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Technical Paper

Application of Combined Electric Arc Coatings for Parts and Units of Vehicles Recovery in Repair Technologies

2021-10-15
2021-01-5100
This paper is devoted to the methods of increasing wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and service life of parts and assemblies of vehicles during their strengthening and renovation by the use of combined electric arc spraying (EAS) coatings. High density, adhesion, and microhardness of EAS coatings are provided by activation of the spraying process and subsequent nitriding of the sprayed coatings. This study is about the influence of technological parameters of the spraying process—composition, diameter and feed rate of sprayed wires, arc power, spray gas flow rate, spraying distance, speed of spraying spot movement, dispersion of spraying, etc.—on the qualitative characteristics of EAS coatings. The possibility of using pulsed ion nitriding (PIN) to improve the operational characteristics of EAS coatings made of wire materials is considered.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study on the Effect of Three Different Modeling Techniques and Pretension on Fatigue life of Bolts

2021-10-01
2021-28-0186
For bolted joint design, the accuracy of decision made depends on several parameters like bolt pretension force used, 1D vs 3D bolt model, sub model vs full model and contact settings used for analysis. This paper discusses the effect of the above-mentioned parameters on bolts, thumb rules that can be used for designing and the parameters to be considered for decision making on the bolted joint design. The fatigue life of bolts subjected to all modelling techniques are calculated in this work and is used to compare between two different scenarios. All bolts are modelled with pretension. 3D bolts are modelled with surface to surface contact at the head and nut region. Among the 3D and 1D bolts, it was observed that the 3D bolts have a lesser change in pretension reaction force compared to 1D bolts. When the entire assembly model was compared to a sub-model including the bolts under consideration, it was found that both models have a close correlation with each other.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Tribological Characteristics of Stir Cum Squeeze Cast AlSi7Mg with x wt % Flyash and 3wt % MoS2 Hybrid Composites

2021-10-01
2021-28-0260
his research work aims to investigate the effect of flyash and MoS2 lubricant particles on the tribological properties of AlSi7Mg alloy fabricated through stir cum squeeze casting process. AlSi7Mg alloy is a supreme favourable industrial aluminium alloy owing to its exceptional casting ability, corrosion resistance and good strength to weight ratio. Stir casting is an effective and capable processing route for making aluminum composites with enhanced properties. Additionally, to achieve enhanced properties and a pore-free structure, stir cum squeeze casting processing was used to fabricate aluminium matrix composites. In the experimental investigation, AlSi7Mg alloy was reinforced with 0, 5, 10wt% flyash and 3wt% MoS2 and processed by stir cum squeeze casting method.
Technical Paper

Effect of Weld Speed on Joint Quality of Nd: YAG Laser Welded Inconel 718 Alloy Weldments

2021-10-01
2021-28-0263
Inconel 718, a nickel based superalloy is used in all kinds of applications where outstanding strength and corrosion resistance are essential. The Inconel 718 alloys joints from sheets of 1mm thickness are fabricated using a 4 kW Nd: YAG laser welding equipment. The influence of welding speed on the weld bead ripples, weld morphology, defects and the mechanical properties are investigated. Microstructure of the weld fusion zone, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and the weld ripple structure were analyzed using optical microscope and the scanning electron microscope. The weldments obtained were with nominal cracks, porosity and shape imperfections that signifying Nd: YAG laser welding as an effective method for fabricating joints of Inconel 718 of thickness 1mm. The weld fusion zone consists of fine dendritic structure and HAZ is found with columnar grain structure.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Hot Cracking and Properties of TIG Welded AA2014 Alloy using Continuous and Pulsed Current

2021-10-01
2021-28-0262
AA2014 Aluminum alloys are most widely used for automobile and aerospace structures where specific strength is important. Hot cracking is a major problem while welding these alloys. In the present investigation, the metallurgical studies, viz, hot cracking sensitivity, microstructure and the mechanical properties, viz, hardness and tensile strength of the 4 mm thickness AA2014 aluminum alloy were studied using two different methods. The first method involves TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding with continuous current process and the second method involves TIG welding with pulsed current process. In both the process commercial argon pure gas was used as a shielding gas. The results showed that hot cracking sensitivity was decreased when the specimen was welded using pulsed current process compared to continuous current process.
Technical Paper

Microstructural Changes and Mechanical Properties Upgrading Over Friction Stir Processing Strategies on A356 Alloy with Tungsten Nano Particle Surface Layer Composites

2021-10-01
2021-28-0269
Friction stir processing (FSP) is a typical process for refinement changes of microstructure, enhance material's mechanical properties, and fabricating surface layer composites. The cast A356 surface composites were fabricated via Friction Stir Processing (FSP) and the enhancement of it’s metallurgical and mechanical properties are studied and conveyed in this research study. The three combinations of test samples of FSP'ed cast A356 alloy, FSP'ed cast A356 FSP with tungsten nanoparticle addition (5 and 10 vol%) were considered to fabrication under fixed parametric conditions like tool rotational speed of 1000 rpm, a load acting 9 kN,./ tool travel speed of 20 mm min−1 through four number of tool travel passes respectively. Obtained FSP'ed samples were exposed to microstructural, tensile strength tests and fracture surface morphology analysis were carried out to record the responses.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on SS 304 Sheet Metal for Bending Process Optimization using Response Surface Method

2021-10-01
2021-28-0268
Productivity plays a vital role in manufacturing processes as well as in service. Sheet metal bending process is a type of forming process that has been used by the wide range in industries. There are several tangible and intangible factors affecting the production rate during the bending process. Spring back is one of the severe factors which affects the production rate, especially in stainless steel material. The spring back is mostly affected by material properties, sheet thickness, bending radius, die sizes and component geometry. In this paper, the spring back is studied by the effect of various parameters such as rectangle/oblong slots with varying pitch distance and without slots and bending time in the stainless-steel material 304 grade in V-air bending machine. The experimental data are evaluated by means of the Response Surface Method (RSM). Finally, it was observed that explored results have the betterment of the production rate with connection to spring back.
Technical Paper

Evolution of A356 with Flyash Composites on Metallurgical Mechanical and Tribological Behaviour under Dry and Wet Conditions

2021-10-01
2021-28-0272
Among all metal matrix composites, A356 is the most applicable matrix due to its low density and exhibits nominal strength with soft nature. This proposed study is concerned with the examination of mechanical and tribological behavior of virgin A356 alloy and A356 reinforced with 10wt.% power plant waste flyash particles composites were processed by liquid metallurgy stir cum squeeze casting technique. The fabricated composites expose enhanced higher hardness when compared to the virgin A356 alloy due to the presence of flyash particles in the matrix. The wear and friction behavior of casted samples were evaluated with a pin on disk tribometer apparatus under dry and wet sliding environment at the presence of lubricant (SAE 80W-90) by varying sliding load of 10N-40N and sliding velocity of 1-3 m/s respectively. Wear rate increase with the increasing load and sliding velocity.
Technical Paper

Enhancement in Tribological Properties of Squeeze Casted A356 Alloy Through T6 Heat Treatment Process

2021-10-01
2021-28-0265
The primary goal of this analysis is to investigate the effect of heat treatment processes on the tribological properties of squeeze cast A356 Alloy. Because of its excellent mechanical and tribological properties, the proposed A356 alloy has a wide variety of uses in the automotive industry. Squeeze casting is a cost-effective and promising method of producing aluminium alloy with better properties and a pore-free construction. Furthermore, the properties can be improved using post-processing techniques such as heat treatment, and residual stresses are eliminated as a part of the heat treatment procedure. The aim of this study is to look into the impact of post-processing methods on the tribological properties of squeeze cast A356 alloy. The prepared samples' wear resistance and friction characteristics were measured using a pin-on-disc tribometer test setup under dry sliding conditions with an applied load of 10, 20, 30, and 40N with a steady sliding velocity of 3 m/s.
Technical Paper

Machinability Studies on Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) of AA2014 Alloy using Taguchi Grey Approach

2021-10-01
2021-28-0264
AA 2014 is a copper based aluminium alloy which is having exceptional mechanical characteristics such as better strength, ductility and lesser fatigue. AA 2014 is most generally employed in various engineering applications such as fabrication of structural components, defence applications and manufacturing of aerospace components. Also, this material possess better resistant to corrosion which makes this material best suitable for numerous engineering applications. Unconventional methods of machining have been evolved for producing intricate shapes in electrically conductive components. Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) is one among the unconventional machining method which is used for making intricate shape on any electrically conductive work material. In this work, an experimentation has been carried out on WEDM of AA 2014 alloy, employing Taguchi’s technique.
Technical Paper

Impact of Post Processing Methods on the Mechanical Properties of Squeeze Casted A356 Alloy

2021-10-01
2021-28-0266
The prime purpose of this investigation is to determine the consequence of T6 heat treatment on the mechanical characteristics of squeezed A356 alloy. A356 alloy is one of the most promising aluminium alloys owing to its excellence in casting, conflict to corrosion, and high strength-to-weight ratio. Processing methods and types of reinforcements used are the major driving force towards the change in the properties of the aluminium alloys. However, heat treatment also employed in order to show strong static mechanical properties and enhancing the metallurgical characteristics of the matrix material. The primary objective of this investigation is to compare the mechanical properties of squeezed pure A356 alloy with samples that have undergone T6 heat treatment and artificial aging. Squeeze casting technique is employed in this research work to get the near net shaped components with fine structure, great surface finish, insignificant porosity and shrinkage.
Technical Paper

Front Suspension Joint Integrity Analysis for Addressing Noise Issue Due to Torque Loss at Lower Control Arm Joint

2021-10-01
2021-28-0246
The lower control arm (LCA) is a part of the front suspension system which is mounted on chassis with flexible rubber bushing through-bolted joint which allows the control arm to swing up and down, absorb road bumps and reduce noise and vibrations as front wheels roll over bump or potholes. In bolted joints, torque is applied so as the joint develops a certain preload that is higher than the external loads and losses acting on the joint. But the loss of preload is evident over time which causes quality problems, reworks, or even joint failures. While moving over speed breakers/obstacles abnormal squeak noise is observed in the vehicle due to torque loss in the LCA joint. The intent of this study is to determine preload requirements in LCA joint and various factors contributing to preload loss by performing joint integrity analysis in CAE. Road load data acquisition (RLDA) with Wheel Force Transducer (WFT) is performed for different testing tracks.
Technical Paper

Studies on Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Aerospace 80A Grade Alloy

2021-10-01
2021-28-0241
This work inspects the metallurgical and tensile demeanor of pulsed current gas tungsten arc welded ERNiCrCoMo-1 filler wire on alloy 80A weldment. Defect free weldment was achieved in a four pass through PCGTA welding. The center of the weld microstructure is decorated with equiaxed dendritic structure and columnar dendritic structure. SEM analysis showed the existence of Mo, Fe and Ti secondary phase precipitation in the grain boundary region of the weld zone. Tensile testing was conducted to analysis the strength and ductility of weldment. The result showed that the tensile strength and ductility were lower than that of base metal (BM).
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Mechanical Behavior of Fused Deposition Modeling Parameters of Raster Angle and Layer Thickness Effects on As-Built and Annealed Polymer Associated Composites

2021-10-01
2021-28-0283
Fused deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the 3D techniques which are mainly used to fabricate the three-dimensional object directly and it is more economical method. The objective of this investigation is to primarily fabricate as-build and annealed polymer associated composites of carbon fiber Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol (CF-PETG) material by FDM with the effect of different raster angle and layer thickness were consider as the prime parameters. The test specimen was prepared by FDM process with different raster angle (00/900, -450, +450, -450/+450) and layer thickness (100, 400 microns) with other parameters were kept constant. The study of the mechanical properties such as hardness, tensile and impact test of the as-built and annealed CF-PETG were investigated. The best results obtained for annealed specimens printed with raster angle of 00/900 and layer thickness of 100 microns produced more influence in all the mechanical properties.
Technical Paper

Experimental Estimates on Performances of Hybrid-Bio Fiber / Powder Strengthened Composite Structure

2021-10-01
2021-28-0276
This research paper affords the practical investigation of the fabrication of eco based composites. The banana fiber is used as primary and powdered coconut shell is utilized as secondary reinforcements with epoxy resin to structure hybrid composite samples. The fiber weight proportion was kept as constant and the powder weight proportion was varied with five different proportions. Composite laminates were made-up by hand lay-up technique and tailed by compression moulding process. The manufactured composites had been examined as per the standards of ASTM to estimate the mechanical behaviors such as flexural, tensile and impact strengths. The results of the tests show that under mechanical loads, the hybrid composite with coconut shell powder outperforms the unfilled fiber reinforced composite
Technical Paper

Improving the Slug Removal Method in Piercing Operation of Brake Components Manufacturing Process by the Introduction of Semi Automation

2021-10-01
2021-28-0221
This experimental study is to improve the throughput time of the back plate manufacturing process line of heavy-duty brake system components in a process line of a machine shop. The existing method of removal of the pierced slug is performed by the pneumatically supported ejection for every 5 cycles using a compressor. This process is a critical process which is feeder for the other processes in the process line. The steps in this study includes: Work-study, time study, brainstorming, funneling to suggestions for improvement, failure mode effects analysis, implementation of the suggestion and validation. The brainstorming has been conducted with the cross-functional team members and the suggestions were prioritized with respect to the outcome in a scale of productivity, quality cost, safety, and handling. The obtained suggestion is : implementing a mechanical system operated by a series of linkages to eject the slug from the piercing cavity for every cycle.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Body-in-White Weld Parameters for DP590 and EDD Material Combination

2021-10-01
2021-28-0215
Body in White (BIW) of an automobile serves as the shell, on which all the components that make up a vehicle, are mounted. The BIW is an assembly of press formed sheet metal components. The sheet metal composition of each component varies based on the form and functionality requirement of that component. The resulting assembly has multiple weld joineries with dissimilar compositions. The weld integrity of the joineries is crucial in maintaining the geometrical and structural integrity of the BIW. The primary welding method used in BIW assembly is Resistance Spot Welding (RSW). The quality of the weld is an outcome of a combination of multiple weld parameters. These parameters are majorly estimated based on the joinery thicknesses and material combinations. Multiple welding and testing iterations are done to fine tune the parameters for an optimum weld joinery. This is a very tedious process which increases the process time of a BIW assembly.
Technical Paper

Impact of Weld Fixture Clamp Force Variation on Dimensional Integrity in Low Volume Body-in-White Build

2021-10-01
2021-28-0216
Body in White (BIW) is an assembly of multiple sheet metal components. BIW is a major contributor to the dimensional and structural integrity of an automobile. The accuracy and precision of the BIW is influenced by multiple factors involved in the manufacturing lifecycle of the BIW, of which component development and assembly strategy are the most significant contributors. Weld fixtures are the tools used for accurately locating and holding, sheet metal components for joining. The primary motive of the locating and holding strategy is to arrest all degrees of freedom of a component. Geometric repeatability of the components is also of high importance. Component location is typically achieved by standardized locator pins that maintain the Principal Location Points (PLP). Mylars provided at Master Control Patches (MCP) ensure the resting and clamping of the component. Low volume BIW builds employ non-automated clamping methodologies, either with manual clamps or toggle clamps.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Comparison of Mechanical Properties of PETG and CF - PETG Fabricated using FDM Process of Additive Manufacturing

2021-10-01
2021-28-0208
The utilization of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology in the current manufacturing sector is growing day - by - day. This is made possible by the constant development of new materials and techniques to overcome the difficulties that are encountered while fabricating a part. In AM, parts are fabricated by laying successive layers on one another till the complete part is build. This gives AM an edge over conventional manufacturing. Even intricate or hollow parts can be fabricated with the same ease as fabricating a solid part. The key objective of this project is to evaluate and compare mechanical properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate - Glycol modified (PETG) and Carbon fiber reinforced Polyethylene Terephthalate - Glycol modified (CF - PETG), which are fabricated using Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) process of AM. The ASTM standards D638 and D790 were followed for fabricating tensile test and Flexural test specimens respectively.
Technical Paper

Impact of Chemical Blowing Agent on Polypropylene Properties

2021-10-01
2021-28-0203
Weight reduction in automotive applications have led to the processing of thermoplastic polymers by foam injection molding. The density of the foamed polymer can be reduced up to 20%. Whilst, work has been reported on the weight reduction of the foamed polymer by using different types of blowing agent technologies, there has been limited studies in the areas of the sound transmission loss and sound attenuation properties of these materials. The present study is intended to understand the effect of chemical blowing agent (CBA) on the properties of polypropylene. The molded specimens were characterized using density, Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and sound transmission loss (STL) measurements. Specimens were also tested for tensile properties, flexural properties, Izod impact strength and Heat deflection temperature (HDT) as per standard test protocol.
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