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Technical Paper

Acoustic Study on Tubular Micro-perforated Flow Plug Sections in Vehicle Silencer’s Application

2022-06-15
2022-01-0933
Today, after a rapid publicity growth in the last decades, micro-perforated acoustic elements (MP) are widely applied for broadband sound absorption in internal combustion engine exhaust systems. Most typically the MP’s are exposed into a grazing flow conditions, for which a relatively good knowledge and respectable acoustic models exist. However, in certain exhaust system designs an alternative layout for tubular flow duct MP elements – the flow plug condition is useful. In this type of MP’s application all the exhaust gas flow is guided through the micro-perforated sections upstream and downstream of the plug, typically increasing the flow resistivity, and viscous damping of the propagating noise. This MP’s type also appears to be a considerably less studied one, whereas only a few dedicated papers can be found.
Technical Paper

FBS Decoupling at Suspension Level for Road Noise Applications

2022-06-15
2022-01-0977
With the electrification trend in the automotive industry, the main contributors to in-vehicle noise profile are represented by drivetrain, road and wind noise. To tackle the problem in an early stage, the industry is developing advanced techniques guaranteeing modularity and independent description of each contributor. Component-based Transfer Path Analysis (C-TPA) allows individual characterization of substructures that can be assembled into a virtual vehicle assembly, allowing the manufacturers to switch between different designs, to handle the increased number of vehicle variants and increasing complexity of products. A major challenge in this methodology is to describe the subsystem in its realistic operational boundary conditions and preload. Moreover, to measure such component, it should be free at the connection interfaces, which logically creates significant difficulties to create the required conditions during the test campaign.
Technical Paper

Modeling and controling acoustic performance of heterogenous materials made of recycled foams

2022-06-15
2022-01-0961
Recycling channels for foam materials, especially mattress foams, are set up. The foams are generally crushed into flakes and then assembled resulting in heterogeneous materials. These materials are more valuable if their properties are controlled. This work focuses on their acoustical properties. First, the properties of initial foams have to be estimated and the assembling process has to be analyzed in order to model the acoustic behavior of the reconstructed heterogeneous materials. The foams flakes are assembled with a binder and compressed during the manufacturing process. This work presents the methodology set up to predict the sound absorption of such heterogeneous materials based on recycled foams, from the estimation of the raw material properties to the final assembly. First, a large number of foams were measured in order to distinguish categories of materials. The data is stored in a database management software in order to perform some statistical analysis.
Technical Paper

Improving the sound transmission loss of an aircraft ceiling panel by locally resonant metamaterials

2022-06-15
2022-01-0960
Lightweight structures and designs have been widely used in a number of engineered structures due to ecological and environmental aspects. Nonetheless, lightweight structures typically experience a reduced noise and vibration reduction performance as a consequence of their increased stiffness-to-mass-ratio. To enhance it, novel low mass and compact countermeasures are often sought to address the challenges of achieving not only a good NVH reduction performance but also maintaining a lightweight design. Recently, locally resonant metamaterials have emerged and shown potential as a lightweight noise and vibration solution with a superior performance in tunable frequency ranges, known as stop bands i.e. frequency regions where free wave propagation is not allowed. These can be achieved by assembling resonant elements that are tuned to the targeted frequency range onto a host structure.
Technical Paper

Variational Autoencoders for Dimensionality Reduction of Automotive Vibroacoustic Models

2022-06-15
2022-01-0941
In order to predict reality as accurately as possible leads to the fact that numerical models in automotive vibroacoustic problems become increasingly high dimensional. This makes applications with a large number of model evaluations, e.g. optimization tasks or uncertainty quantification hard to solve, as they become computationally very expensive. Engineers are thus faced with the challenge of making decisions based on a limited number of model evaluations, which increases the need for data-efficient methods and reduced order models. In this contribution, variational autoencoders (VAEs) are used to reduce the dimensionality of the vibroacoustic model of a vehicle body and to find a low-dimensional latent representation of the system.
Technical Paper

Synergic product and process design for additive fabrication of lightweight vehicles

2022-06-14
2022-37-0028
Additive manufacturing is even more capturing the interest of vehicle manufactures. Its adoption enables design potentials such as parts customization, lightweighting or functional integration. Deep adoption of additive manufacturing and integration of topology optimization design techniques enable the calculation of light components, while additive manufacturing makes it feasible by adding subsequent layers of material. Design for additive manufacturing guidelines address these challenges by enabling the build of such complex shapes thanks to parts consolidation and features integration. Several prototypes of such lightweight design concerning chassis, body, and structures have been provided, but the lack of structured and objective approaches limits the application in normal production.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Design and Additive Manufacturing of a Fatigue-Critical Automotive Component

2022-06-14
2022-37-0026
Metal additive manufacturing is finding growing applicability in motorsports and high performance car sectors. Laser-Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) is the most developed AM technology for metals producing near-net-shape components of complex geometry that achieve outstanding lightweight targets. For these industrial sectors, aluminum alloys, AlSi10Mg among them, are especially relevant and widely used because readily processed with the industrial-grade equipment. A key issue in the widespread industrial acceptability of L-PBF is the structural integrity of these lightweight components when subjected to dynamic loading conditions because it requires in-depth knowledge of the fatigue behavior of L-PBF aluminum under the combined effect of stress gradients, residual stresses, surface condition and process-induced internal defects.
Technical Paper

Lightweight components manufactured with in-production composite scraps: mechanical properties and application perspectives

2022-06-14
2022-37-0027
In the last years, the design in the automotive sector is mainly led by emission reduction and circular economy. To satisfy the first perspective, composites materials are being increasingly used to produce lightweight structural and semi-structural components. However, the automotive mass production arises the problem of the end-of-life disposal of the vehicle and the reduction of the wastes environmental impact. The circular economy of the composite materials has therefore become a challenge of primary importance for car manufacturers and tier 1 suppliers. It is necessary to pursue a different economic model, combining traditional raw materials with the intensive use of materials from recycling processes. New technologies are being studied and developed concerning the reuse of in-line production scraps with out-of-autoclave process that makes them desirable for high production rate applications.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Analysis of Temperature Distribution in Monel-Copper Joints in Rotary Friction Welding

2022-05-26
2022-26-0004
Rotary friction Welding (RFW) has wide application in the aerospace industry for manufacturing large volume fuel tanks due to its exceptional advantages, including low distortion, less defects, and high mechanical joint properties. The weld interface quality is limited to poor temperature distribution, improper frictional pressure, and time to weld. The present study is to optimize the friction welding parameters of the Monel-Copper joint by rotary friction welding such as frictional pressure (20bar, 25bar, 30bar, and 35bar), upset pressure (15bar, 20bar, 25bar, and 30bar), and frictional time (5 sec, 7sec, 9sec, and 11sec). The friction temperatures of the weld joints are noted during the welding process. The input process parameters have been optimized by design of experiment and analysed by the ANOVA method. The temperature and pressure distribution of the weld joints are evaluated by finite element analysis software.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Performing Submodel Analysis for Random Vibration Problems using Modal Analysis Results

2022-05-26
2022-26-0012
The FE analysis of complex systems with lot of intricate features and fillets modeled in detail would result in a huge FE model size making it difficult to handle. Therefore, to reduce the computation time, defeaturing of such regions are carried out as a common practice and these critical stress concentration regions can be studied using submodeling approach later based on response superimposed from the global models. This method is widely practiced and is quite easy to implement for static and harmonic analysis problems. However, there is no well documented methodology exists for submodeling in the random vibration environment. In case of Random vibration analysis, the cut boundary displacements from Power Spectral Density (PSD) analysis would result in unrealistic stresses.
Technical Paper

Artificial Intelligence in Air Cargo System

2022-05-26
2022-26-0022
Air Cargo is one of the major modes of cargo transportation in the world. It is helping to transport goods swiftly across the globe during emergencies like pandemic, evacuation, and natural calamities etc. It plays a key role in economy of a country by exporting and importing goods across the globe. This business is growing every YOY with increase in demand for e-Commerce and globalization. It is also important to keep up the efficiency of the system as the business demand grows. This paper focuses on Artificial Intelligence (AI) implementation can reduce the inefficiency and inconsistency due to the manual intervention in cargo operation in different areas.
Technical Paper

Additive Manufacturing of Threaded Parts for Aerospace Applications

2022-05-26
2022-26-0030
Additive manufacturing is a suitable process to produce complex net shape parts, and prototypes. Additive Manufacturing bringing in both design and industrial revolution, in various industrial sectors. In aerospace industry today, Additive Manufacturing is bringing lots of advantages and applications and even though threaded parts which are additively manufactured are being researched, study on the torque requirements for these parts have not been explored in detail. In this study we are exploring this and trying to establish a methodology for torque calculation of AM threaded parts. This is going to give many benefits like reduced part cost, manufacturing and installation time and increased safety. The key features of such parts which makes AM as a best manufacturing method are - angled internal grove, provision for sealant for complete sealing, customized tread geometry, multiple threaded regions within the part etc.
Research Report

The Right Level of Automation for Industry 4.0

2022-05-16
EPR2022013
In its entirety, automation is part of an integrated, multi-disciplinary product development process including the design, process, production, logistics, and systems approach—it depends on all these areas, but it also influences them as well. Automation in aerospace manufacturing is present throughout the entire supply chain, from elementary part manufacturing at suppliers up to final assembly, and a clear understanding of all the benefits (and drawbacks) of automation would help designers and engineers select the right designs for and levels of automation. The Right Level of Automation Within Industry 4.0 examines all impacts of automation that should be known by designers, manufacturers, and companies before investments in automation-related decisions are made—regardless of the which industry they work in. The process and the set of criteria discussed in this report will help decision makers select the right level of automation.
Research Report

Deployment of Parallel Kinematic Machines in Manufacturing

2022-04-27
EPR2022010
The field of parallel kinematics was viewed as being potentially transformational in manufacturing, having multiple potential advantages over conventional serial machine tools and robots. However, the technology never quite achieved market penetration or broad success envisaged. Yet, many of the inherent advantages still exist in terms of stiffness, force capability, and flexibility when compared to more conventional machine structures. Deployment of Parallel Kinematic Machines in Manufacturing examines why parallel kinematic machines have not lived up to original excitement and market interest and what needs to be done to rekindle that interest. A number of key questions and issues need to be explored to advance the technology further. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Oil/Water Separation by CFD Analysis with Algebraic Eulerian Model

2022-04-13
2022-01-5025
In commercial vehicles, compressed air is used as an energy source for the air brake system. A compressor driven by engine is used to compress and store air in reservoirs at higher pressure. Moisture in atmospheric air condenses into water when compressed. Air dryer with desiccant filter is used to remove water to supply dry air. Higher oil carryover from compressor may also result in more oil particles being pumped into the system. Life of desiccant used in air dryer will be reduced due to deposition of these oil particles. Adding a mechanical condensate separator before air dryer removes heavier oil/water particle from compressed air by centrifugal action. Thus, it helps in extending the life of desiccant in air dryer and protects downstream products of braking system from rust formation due to moisture content.
Technical Paper

A Study on Scenario Generalization and Optimization for ADS

2022-03-31
2022-01-7007
The development of automated driving systems and functions requires a tremendous amount of testing. The function oriented and data driven approaches made a huge leap forward in the field. As one of the major markets for the automotive industry, China is also evolving as a major player. Any company in any country can benefit from simulation testing with a free standard-suite focusing on simulation and beyond. The complexity of scenarios across the globe with their divergence road users and wide-ranging parameters creates the need for powerful and broadly-applied standards in the future. In this paper, it provided a method with the given cut in examples on how this procedure could be implemented and used in a broader manner.
Technical Paper

Laser-Based In-Exhaust Gas Sensor for On-Road Vehicles

2022-03-29
2022-01-0534
A novel laser-absorption gas sensing apparaOn-vehicle Testing at VERtus capable of measuring NO directly within vehicle exhaust was developed and tested. The sensor design was enabled by key advances in the construction of optical probes that are sufficiently compact for deployment in real-world exhaust systems and can survive the harsh, high-temperature, and strongly vibrating environment typical of exhaust streams. Prototype test campaigns were conducted at high-temperature flow facilities intended to simulate exhaust gas conditions and within the exhaust of vehicles mounted on a chassis dynamometer. Results from these tests demonstrated that the sensor prototype is fundamentally free of cross-interference with competing species in the exhaust stream, can achieve a 1 ppmv NO detection limit, and can be operated across the full range of thermodynamic conditions expected for typical vehicle exhausts.
Technical Paper

Novel Pt/Rh Coated Gasoline Particulate Filter Development and Its Application

2022-03-29
2022-01-0545
With the stringent China6 legislation implementation in 2020, Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPF) are widely applied to control Particulate Number (PN), THC, CO, and NOx emissions from gasoline engines. The typical GPF product in the market is usually coated with a Pd/Rh three-way catalyst (TWC) layer. In this work, a novel and cost-effective GPF was achieved through Pd substitution with lower price of Pt in a novel Pt/Rh coating technology. This novel Pt/Rh GPF was evaluated for back pressure under clean and soot loaded conditions, PN Filtration efficiency and TWC activity. When compared with the commercial product of Pd/Rh GPF, the novel Pt/Rh GPF had 15% lower clean BP contribution, 25% lower back pressure with 2 g/L soot loading, while achieving equivalent PN filtration efficiency. The TWC activity of this novel Pt/Rh GPF was investigated after multiple aging including Four Mode bench aging and 1050 °C oven aging.
Technical Paper

OBD Limit Part Creation Using DFSS Methodology: NMHC Catalyst Emissions Control System

2022-03-29
2022-01-0553
In the light duty diesel segment, the need persists for an advanced control system to monitor the health of an aftertreatment system throughout a vehicle’s life in order to maintain compliance with ever tightening emissions levels. In on-board diagnostics (OBD), every diagnostic is validated during development stages to detect when a system under monitoring of that diagnostic has failed. This necessitates the need to create parts which represent a failure that would be observed on the vehicle. These failed parts, referred to as limit or threshold parts, are developed through a limit part creation process. Although there are commonalities amongst Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), each OEM has their own detection logic which will require a unique and specific limit part. Various methods exist for creating these limit parts, and each method produces a different combination of ability to detect the failure and its associated tailpipe emissions.
Technical Paper

RDE Plus - Rapid Characterisation of Vehicle and Powertrain Performance and Emissions using Dynamic Design of Experiments, Digital Twin and Virtual Driving Methodologies

2022-03-29
2022-01-0580
Vehicle manufacturers will need to overhaul current development methods used to guarantee emissions compliance with the introduction of more stringent emissions legislation. Climatic boundaries of temperature and altitude and in-service conformity mileage compliance will likely be extended alongside alterations to trip dynamics; this will require robust calibrations for emissions compliance. Consequently, assessing this vast array of scenarios will be impossible with physical testing of prototype vehicles and overseas climatic testing alone. To reduce reliance on physical testing for compliance, a frontloading vehicle and powertrain development programme has been established where road, chassis dynamometer, Engine-in-the-Loop (EiL) and digital twin virtual toolset methodologies are used.
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