosion and adverse environmental conditions. Materials such as high strength steels and high-strength titanium alloys are widely used for those critical components. The main criterions for choosing the materials are their strength and fatigue strength, toughness and ductility. 300M steel is widely used for high stress aircraft landing gears and structures; however, this steel is not corrosion-resistant and requires protective coatings. Cobalt-free, quenched and tempered high strength corrosion resistant steel alloy (“HSCR steel”) provides the same strength, ductility, and toughness as the 300M steel and while it possesses corrosion resistance in salt spray test. HSCR steel has showed no rust after the standard salt spray test in accordance with ASTM B117 using a 5% NaCl concentration, natural pH, at 95°F, for 200 hours test duration.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulation of the Electrostatic Coating Process: the Effect of Applied Voltage, Droplet Charge and Size on the Coating Efficiency

2021-03-02
2021-01-0022
Electrostatic Rotary Bell Sprayers (ERBSs) have been widely used in the painting industry, especially in the automotive and aerospace industries, due to their superior performance. The effects of the applied voltage and paint droplet charge values on the spraying pattern and coating Transfer Efficiency (TE) in the ERBS, including a high-voltage ring for spray cloud control, have been studied numerically in a wide range of droplet size distribution. A 3D Eulerian-Lagrangian numerical analysis is implemented under the framework of the OpenFOAM package. The fluid dynamics of turbulence, primary and secondary breakup procedures are modeled using a large eddy simulation (LES) model, Rosin-Rammler distribution, and modified TAB approach, respectively.
Journal Article

Development of a Non-Parametric Robot Calibration Method to Improve Drilling Accuracy

2021-03-02
2021-01-0003
The drilling of large quantities of repetitive holes during the manufacture of large aerospace components is often considered a key limiting factor with regards to production efficiency. Whilst the desire within aerospace is to use relatively cheap six axis robot arms with drilling end effector units, their poor accuracy remains an obstacle. Robot calibration presents a way of improving robot accuracy such that aerospace drilling tolerances can be met, without permanently committing metrology equipment to an automation cell during production. Extensive research has been conducted into robot calibration by correcting the kinematic model, known as parametric calibration. This method is highly complex, and calibrates the robot across the entire working volume. This is often not required in industrial drilling applications, as drilling routines are often contained within a smaller volume of the robot reach. In this paper, a non-parametric method of robot calibration is proposed.
X