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Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Commercial Vehicle Platooning

2021-11-15
EPR2021027
While platooning has the potential to reduce energy consumption of commercial vehicles while improving safety, both advantages are currently difficult to quantify due to insufficient data and the wide range of variables affecting models. Platooning will significantly reduce the use of energy when compared to trucks driven alone, or at a safe distance for a driver without any automated assistance. However, drivers typically drive closer to each other than recommended to achieve drafting efficiencies, which may shift the benefit of automated platooning to safety gains. More data will be needed to conclusively demonstrate these gains. Unsettled Issues in Commercial Vehicle Platooning discusses the technologies needed to enable close platooning, including brake system condition monitoring, vehicle-to-vehicle communication, and concrete infrastructure assessment. The report also looks at driver acceptance of platooning technology from a safety and job security perspective.
Technical Paper

The Behavior of Fuel Droplets on a Heated Substrate

2021-10-15
2021-01-5099
The processes of surface wetting and film evaporation play a major role in any application using liquid fuels. Since the behavior of entire multi-liquid films is influenced by many simultaneously occurring physical processes, exact modeling is not yet possible. In order to reduce the complexity and to determine the basic effects in the spreading and evaporation of multi-component films, this study was carried out by placing single 5 μl droplets on a heated metal surface. Various alkanes, ethanol, and mixtures, as well as real gasoline, were studied at surface temperatures between 69°C and 140°C. To describe the processes qualitatively and determine the time-dependent wetted surface area, the droplets were visualized using cameras. With the results, it was possible to determine the course of the wetted surface over time and to compare different liquids under varying surface temperatures.
Research Report

Unsettled Economic, Environmental, and Health Issues of Ammonia for Automotive Applications

2021-10-15
EPR2021022
Ammonia has been previously trialed as an automotive fuel; however, it was hardly competitive with fossil fuels in terms of cost, energy density, and practicality. However, due to climate change, those practical and cost-related parameters have finally become secondary deciding factors in fuel selection. Ammonia is safer than most fuels and it offers superior energy densities compared to compressed or liquefied hydrogen. It is believed that ammonia might be an ultimate clean fuel choice and an extension to the emerging hydrogen economy. Unsettled Economic, Environmental, and Health Issues of Ammonia for Automotive Applications examines the major unsettled issues of using ammonia as a clean automotive fuel alternative, including the lack of regulations and standards for automotive applications, technology readiness, safety perception, and presently limited supply.
Technical Paper

Chemistry of the Brake Emissions: Influence of the Test Cycle

2021-10-11
2021-01-1300
The reliable chemical characterization of non-exhaust emissions generated by brakes is of fundamental importance in order to provide correct information for source apportionment studies as well as for their toxicological and environmental assessment. Nowadays, the best option to obtain samples of PM10 emissions composed only by material worn from the tribological interface, i.e. the braking disc (BD) and the friction material (FM) rubbing surfaces, is to sample them on suitable collection filters at a dedicated dyno-bench, during a standard braking test cycle. In particular, the use of enclosed dyno-bench is necessary for excluding other spurious contributions from the environment, while defined test cycles are necessary to simulate standard driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Deposition Behaviour of Brake Wear Particles on the Wheel Surface

2021-10-11
2021-01-1301
The deposition behavior of brake wear particles on the surface of a wheel and the mechanisms on it have not been fully understood. In addition, the proportion of brake wear particles deposited on the wheel surface compared to the total emitted particles is almost unknown. This information is necessary to evaluate the number- and mass-related emission factors measured on the inertia dynamometer and to compare them with on-road and vehicle-related emission behaviour. The aim of this study is to clarify the deposition behavior of brake particles on the wheel surface. First, the real deposition behaviour is determined in on-road tests. For particle sampling, collection pads are adapted at different positions of a front and rear axle wheel. In addition to a Real Driving Emissions (RDE)-compliant test cycle, tests are performed in urban, rural and motorway sections to evaluate speed-dependent influences.
Technical Paper

Development of a Modeling Approach to Numerically Predict Filtration Efficiencies of Brake Dust Particle Filters

2021-10-11
2021-01-1285
According to the European Environment Agency, air pollution is the biggest environmental health risk in Europe. Since traffic is one of the main contributors of fine dust, technical solutions are necessary to reduce the particulate emission footprint of vehicles. Also, the Health Effects Institute hosted recently an international workshop on non-tailpipe emissions. Brake dust filtration concepts have proven to be a promising solution to significantly reduce fine dust emissions from brakes directly at the source. While CFD simulations for inner-ventilated brakes have become state-of-the-art, a holistic model from particle generation and emission to particle dynamics in the vicinity of the brake is not yet available. However, a good modeling approach of particle tracks is essential to predict filtration efficiencies of brake dust particle filters.
Technical Paper

Energy Saving Planning System for Commercial Vehicle Driving in Mountain Area

2021-10-11
2021-01-1279
The mountainous roads are very complex and changeable. When commercial vehicles are driving in mountain areas, the using of brakes can not only reduce the fuel economy, but also increase the brake wear. The aim of this system is utilizing the terrain changes of mountainous roads to guide the driver to control the accelerator pedal reasonably through the mutual transformation of kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy for reducing the energy loss caused by braking on downhill road. The theoretical control points of releasing the accelerator pedal on the uphill road are determined based on the road digital elevation model (DEM) information and the vehicle dynamic model.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Control System of Magnetic-Impulse Parts Processing in Ship Repair Production

2021-10-04
2021-01-5096
Humanity has been interested in magnetism for over 300 years. Many authors have studied the use of applied magnetism to change the properties of products and expand the use of magnetic processing in ship repair production [1, 2]. Experience shows that magnetic pulse processing (MPP) is a simple and economical way to increase the durability of metal-cutting tools, increase the resource of the most worn parts of machines and mechanisms, and increase the durability of friction units, assembly units, and structures during their repair and manufacture. MPP has a number of advantages: simplicity of electromagnetic energy concentration on the product, its rapid accumulation by the material of the working elements of the part, and the efficiency of improving the operational characteristics (processing time is 0.3 ... 2.0 s with insignificant energy consumption).
Technical Paper

Tribological Evaluation of Organic Frictional Composites Filled with Various Nano-Solid Lubricants

2021-10-01
2021-28-0259
Incorporating of organic fibers originated from plants in polymer composite have gained significant attention over a period of time as they provide eco-friendly lighter composites. The increasing demand by automotive sectors for wear and frictional areas where the conservation of energy is concerned is expected with addition of nano -solid lubricants. Our aim is to fabricate organic frictional composites of basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites along with three possible combination of nano - solid lubricants like (1) graphite (2) graphene (3) molybdenum disulfide through hot press technique. The outcome of the tribological tests (by varying load and sliding velocity) indicates that these three-organic fiber-based polymer composites have been effectively modified by nano-solid lubricants leading to significant enhancement. In which molybdenum disulfide- based brake pad material is an attractive material to replace the practical problems in automotive sector was the key finding.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on Corrosion and Wear Behavior of Automotive Materials

2021-10-01
2021-28-0238
The energy demand of the world is keep increasing, major share of the demand is compensated by non-renewable fossil fuels. Automotive sector consumes a huge amount of fossil fuels, as majority of the segment use internal combustion as a prime mover. In the present era researches are carried to figure out the suitable replacements for fossil fuels to attain sustainable environment. One of the major challenge and keen interest of everyone is on waste management, several researches are aimed to bridge the gap between energy demand and waste management. In such way biofuels came into limelight a decade ago, still numerous works are carried in the area for creating socio economic friendly environment. Enormous studies have been carried out to assess their performance in the internal combustion engines, here in the present study performance of the working material against the biodiesel is studied.
Technical Paper

A Unique Methodology to Evaluate the Metallic Noise Concern of a Dual-Mass Flywheel in Real-World Usage Conditions

2021-10-01
2021-28-0249
Dual mass flywheel (DMF) is an excellent solution to improve the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) characteristic of any vehicle by isolating the driveline from the engine torsional vibrations. For the same reason, DMF’s are widely used in high power-density diesel and gasoline engines. However, the real-world usage conditions pose a lot of challenges to the robustness of the DMF. In the present work, by capturing the Real-World Usage Profile (RWUP) conditions, a new methodology is developed to evaluate the robustness of a DMF fitted in a Sports utility vehicle (SUV). Ventilation holes are provided on clutch housing to improve convective heat transfer. Improvement in convective heat transfer will increase the life and will reduce clutch burning concerns. Cities like Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, roads will have clogged waters during rainy season. When the vehicle was driven in such roads, water enters inside the clutch housing through ventilation holes.
Technical Paper

Energy Impact Analysis of Switchable Coolant Pump in a High Power Density Diesel Engine

2021-10-01
2021-28-0279
Over the years, Internal Combustion engines have evolved drastically from large naturally aspirated engines to small sized forced aspiration engines which have a power output comparable to that of higher capacity engines. Engine downsizing has become more prominent in the present world due to higher focus being exerted on Fuel Economy and tighter emission norms. In the process of achieving these highly efficient engines, their cooling systems are also designed to handle the higher thermal operating conditions. This leads to a negative impact on the cold NEDC cycle by resulting in a longer warmup periods to get the engine upto its optimum operating temperature. This has a major effect on both the combustion efficiency as well as the frictional resistance of the engine. Switchable coolant pumps are one way to address this problem by creating zero flow conditions to warmup the engine by restricting any unnecessary heat rejection and improving the in-cylinder temperature.
Technical Paper

Regeneration of Waste Energy from Tire Strain and Rapid Charging Through Super-Capacitor for Electric Vehicles

2021-10-01
2021-28-0278
Vehicle tyres lead us to move miles and miles, which faces a lots of heat and stresses all that energy should not go in vain, Peizoelectric materials are materials which have the ability to convert the applied mechanical stress into electrical charge. Our experimental work deals with the conversion of heat and stress of the tyre into an electrical energy by using piezoelectric transducer followed by rapid collection and storage of electric energy using super-capacitor. For this experimental study, electric bike was taken and conventional tyres was replaced by regenerative tyre. PZT (lead zirconate titanate) type PET is chosen for greater stability and higher operating temperature. PET is placed in the order of 8 columns in which 4 columns is placed over another 4 columns and 40 rows in the circumference of the inner tyre at about 320 PET in each tyre.
Technical Paper

Design, Development and Experimental Investigation on the Effect of HVAC Power Consumption in Electric Vehicle Integrated with Thin Film Solar PV Panels

2021-10-01
2021-28-0234
Air conditioning systems are one of the significant auxiliary loads on the vehicle powertrain. In an Electric Vehicle (EV) where the available energy is limited, it becomes crucial to optimize the overall energy consumption of the auxiliary loads. The major power consuming components in an automotive HVAC system (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) are: Compressor, Cabin blower, Condenser cooling fan and the Control devices. Significant progress is already made in enhancing the energy efficiency of the above-mentioned power consuming components part of vehicle HVAC system. Alternate energy sources are being explored recently, to reduce the energy demand from vehicle. One such proposal is to harness the abundant solar energy available, through solar panels and consume this energy to supplement the power required for HVAC system components. Solar panels convert solar energy to electrical energy by the principle of the photovoltaic effect.
Technical Paper

Effect of Calcium Oxide Nano Fluid Additive on Diesel Engine Characteristics Fuelled with Ternary Blend

2021-10-01
2021-28-0236
Biodiesel was found to be a promising alternative source to diesel fuel for which the engine characteristics can be improved by means of Nano additives. The present work deals with the effect of calcium oxide Nano fluid on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with ternary blends comprising of Calophyllum, Neem biodiesel and diesel fuel. Calcium oxide was synthesized by means of calcination process from Mactra Corallina sea shell which imparts novelty to the present work. The calcium oxide was converted into Nano particles by means of ball milling and dispersed in distilled water using ultra-sonication to form Nano fluids. The stability of Nano fluid was found to be effective at 100 ppm. Blend selected for the study has the proportion of 95 % biodiesel (B20), 3 % Nano fluid and 2 % Tween 20 surfactant labelled as B20 + NF.
Technical Paper

Chain Load Optimization through Fuel Pump Lobe Phasing and CAE Simulations for a BS6 Compliant Diesel Engine

2021-10-01
2021-28-0163
The introduction of CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) norms has put a lot of importance on improving the fuel economy of passenger car vehicles. One of the areas to improve the fuel economy is by reducing engine friction. Camshaft drive torque reduction is one such area that helps in engine friction reduction. This paper explains the camshaft drive torque optimization work done on a passenger car Diesel engine with DOHC (double overhead camshaft). The exhaust camshaft of the engine drives the high-pressure Fuel Injection Pump (FIP) in addition to valve actuation. Camshaft drive torque is reduced by reducing the chain load. This is done through optimum phasing of the FIP lobe that drives the fuel injection pump and the cam lobe actuating the exhaust valves. Additional boundary condition for the phasing is ensuring that the FIP lobe is in the fall region of its profile while the piston is at TDC. This helps in avoiding rail pressure fluctuation.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance Assessment on Typical SUV Car Model by On-Road Surface Pressure Mapping Method

2021-10-01
2021-28-0188
Aerodynamics of on-road vehicles has come to the limelight in the recent years. Better aerodynamic design of vehicle would improve vehicle fuel efficiency with increased acceleration performance. To obtain best aerodynamic body, the series of design modifications and different testing methodologies must be involved in vehicle design and validation phase. Wind tunnel aerodynamic force measurement, road load determination and computational fluid dynamics were the common methods used to evaluate the aerodynamic behavior of the vehicle body. As a novel approach, the present work discusses about the on-road (Real time) testing methodology that is aimed to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of vehicle body using surface pressure mapping. A 64-Channel digital pressure scanner has been utilized in this work for mapping the pressure at different locations of the typical vehicle body.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Experimental Based Solution to Address High Particulate Matter Contributed from Open Crank Case Ventilation System in Automotive Diesel Engines to Meet Stringent Emission Norms BS6

2021-09-22
2021-26-0188
As part of transformation from BS4 to BS6 automobile emission standard in India, engine manufactures are focusing on continuous development of emission control technologies and suitable strategies. Exhaust tail pipe emission and Crankcase emission are added together to meet the regulation acceptable limit. The crankcase emissions contribute substantially to the total Particulate Matter (PM) emitted from an engine. Hence there is a need of design and development of suitable Crankcase ventilation system. This paper presents investigation of high PM contributed from Open Crankcase ventilation (OCV) system in Diesel engine and experiment based solutions.
Technical Paper

The Study and Deep Insights of Port Injection Turbocharged CNG Engine Development for Trucks and Buses

2021-09-22
2021-26-0214
The intensifying demand of cleaner fuelled vehicles considering current norms of BSIV and upcoming stringent norms of BSVI with low cost solutions has promoted the development of CNG and dual fuel vehicles. CNG vehicle is anticipated to discover its extensive use for environment fortification and effective deployment of energy capitals. Thus, CNG vehicles can be pretty effective in averting environment deterioration. CNG has low carbon to hydrogen ratio, this leads to very low CO2 emissions compared to gasoline and diesel vehicles. CNG engines have the potential of low NOx and particulate emissions. Natural gas vehicle development has been directed on the way to current use of direct injection and port injection with S.I. engines. Generally for low cost development, all OEMs prefer optimization of existing engines. Similarly for this project, a diesel engine was converted to S.I. engine for development of low emission CNG engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Welding Consumables on Static and Dynamic Properties of Representative Welded Joints for Chassis Structure

2021-09-22
2021-26-0259
Automotive suspension system forms the basis for the design of vehicle with durability, reliability, dynamics and NVH requirements. The automotive suspension systems are exposed to dynamic and static loads which in turn demands the highest integrity and performance against fatigue based metallic degradation. The current focus in automotive industry is to reduce the weight of the automotive parts and components without compromising with its static and dynamic mechanical properties. This weight reduction imparts fuel efficiency with added advantages. High-Strength Low Alloy steel (HSLA) offers optimum combination of ductility, monotonic and cyclic mechanical properties. Furthermore, welding processes offer design flexibility to achieve robust and lightweight designs with high strength steels.
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