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Technical Paper

Handwritten Script Generated Colour Code Encryption System

2021-09-22
2021-26-0228
Abstract: This paper deals with an alternate vehicle security System. Mechanical keys and FOB keys in present usage are prone to Key duplication and hacking by signal amplification relay attack, which results in more car theft cases. Even advanced security system like finger print detection can also be hacked by deep master finger prints created using machine learning. So security system built on the base of some physical entity can be violated by coping or stealing, but a skill of a person cannot be imitated or copied. The passcodes to lock and unlock vehicle are defined by OEM and it can be tracked by unauthorized persons based on Vehicle Identification Number. It is not trustworthy to leave our passcodes to third party like dealers. This paper explains in detail about Hand written Script generated colour codes. In this technique customer defines the passcode which is generated by converting the authorized person’s handwriting into a colour code.
Technical Paper

SOUND POWER ASSESSMENT, NOISE SOURCE IDENTIFICATION & DIRECTIVITY ANALYSIS OF COMPACTION MACHINES

2021-09-22
2021-26-0281
NVH has gained importance in the field of earth moving equipment due to the demand of quieter machines and stringent in-cab as well as exterior noise emission norms. Several parts of the world have adopted strict legislation on noise emission by earth moving equipment, but many countries have not adopted any regulations till date. This paper mainly focusses on helping governing bodies as well as machine manufacturers in adopting simple yet accurate testing method for compaction machine. The study consists of directivity analysis, noise source identification & noise source ranking and 4-point microphone position sound power evaluation method applied to compactors with wide range of engine power ratings. All the tests in 4-point method and directivity analysis were performed under stationary as well as dynamic conditions.
Technical Paper

Mitigation of Engine Sub-system Noise in Two Wheeler Using Crank Angle Domain Analysis

2021-09-22
2021-26-0306
One of the main objective of manufacturer is to achieve high productivity with low cost while increasing the customer satisfaction. With increased competition in the automotive sector the product quality is defined not only from fuel economy and durability perspective but also Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH), which plays a vital role in attracting the customers. In two wheeler, engine is dominant noise source and its quality improvement is utmost priority. Now a days, several signal processing and sensing techniques are developed for noise source identification of an engine but precise source identification can be achieved only by advanced analysis technique. This paper focuses on a procedure for noise source identification from engine sub-system viz. valve operation and its generation mechanism using crank angle domain analysis in two wheeler engine. Baseline noise measurements were carried out for critical frequency identification.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Hydro-Mechanical Transmission System Simulations for Model-Guided Assessment of Complex Shift Sequence

2021-04-06
2021-01-0715
Model-guided development of drivetrain control and calibration is a key enabler of robust and efficient vehicle design process. A number of CAE tools are available today for modeling hydro-mechanical systems. Automatic transmission behaviors are well understood to effectively tune the model parameters for targeted applications. Drivetrain models provide physical insight for understanding the effects of component interactions on system behaviors. They are also widely used in HIL/SIL environments to debug control strategies. Nonetheless, it is still a challenge to predict shift quality, especially during a sequence of multiple events, with enough accuracy to support model-guided control design and calibration. The inclusion of hydraulic circuits in simulation models often results in challenges for numerical simulation.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle Dimensions Dynamic Detection Method Based on Image Recognition

2021-04-06
2021-01-0167
The acquisition of vehicle dimensions in a vehicle’s moving process has a wide application in road monitoring, transportation, vehicle model recognition and non-contact overload recognition. At present, the detection of the vehicle dimensions mostly adopts the methods of human visual inspection and tool detection, which has a low detection efficiency and difficult to replicate on a large scale. Based on the image background subtraction method, this paper proposes a vehicle dimensions detection method, which can realize real-time detection of road vehicle dimensions. This method uses an adaptive Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to establish a background model based on the video stream. Initially, the moving target image is obtained by the background subtraction method, and then the edge detection under the Canny operator and Hough transform circle detection are performed on the image to obtain the pixel dimension of the vehicle's outline.
Technical Paper

Overload Identification System Based on Vibration State of Two-Axle Vehicle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0172
The non-contact overload recognition method refers to the method of detecting the vibration state of the vehicle through visual recognition without touching the vehicle, and then calculating the vehicle load in combination with the vehicle dynamics model to determine whether the passing vehicle is overloaded. Due to the convenience of detection, low cost of infrastructure and informatization, this method has great advantages in the field of overload identification. However, the model used in this recognition method is the single mass vibration model at present, which will have a large error due to the interaction between the front and rear suspension, and the position of the center of mass needs to be acquired in the recognition process, which is difficult in the actual identification process. In this paper, a vehicle vibration model containing two modes of vibration is proposed, and uses Sobol algorithm to analyze the parameter sensitivity of the model.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Voice Biometrics for Identification and Authentication

2021-04-06
2021-01-0262
The work presented here is part of the research done in the field of voice biometrics. This paper helps to understand the state-of-the-art in speaker recognition technology potentially capable of solving challenges related to speaker identification (to identify a speaker among multiple speakers) and speaker verification/authentication (to recognize the current speaking person at a pre-defined access level and authenticate accordingly). The research was focused on performing an unbiased evaluation of two individual voice biometric services. The level of accuracy in identifying and authenticating individuals using these services provides an insight into the current state of technology and the state of what other dual authentication methods could be used to achieve a desired True Acceptance Rate (TAR) and False Acceptance Rates (FAR).
Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems in Preventing System-Relevant Crashes

2021-04-06
2021-01-0869
This retrospective cohort study uses survival analysis to estimate the effectiveness of Toyota ADAS in helping prevent system-relevant crashes. Toyota production data were merged with police reported crash files from eight U.S. states for crash years 2015 up to 2019 by 17-digit vehicle identification number (VIN). System-relevant crash scenarios included: striking vehicle in front-to-rear, single vehicle run-off-the-road, same-direction sideswipe, head-on, and pedestrian struck. The study vehicle cohort included 11 Toyota/Lexus models, model years 2015 through 2018, sold in the eight study states. ADAS technologies studied included automatic emergency braking (AEB), lane departure warning (LDW), lane keeping assistance (LKA), blind spot monitoring (BSM) and pedestrian automatic emergency braking (PedAEB). Among the study cohort of 2,394,913 vehicles, police reported 308,490 crashes. The crude crash rate ratio (CRR) was 0.61 for AEB-equipped versus non-equipped vehicles.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Crash Data from a 2012 Hyundai Genesis Coupe Event Data Recorder

2021-04-06
2021-01-0905
2012 Hyundai Genesis Coupes were manufactured with Airbag Control Modules (ACMs) with Event Data Recorder (EDR) functionality to record crash-related data. However, 2013 is the first model year supported by the download tool and software manufactured for Hyundai vehicles and distributed by Global Information Technologies (GIT) America, Inc. Prior published research has shown that EDR data can be collected from pre-2013 Hyundai vehicles using the GIT tool and some data elements from 2012 and earlier model year Hyundai vehicles are accurately translated - most notably, vehicle speed. To specifically examine the EDR data recorded by a 2012 Hyundai Genesis Coupe, two instrumented crash tests were conducted. Both tests involved broadside impacts into a second stationary vehicle and resulted in a non-deployment EDR recording. The Hyundai was human driven during both crash tests.
Technical Paper

A Data-Driven Approach to Determine the Single Droplet Post-Impingement Pattern on a Dry Wall Using Statistical Machine Learning Classification Methods

2021-04-06
2021-01-0552
The study of spray-wall interaction is of great importance to understand the dynamics during fuel-surface impingement process in modern internal combustion engines. The identification of droplet post-impingement pattern (contact, transition, non-contact) and droplet characteristics can quantitatively provide an estimation of energy transfer for spray-wall interaction, thus further influencing air-fuel mixing and emissions under combusting conditions. Theoretical criteria of single droplet post-impingement pattern on a dry wall have been experimentally and numerically studied by many researchers to quantify the hydrodynamic droplet behaviors. However, apart from model fidelity, another issue is the scalability. A theoretical criterion developed from one case might not be well suited to another scenario. In this paper, a data-driven approach for single droplet-dry wall post-impingement pattern utilizing arithmetical machine learning classification methods is proposed and demonstrated.
Journal Article

Modeling Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Between Co-Located RF Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0153
Today's vehicles are outfitted with more radio frequency (RF) systems operating in more frequency ranges than could have been imagined a generation ago. With the move to autonomous vehicles and increased driver assistance capability, the number of RF systems on any single vehicle is set to increase even more in the coming years. Further, passengers carry many devices into the vehicle and those devices often contain multiple RF systems in them. This paper will introduce a procedure and combined analysis/measurement method for proactively predicting the RF environment on a given vehicle for early identification of potential in-band or out-of-band interference. It will take into account main passbands, but also harmonics, spurious emissions, mixer products and other considerations. It will detail an iterative approach to modeling that starts with information available early in product development and becomes more refined as the development lifecycle progresses towards launch.
Journal Article

Do Driver Characteristics and Crash Conditions Modify the Effectiveness of Automatic Emergency Braking?

2021-04-06
2021-01-0874
Studies of automatic emergency braking (AEB) find that AEB-equipped vehicles are around half as likely to crash. This study examines whether driver characteristics and road and weather conditions modify this preventive effect of AEB. Toyota production data were merged with police reported crash files from eight U.S. states for crash years 2015 up to 2019 by 17-digit vehicle identification number (VIN). Using a case-control design, this study investigated the relationship of AEB presence with being a case vehicle in a system-relevant crash (the striking vehicle in front-to-rear crash; n=30,056) versus an AEB non-relevant control vehicle (the struck vehicle in a front-to-rear crash; n=62,820). The analysis was stratified by driver characteristics and by weather and road conditions. Logistic regression modeled the relationship, controlling for exposure (vehicle-days) and possible confounding factors.
Technical Paper

A Safety Analysis and Verification Framework for Autonomous Vehicles Based on the Identification of Triggering Events

2021-01-22
2021-01-5010
For high-level autonomous vehicles, under many circumstances, accidents are not caused by functional failures, but by system performance limitations and human misuses. ISO 21448 defines this kind of safety issue as safety of the intended functionality (SOTIF). However, most of SOTIF-related researches focus on hazard identification and risk evaluation, as well as verification and validation. There is still lack of public systematic identification method for triggering events. Therefore, this paper proposes an identification framework for triggering events which are related to system performance limitations and human misuses. In the aspect of system performance limitations, there are four steps, which are the specification of the research target, the analysis of influencing factors, the identification of triggering events, and the verification test. In the aspect of human misuses, triggering events can be identified based on the guide words for human error.
Technical Paper

Analysis on the Impact of Bus Only Access Road and Bus Stop on Traffic Operation at Intersection

2020-12-30
2020-01-5211
In order to solve the problem of road traffic congestion in urban central area, this paper explores the influence of different bus lanes on traffic operation. In this paper, the detector will be used to identify the operation status of public transport vehicles in real time, and traffic data will be obtained by bayonet electronic police, RFID, GPS, baidu map and field volume, including road layout, intersection distribution, public transport facilities, roadside parking, etc., as well as the distribution of infrastructure such as intersection signal timing scheme and bus priority signal timing. Finally, taking the intersection group of Qianjin Road and Changjiang Road in Kunshan City as an example, VISSIM simulation is carried out from three locations of right turn lane bus only entrance lane, through lane bus only entrance road and left turn lane bus only entrance road, and explores the optimization scheme.
Technical Paper

Fault-Tolerant Flight Control System Design Based on Classification of Faults

2020-10-01
2020-01-6003
The major emphasis in Fault-Tolerant Flight Control (FTFC) System is towards Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD). FDD is used to isolate the aircraft’s fault and provides information for reconfiguration mechanisms to recover the system from a faulty state. In this paper, based on the classification of faults in actuators and sensors, FTFC system design methods are proposed while retaining the existing flight control system (FCS) architecture. Fault scenarios broadly can be classified as one that can be identified and addressed using a sensor or actuator redundancy management (RM) algorithm and the other that need to be identified using real-time system identification techniques. The reconfiguration carried out for the former is termed as passive FTFC, whereas the latter as active FTFC.
Journal Article

Coarse Mesh RIFF Method to Identify the Homogenized Flexural and Shear Complex Moduli of Composite Beams

2020-09-30
2020-01-1579
This paper aims at identifying the flexural and shear complex moduli of a sandwich beam by simply measuring the displacement field and applying an inverse resolution of the Timoshenko beam problem. A first development [1] employed the RIFF technique (from the french "Resolution Inverse Filtrée Fenêtrée") [2]. This article presents an improvement, using the RIC method ("Résolution Inverse Corrigée" in french) that involves a correction of the finite difference scheme as originally suggested in [3]. By applying this method specifically to the Timoshenko beam problem [4], one can asses the viscoelastic parameters of composite beams, based on a coarse mesh measurement of the displacement field using a simple accelerometer and an instrumented hammer. An experimental validation conducted on a sandwich honeycomb beam with fibreglass faces allows satisfactory identifications despite a low spatial resolution (down to 2.1 samples per wavelength).
Journal Article

Parameter Identification of a Power Loss Model for Vehicle Transmissions Based on Sensitivity Analysis

2020-09-15
2020-01-2244
As the transmission design directly impacts drive unite operation and power flow to the driveline, the transmission power loss is a critical target in the drivetrain development. The demand of more precise and more efficient power loss prediction has therefore increased significantly, which highlights the need of new methodologies in order to optimize the power loss model for vehicle transmissions. The possible power losses that exist in the power flow path, are gear mesh losses, gear churning losses, gear windage losses, bearing losses, synchronizer losses and sealing losses. Thanks to the decades of research, analytical models are available for the prediction of these component losses, which could deliver power loss distributions and overall efficiency maps of complex transmissions. The aim of this paper is to introduce a methodology to improve the accuracy of a chosen power loss model on a system level.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine-Out Soot Emissions and the Frequency of Regeneration on Gasoline Particulate Filter Efficiency

2020-04-14
2020-01-1431
Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are an important aftertreatment system that enables gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to meet current emission standardsn note of GPFs may need to improonont accumulates on the GPF during engine operation. GPFs are often ‘pa during vehicle operation when the exhaust is sufficiently hot and it contains sufficient oxygen. This paper explores the effect that engine-out soot emissions and the frequency of GPF regeneration have on GPF filtration efficiency. Two GPF technologies were tested on two engine dynamometers as well as two production vehicles on a chassis dynamometer. The engines span a wide range of engine-out particle emissions (a range of almost one order of magnitude). The filtration efficiency of the GPFs were measured with a regulation-compliant particle number system (non-volatile particles > 23 nm), as well as with a particle counter with a lower cutoff of 2.5 nm, and with a differential mobility spectrometer.
Technical Paper

Volume of Fluid vs. Cavitation CFD-Models to Calculate Drag Torque in Multi-Plate Clutches

2020-04-14
2020-01-0495
Wet-running multi-plate clutches and brakes are important components of modern powershift gearboxes and industrial powertrains. In the open stage, drag losses occur due to fluid shear. The identification of drag losses is possible by experiment or CFD-simulation. For the calculation of the complex fluid flow of an open clutch, CFD-approaches such as the volume of fluid (vof) method or the Singhal cavitation model are applicable. Every method has its own specific characteristics. This contribution sets up CFD-calculation models for different clutches with diverse groove designs. We present results of calculations in various operating conditions obtained from the Singhal cavitation model and the vof method. The usage of modern commercial CFD-Tools (Simerics MP+) results in short calculation times.
Technical Paper

Fault Identification of Assembly Processes Using Fuzzy Set Theory

2020-04-14
2020-01-0487
Effective identification of sources of faults in modern manufacturing systems play a critical role in their performance and productivity. Tracking faults in a typical manufacturing system is inherently an inverse problem which makes it more challenging and difficult to solve. Presented in this article is the development of a new methodology for fault identification and root-cause analysis of complex assembly systems. A combination of a knowledge-based system and fuzzy set theory is used to develop this new technique, which is an intelligent system that mimics the behavior of an expert in the field, and can trace back the source or sources of the fault to the relevant station. Presented are the concepts of faults, their detection in an assembly line, and their generic characteristics. Study of the fault's fundamental properties reveals that there are certain levels of uncertainty involved in describing them.
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