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Technical Paper

Enhancement of safety features of steering wheel using experimentally validated finite element model

2019-11-21
2019-28-2556
Automotive safety is the primary concern in the current world. In order to develop safe and crashworthy vehicles, phenomena behind the energy absorption characteristics of every automotive component must be known. Steering wheel is one of the key players which could cause severe injuries to the driver if sufficient safety measures are not considered. This research focuses on the crash performance of commercial vehicle steering as per head form and body block test prescribed in ECE R12. Detailed FE (Finite Element) model of the steering wheel including armature, horn pad was developed using nonlinear material properties. The model was first validated using the test results. Comparisons between experimental results and finite element analysis results were conducted and correlated using load versus displacement profiles over the duration of impact. A good relationship between test and FE results was found which allows for investigation into the energy analysis of the steering components.
Technical Paper

Photo oxidation analysis method for automotive coating weathering performance evaluation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2555
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE Accelerated artificial weathering performance has been always observed as critical and most important factor for durability prediction of colour and resin for a coating system. Photo oxidation of resin is the phenomenon behind coating’s ageing. Though accelerated weathering tests protocols are widely used in industry, they are very costly and still very time consuming. One automotive grade accelerated testing can go as long as 8 months duration. METHODOLOGY (maximum 150 words) Photo oxidation value (POV) is proportionate to the degradation of the resin material used in coating. During the accelerated weathering POV is measured for the coating at stipulated interval during initial phase and trend is plotted for deterioration verses weathering test duration. POV can be analysed with the help of FTIR analysis to observe bond absorption energy and bond separation energy in the resin system. This trend can be extrapolated to predict the weathering performance of coating.
Technical Paper

Analysis of occupant dynamics and optimization of Driver airbag performance against all FMVSS208 frontal impact cases using validated Finite element Methodology

2019-11-21
2019-28-2545
Several people die every year due to vehicle accidents. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) are U.S. federal regulations stating design, structure, performance, and durability necessities for vehicles. The objective of a crash test for FMVSS No. 208 is to measure how well a passenger vehicle would protect its occupants in the event of a frontal crash. FMVSS 208 consists of series of tests including different impact surface type as well as occupant sizes. It also covers the belted and unbelted occupant behavior at the time of front impact. Each test scenario has different ways to injure the occupant. Airbags are the part of passive safety equipment family in any automobile and play an imperative role to reduce the occupant head and chest injuries at the time of crash or accidents. This study covers the evaluation of airbag performance in all FMVSS 208 load cases using validated Finite Element Methodology (FEM).
Technical Paper

Wiring Harness Optimization towards Wireless Vehicle

2019-11-21
2019-28-2530
Paper Title - Wiring Harness Optimization towards Wireless vehicle Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective (maximum 100 words)  In current scenario, wiring harness plays a vital role in inter-connecting electrical & electronic components fitted all across the vehicle.  As per cable standard, DIN 72551 or ISO 6722, copper conductors being used in stranded wires against cable cross-section & corresponding weight.  While going complete wire-less requires each component to have its own battery, ground, transmitter & receiver which indeed is a very costly affair to be employed in vehicle as huge development cost is required.  Here I'm suggesting an innovative method to make a vehicle apparently Wire-Less by creating local clusters connected to each other via conventional wiring harness & wire-less module.  Such method will apparently give a look of Wire-less vehicle itself & better advantages in terms of installation, service, troubleshooting, uptime & customer delight.  Moreover, direct benefits of Cost, Weight, FE will also be achieved.
Technical Paper

Passenger "Sleeper Bus" Structure, an Optimization Study using Finite Element Analysis

2019-11-21
2019-28-2537
Sleeper buses are increasingly used as connectivity between cities and remote areas with sleeping comfort for passengers. During the normal operation, the bus body is subjected to several loads, external loads from the road (i.e. crossing over a speed bump, breaking & cornering). Moreover, there is a substantial possibility that these loads may lead to a structural failure. Hence, it is necessary to determine stresses occurred in the bus body to ensure its integrity under these driving scenarios. During the accident, rollover/front/rear/side impact, energy absorbing capacity of bus body structure is crucial for safety of passengers. The objective of this study is to reduce weight of bus structure while maintaining cost & safety as constraint. 3D Model prepared in NX and finite element model created in hypermesh ,LS-dyna/optistruct used as solver and post processing done in hyperview. In this study, fully loaded bus with passengers as well as maximum language mass, considered.
Technical Paper

Non-linear dynamic Modeling, Simulation and Control of Five-Phase 10/8 Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2473
The SRM is gaining much interest for EVs due to its rare-earth-free characteristic and excellent performance. SRM possess several advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, high power density, fault-tolerant and it can produce extended constant power region, and this makes SRM as viable alternative over conventional PM drives. Objective: The objective of this paper is to establish proof of theoretical concepts related to SRM. The key to achieve an effective SRM modeling is to use a methodology that allow the nonlinearity of its magnetic characteristics to be represented while maximizing the simulation speed. This paper represents how magnetization data obtained from FEA in the form of look up tables is most appropriate way to represent SRM model. In this paper, performance analysis of SRM is done with the help of Open loop and Closed loop MATLAB simulations. These dynamic simulations of SRM will assist in understanding behavior of SRM in various loading and speed conditions.
Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Technical Paper

LIGHT WEIGHTING OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURED PARTS FOR AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS THROUGH TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES

2019-11-21
2019-28-2544
Rapidly enhancing engineering techniques to manufacture components in quick turnaround time have gained importance in recent time. Manufacturing strategies like Additive Manufacturing (AM) are a key enabler for achieving them. Unlike traditional manufacturing techniques such as injection molding, casting etc., AM unites advanced materials, machines, and software which will be critical for Industry 4.0. Successful application of AM involves a specific combination and understanding of these three key elements. In this paper the AM approach used is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). Since material costs contribute to 60% of the overall FDM costs, it becomes a necessity to optimize the material consumption of the produced parts. This paper reports case studies of 3D printed parts used in an Automobile plant’s production aids, which utilize computational methods(CAE), topology optimization and FDM constrains (build directions) to manufacture the part in the most optimal way.
Technical Paper

Model Based Design of Chassis-Frame with MATLAB

2019-11-21
2019-28-2429
In the current commercial vehicles market, ride-comfort and handling are crucial parameters for the customer and end user. There are various aspects which determine the vehicle behaviour. One of aspects is the structural rigidity of the vehicle, which has its own effect on vehicle dynamics. To meet the required stiffness of the main structural component of the vehicle i.e. chassis frame, FEA analysis has to be done in current methodology. The number of iterations have to be done to build an appropriate model with low weight, which can meet the design requirements. At first, conceptual design mock-up unit is to be developed then FEA (CAE) analysis to be done on it. If any design criteria are not met, then this cycle repeats again until it fulfils the required stiffness. Today, the direct stiffness procedure is the basic principle of almost every FEA software package.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Compression Ratio for DI Diesel Engines for better fuel Economy

2019-11-21
2019-28-2431
Fuel economy is becoming one of the key parameter as it not only accounts for the profitability of commercial vehicle owner but also has impact on environment. Fuel economy gets affected from several parameters of engine such as Peak firing pressure, reduction in parasitic losses, improved volumetric efficiency, improved thermal efficiency etc. Compression ratio is one of key design criteria which affects most of the above mentioned parameters, which not only improve fuel efficiency but also results in improvement of emission levels. This paper evaluates the optimization of Compression ratio and study its effect on Engine performance. The parameters investigated in this paper include; combustion bowl volume in Piston and Cylinder head gasket thickness as these are major contributing factors affecting clearance volume and in turn the compression ratio of engine. Based on the calculation results, an optimum Compression Ratio for the engine is selected.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol blends on GDI engine to reduce cost of vehicle ownership

2019-11-21
2019-28-2379
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder CRDI Engine Fueled with Diesel-Methanol Blend

2019-11-21
2019-28-2380
The diesel engine is widely used for its high thermal efficiency and better fuel conversion efficiency. However, increasing usage of petroleum fuel and environmental degradation motivates to use renewable biofuels as a replacement to conventional diesel. Biofuels produced from non-edible sources can be used as a partial substitute of diesel for the significant growth of fuel economy and reduction of environmental pollution. Methanol can be implemented as a blended fuel in the diesel without affecting engine design. In this study, the effect of diesel methanol blends and injection parameters such as fuel injection pressure (FIP)and start of injection (SOI) on a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine performance and emission were investigated. Four blends were prepared by mixing diesel with methanol (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) and adding a certain amount of oleic acid and iso-butanol to get a stable blend.
Technical Paper

Replacing twin electric fan radiator with Single fan radiator

2019-11-21
2019-28-2381
Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organization. The main aim is to reduce – Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance. This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchanger is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction.
Technical Paper

Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2397
Title Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation Authors Mr. Shubham Kedia, Dr. Divyanshu Joshi, Dr. Muthiah Saravanan Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra & Mahindra, Chennai Objective Objective metrics for evaluation of major vehicle dynamics performance attributes i.e. ride, handling and steering are required to compare, validate and optimize dynamic behavior of vehicles. Some of these objective metrics are recommended and defined by ISO and SAE, which involve data processing, statistical analysis and complex mathematical operations on acquired data, through simulations or experimental testing. Due to the complexity of operations and volume of data, evaluation is often time consuming and tedious. Process automation using existing tools such as MS Excel, nCode, Siemens LMS, etc. includes several limitations and challenges, which make it cumbersome to implement.
Technical Paper

Effect of variable payload on Vehicle dynamics of Passenger buses in Indian usage conditions

2019-11-21
2019-28-2411
A high impetus from Government on road infrastructure development, is giving a fillip to passenger CV space. This has resulted in making the passenger CV segment lucrative enough, thereby pulling in many operators in the business. The quality of road has immensely improved over a decade, as a result of which the average speed and hence the quantum of distance covered by passenger buses has increased significantly. People are preferring to travel in buses over trains, owing to at par ticket cost, high availability, reduced travel time and also improved level of comfort. Aligned to the market need and the trend, OEM's are offering buses with capable powertrains to cater the need of speed, reduced trip time as well as a lot of attention is also being paid to tune in the comfort level for long hauls. A big chunk of passenger travel is catered by the bus operators especially during major festivals in India.
Technical Paper

Engine Fuel Economy Optimization for different Hybrid Architectures using 1-D Simulation technique

2019-11-21
2019-28-2496
In order to improve fuel economy of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict engine fuel consumption using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. There is good agreement within 10% deviation between simulated cumulative fuel consumption and experimental cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying series hybridization, parallel P1 type and Parallel P2 type of hybridization. A design of experiment (DOE) model is run for different electric motor sizes, battery capacity and battery state of charge condition, to understand their effects on overall engine fuel consumption and cycle soot emission. Model predicts overall significant reduction in cumulative fuel consumption and soot emission.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Hydrostatic Transmission (HST) system for OFF-Highway vehicle

2019-11-21
2019-28-2453
The development of any country depends on capital energy consumption. Due to technological advancements, people want more comfort and performance with the tractors and at the same time less fatigue and reduced fuel consumption. At present, most of the tractors uses conventional Manual Transmission (MT) as main driveline, though there is research going on, with implementation in few cases, for shifting from conventional MT to advanced transmissions. A Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) provides Step Lesley an infinite number of effective gear ratios between maximum to minimum value. Hydrostatic Transmission (HST) is one of the types of CVT. HST can improve the fuel efficiency and smooth drivability than a MT without compromising vehicle performance. The development of HST in tractor is less costly as several existing components such as clutch, large number of gears in transmission system can be removed along with reducing of driver fatigue.
Technical Paper

Analysis of pressure variation in wheel with the aid of wheel speed sensor

2019-11-21
2019-28-2450
Objective: The Objective of the research is to detect drop in level of pressure in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from speed sensors. The research discusses the standard procedure of experimentation to obtain data which eventually used to produce results. This procedure is taken from principles Design of Experiments. Statistical tools are used to analyze and give determining factors for pressure variation. Methodology: To study idea, we made use of two-wheeler platform and collected data of wheel speed sensors on both wheels. The idea is when there is any change in tire pressure the radius of the wheel also changes and usually this relation is direct. Hence, change in tire pressure changes the angular velocity of the wheel. In this approach wheel speed sensors are used to measure the angular speed for standard and reduced pressure conditions.
Technical Paper

Digital Twins for Prognostic Profiling

2019-11-21
2019-28-2456
Digital Twins for Prognostic Profiling Authors: Sreeram Mohan*, Painuri Thukaram**, Panduranga Rao*** Objective / Question: Ability to have least failures in products on the field with minimum effort from the manufacturers is a major area of focus driven by Industry 4.0 initiatives. Amidst traditional methods of performing system / subsystem level tests often does not enable the complete coverage of a machine health performance predictions. This paper highlights a workable workflow that could be used as a template while considering system design especially employing Digital Twins that help in mimicking real-life scenarios early in the design cycle to increase product’s reliability as well as tend to near zero defects. Methodology: With currently available disruptive technologies , systems are integrated multi-domain 'mechatronics' systems operating in closed-loop/close-interaction.
Technical Paper

Review of architecture and control strategies of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Technology for Automotive Application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2509
Well-functioning and efficient transport sector is a requirement for economic and social development in the 21st century. Another side of this transport sector is responsible for a many negative social and environmental effects, like a significant contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and reduction in fossil fuels resources. It is need of time to shift to a greener and low carbon economy and for that it is necessary to improve the ways in which energy is produced and used. Other energy sources like battery, fuel cells (FC), supercapacitors (SC) and photovoltaic cells (PV) are the alternative solutions to the conventional internal combustion engines (ICE) for automobiles. Development of Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) along with other cleaner vehicle technologies like Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles are continuously increasing in the list of green energy options.
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