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Technical Paper

Investigation of an Automated Potting Process for High Volume Insert Assembly in Honeycomb Structures

2022-03-08
2022-01-0010
Threaded, potted inserts are commonly used as a standard connecting element for sandwich components, which are used for aircraft interior. Since they often offer the only detachable connection, they are used in very high quantities. To ensure a material bond between the inserts and the honeycomb structure, the joint is filled with adhesive. Despite the high number of inserts, this process is performed manually. Recent research has shown approaches for automated gripping and placement of the inserts by an industrial robot and yields high potential for cost savings and increased productivity. The automated adhesive insertion, so called potting, has not been considered so far, but is an essential contribution to the full automation of the entire process chain. The amount of adhesive varies depending on the type of insert and its position on the honeycomb structure.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Engineering-based Evaluation of a Purpose-built Tooling Concept for the Electroplating of Functional Coatings on Aerospace Components

2022-03-08
2022-01-0045
Industrial hard chrome plating is a rather complex, lengthy and labour-intensive process: typically, the low cathodic current efficiency of Cr plating baths results in limited deposition rates, taking an hour to deposit a thickness of 25 mm on any size of the part. In the majority of cases, the hard Cr plating process requires the use of tooling structures, making the process strongly operator-dependent and therefore, highly prone to errors. According to the Fokker Landing Gear BV team, operator-independence as well as process simplification are expected to be achieved by developing a purpose-built tooling concept. An intelligent support of employees in their increasingly complex work is also sought and thus far addressed by implementation of modern smart technologies. One of them is computer modeling and simulation, which enables to mirror the physical world in a virtual model.
Technical Paper

Influence of hot extrusion on microstructure and slurry erosive behaviour of Al6061-Si3N4-Cf hybrid composite

2022-03-08
2022-01-0049
In recent decades, silicon nitride (Si3N4) & carbon fibres (Cf) have been the most popular reinforcements in the production of MMCs due to their superior wear & corrosion resistance. Al6061 is the most sought after matrix alloy owing to its excellent formability among all Al alloys. Several researchers have reported on sliding wear and corrosion properties of cast composite with Cf & Si3N4 as reinforcements but limited information is available related to slurry erosive wear behaviour of hot extruded hybrid MMCs with Cf as one of the reinforcement. In the light of above, the current work is aimed at investigating the erosive wear behaviour of Al6061 dispersed with Si3N4 (6 wt %) and Cf (1 wt %) hybrid MMC after hot extrusion. Stir casting was used to disperse electroless Ni coated with Si3N4 & copper coated with Cf in Al6061 followed by hot extrusion. Microstructural studies were conducted on cast & hot extruded alloy, it's composite & hybrid composite.
Technical Paper

Development of Exfoliated Graphite using Innovative Chemical Technique for Aerospace Applications

2022-03-08
2022-01-0051
Several conventional methods on preparation of exfoliated graphite are in practice. However, their major limitations are poor quality of exfoliated graphite, lower yield, more expensive with higher processing time. To address these issues, a unique method for development of exfoliation of graphite using tri-solvents namely Water, Ethanol and Acetic acid is attempted in the present work. Ethanol acts as a supporting group for the long term stable dispersions of ex-graphite nanosheets. Glacial acetic acid, which readily dissolves in water, penetrates through the layers of graphite sheets and breaks the -C=C bond force between layers with the help of stirring and sonication resulting in exfoliation of graphite layers. Exfoliated graphite nanosheets were produced by using optimized mixtures of water, acetic acid and ethanol. XRD, SEM and FTIR studies have been carried out on the developed exfoliated graphite.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Residual Stresses in Direct Metal Laser Sintering of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Numerical simulation

2022-03-08
2022-01-0047
This paper presents the efforts made in numerical simulation of residual stresses that are induced in Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) of Ti-6Al-4V alloy structures. The DMLS process is one of the Additive manufacturing processes that is widely used in the manufacturing of metal bodies used in automotive, aerospace and medical applications. However, the major challenge faced in this process is residual stresses that are caused by large thermal gradients. The DMLS manufactured Ti-6Al-4V has lower ductility when compared to hot work ad martensite structure formed due to the rapid solidification. Residual stresses imposed in them are a key contributor to these characteristics, Despite the fact that post-processing techniques such as hot working can alleviate some of the stresses, Some residual stress effects, like as warping and thermal stress-related cracking, are unaffected by post-processing.
Technical Paper

Application of Combined Electric Arc Coatings for Parts and Units of Vehicles Recovery in Repair Technologies

2021-10-15
2021-01-5100
This paper is devoted to the methods of increasing wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and service life of parts and assemblies of vehicles during their strengthening and renovation by the use of combined electric arc spraying (EAS) coatings. High density, adhesion, and microhardness of EAS coatings are provided by activation of the spraying process and subsequent nitriding of the sprayed coatings. This study is about the influence of technological parameters of the spraying process—composition, diameter and feed rate of sprayed wires, arc power, spray gas flow rate, spraying distance, speed of spraying spot movement, dispersion of spraying, etc.—on the qualitative characteristics of EAS coatings. The possibility of using pulsed ion nitriding (PIN) to improve the operational characteristics of EAS coatings made of wire materials is considered.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Tribological Characteristics of Stir Cum Squeeze Cast AlSi7Mg with x wt % Flyash and 3wt % MoS2 Hybrid Composites

2021-10-01
2021-28-0260
his research work aims to investigate the effect of flyash and MoS2 lubricant particles on the tribological properties of AlSi7Mg alloy fabricated through stir cum squeeze casting process. AlSi7Mg alloy is a supreme favourable industrial aluminium alloy owing to its exceptional casting ability, corrosion resistance and good strength to weight ratio. Stir casting is an effective and capable processing route for making aluminum composites with enhanced properties. Additionally, to achieve enhanced properties and a pore-free structure, stir cum squeeze casting processing was used to fabricate aluminium matrix composites. In the experimental investigation, AlSi7Mg alloy was reinforced with 0, 5, 10wt% flyash and 3wt% MoS2 and processed by stir cum squeeze casting method.
Technical Paper

Effect of Weld Speed on Joint Quality of Nd: YAG Laser Welded Inconel 718 Alloy Weldments

2021-10-01
2021-28-0263
Inconel 718, a nickel based superalloy is used in all kinds of applications where outstanding strength and corrosion resistance are essential. The Inconel 718 alloys joints from sheets of 1mm thickness are fabricated using a 4 kW Nd: YAG laser welding equipment. The influence of welding speed on the weld bead ripples, weld morphology, defects and the mechanical properties are investigated. Microstructure of the weld fusion zone, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and the weld ripple structure were analyzed using optical microscope and the scanning electron microscope. The weldments obtained were with nominal cracks, porosity and shape imperfections that signifying Nd: YAG laser welding as an effective method for fabricating joints of Inconel 718 of thickness 1mm. The weld fusion zone consists of fine dendritic structure and HAZ is found with columnar grain structure.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Hot Cracking and Properties of TIG Welded AA2014 Alloy using Continuous and Pulsed Current

2021-10-01
2021-28-0262
AA2014 Aluminum alloys are most widely used for automobile and aerospace structures where specific strength is important. Hot cracking is a major problem while welding these alloys. In the present investigation, the metallurgical studies, viz, hot cracking sensitivity, microstructure and the mechanical properties, viz, hardness and tensile strength of the 4 mm thickness AA2014 aluminum alloy were studied using two different methods. The first method involves TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding with continuous current process and the second method involves TIG welding with pulsed current process. In both the process commercial argon pure gas was used as a shielding gas. The results showed that hot cracking sensitivity was decreased when the specimen was welded using pulsed current process compared to continuous current process.
Technical Paper

Microstructural Changes and Mechanical Properties Upgrading Over Friction Stir Processing Strategies on A356 Alloy with Tungsten Nano Particle Surface Layer Composites

2021-10-01
2021-28-0269
Friction stir processing (FSP) is a typical process for refinement changes of microstructure, enhance material's mechanical properties, and fabricating surface layer composites. The cast A356 surface composites were fabricated via Friction Stir Processing (FSP) and the enhancement of it’s metallurgical and mechanical properties are studied and conveyed in this research study. The three combinations of test samples of FSP'ed cast A356 alloy, FSP'ed cast A356 FSP with tungsten nanoparticle addition (5 and 10 vol%) were considered to fabrication under fixed parametric conditions like tool rotational speed of 1000 rpm, a load acting 9 kN,./ tool travel speed of 20 mm min−1 through four number of tool travel passes respectively. Obtained FSP'ed samples were exposed to microstructural, tensile strength tests and fracture surface morphology analysis were carried out to record the responses.
Technical Paper

Evolution of A356 with Flyash Composites on Metallurgical Mechanical and Tribological Behaviour under Dry and Wet Conditions

2021-10-01
2021-28-0272
Among all metal matrix composites, A356 is the most applicable matrix due to its low density and exhibits nominal strength with soft nature. This proposed study is concerned with the examination of mechanical and tribological behavior of virgin A356 alloy and A356 reinforced with 10wt.% power plant waste flyash particles composites were processed by liquid metallurgy stir cum squeeze casting technique. The fabricated composites expose enhanced higher hardness when compared to the virgin A356 alloy due to the presence of flyash particles in the matrix. The wear and friction behavior of casted samples were evaluated with a pin on disk tribometer apparatus under dry and wet sliding environment at the presence of lubricant (SAE 80W-90) by varying sliding load of 10N-40N and sliding velocity of 1-3 m/s respectively. Wear rate increase with the increasing load and sliding velocity.
Technical Paper

Enhancement in Tribological Properties of Squeeze Casted A356 Alloy Through T6 Heat Treatment Process

2021-10-01
2021-28-0265
The primary goal of this analysis is to investigate the effect of heat treatment processes on the tribological properties of squeeze cast A356 Alloy. Because of its excellent mechanical and tribological properties, the proposed A356 alloy has a wide variety of uses in the automotive industry. Squeeze casting is a cost-effective and promising method of producing aluminium alloy with better properties and a pore-free construction. Furthermore, the properties can be improved using post-processing techniques such as heat treatment, and residual stresses are eliminated as a part of the heat treatment procedure. The aim of this study is to look into the impact of post-processing methods on the tribological properties of squeeze cast A356 alloy. The prepared samples' wear resistance and friction characteristics were measured using a pin-on-disc tribometer test setup under dry sliding conditions with an applied load of 10, 20, 30, and 40N with a steady sliding velocity of 3 m/s.
Technical Paper

Impact of Post Processing Methods on the Mechanical Properties of Squeeze Casted A356 Alloy

2021-10-01
2021-28-0266
The prime purpose of this investigation is to determine the consequence of T6 heat treatment on the mechanical characteristics of squeezed A356 alloy. A356 alloy is one of the most promising aluminium alloys owing to its excellence in casting, conflict to corrosion, and high strength-to-weight ratio. Processing methods and types of reinforcements used are the major driving force towards the change in the properties of the aluminium alloys. However, heat treatment also employed in order to show strong static mechanical properties and enhancing the metallurgical characteristics of the matrix material. The primary objective of this investigation is to compare the mechanical properties of squeezed pure A356 alloy with samples that have undergone T6 heat treatment and artificial aging. Squeeze casting technique is employed in this research work to get the near net shaped components with fine structure, great surface finish, insignificant porosity and shrinkage.
Technical Paper

Studies on Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Aerospace 80A Grade Alloy

2021-10-01
2021-28-0241
This work inspects the metallurgical and tensile demeanor of pulsed current gas tungsten arc welded ERNiCrCoMo-1 filler wire on alloy 80A weldment. Defect free weldment was achieved in a four pass through PCGTA welding. The center of the weld microstructure is decorated with equiaxed dendritic structure and columnar dendritic structure. SEM analysis showed the existence of Mo, Fe and Ti secondary phase precipitation in the grain boundary region of the weld zone. Tensile testing was conducted to analysis the strength and ductility of weldment. The result showed that the tensile strength and ductility were lower than that of base metal (BM).
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Mechanical Behavior of Fused Deposition Modeling Parameters of Raster Angle and Layer Thickness Effects on As-Built and Annealed Polymer Associated Composites

2021-10-01
2021-28-0283
Fused deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the 3D techniques which are mainly used to fabricate the three-dimensional object directly and it is more economical method. The objective of this investigation is to primarily fabricate as-build and annealed polymer associated composites of carbon fiber Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol (CF-PETG) material by FDM with the effect of different raster angle and layer thickness were consider as the prime parameters. The test specimen was prepared by FDM process with different raster angle (00/900, -450, +450, -450/+450) and layer thickness (100, 400 microns) with other parameters were kept constant. The study of the mechanical properties such as hardness, tensile and impact test of the as-built and annealed CF-PETG were investigated. The best results obtained for annealed specimens printed with raster angle of 00/900 and layer thickness of 100 microns produced more influence in all the mechanical properties.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Body-in-White Weld Parameters for DP590 and EDD Material Combination

2021-10-01
2021-28-0215
Body in White (BIW) of an automobile serves as the shell, on which all the components that make up a vehicle, are mounted. The BIW is an assembly of press formed sheet metal components. The sheet metal composition of each component varies based on the form and functionality requirement of that component. The resulting assembly has multiple weld joineries with dissimilar compositions. The weld integrity of the joineries is crucial in maintaining the geometrical and structural integrity of the BIW. The primary welding method used in BIW assembly is Resistance Spot Welding (RSW). The quality of the weld is an outcome of a combination of multiple weld parameters. These parameters are majorly estimated based on the joinery thicknesses and material combinations. Multiple welding and testing iterations are done to fine tune the parameters for an optimum weld joinery. This is a very tedious process which increases the process time of a BIW assembly.
Technical Paper

Impact of Weld Fixture Clamp Force Variation on Dimensional Integrity in Low Volume Body-in-White Build

2021-10-01
2021-28-0216
Body in White (BIW) is an assembly of multiple sheet metal components. BIW is a major contributor to the dimensional and structural integrity of an automobile. The accuracy and precision of the BIW is influenced by multiple factors involved in the manufacturing lifecycle of the BIW, of which component development and assembly strategy are the most significant contributors. Weld fixtures are the tools used for accurately locating and holding, sheet metal components for joining. The primary motive of the locating and holding strategy is to arrest all degrees of freedom of a component. Geometric repeatability of the components is also of high importance. Component location is typically achieved by standardized locator pins that maintain the Principal Location Points (PLP). Mylars provided at Master Control Patches (MCP) ensure the resting and clamping of the component. Low volume BIW builds employ non-automated clamping methodologies, either with manual clamps or toggle clamps.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Microstructural Behaviour of Friction Stir Welded Al6061/Cr2O3 Metal Matrix Composite

2021-10-01
2021-28-0224
Aluminium metal matrix composite are broadly used in various field like aerospace, marine and automobile application. The application of composites necessitates joining process and its difficult due to different materials. To address the considering difficulties the present study is, Cr2O3 was reinforced in Al 6061 matrix in 2 % to 6 % in the incremental step of 2 %. The stir casting method was used to fabricate the composites with 300 rpm stirring speed and the stirring time duration was 3 min throughout the fabrication process. The H13 tool is used for prepared friction stir welded (FSW) joints and tool having 6.7 mm pin diameter and 6 mm pin height. The fabrication process is conducted by 500 rpm and 700 rpm tool rotational speed with 50 mm/min and 60 mm/min welding speed receptively. The atmospheric environmental condition was preferred to perform friction stir welding.
Technical Paper

Parametric Optimization of Friction Stir Welded AA2024 using Regression Methods

2021-10-01
2021-28-0223
The developed model analysis is built in matrix runs to optimise the friction stir welding parameters of rotational speed, welding speed, shoulder diameter and tilt angle in this research. The aim of any design is to maximise the welded properties, either to surpass the base metal properties. The model that is created is the product of a number of regression methods that have been tested for adequacy. In this model we have taken three levels of varying parameters shoulder diameters, rotational speed, welding speed. Mathematical model is developed for the effect of three process parameter at three levels using response surface methodology (RSM).
Technical Paper

Effect of Welding Consumables on Static and Dynamic Properties of Representative Welded Joints for Chassis Structure

2021-09-22
2021-26-0259
Automotive suspension system forms the basis for the design of vehicle with durability, reliability, dynamics and NVH requirements. The automotive suspension systems are exposed to dynamic and static loads which in turn demands the highest integrity and performance against fatigue based metallic degradation. The current focus in automotive industry is to reduce the weight of the automotive parts and components without compromising with its static and dynamic mechanical properties. This weight reduction imparts fuel efficiency with added advantages. High-Strength Low Alloy steel (HSLA) offers optimum combination of ductility, monotonic and cyclic mechanical properties. Furthermore, welding processes offer design flexibility to achieve robust and lightweight designs with high strength steels.
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