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Technical Paper

A computational study of hydrogen direct injection using a pre-chamber in an opposed-piston engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Opposed-piston two-stroke engines offer numerous advantages over conventional four-stroke engines, both in terms of fundamental principles and technical aspects. The reduced heat losses and large volume-to-surface area ratio inherently result in a high thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, the mechanical design is simpler and requires fewer components compared to conventional four-stroke engines. When combining this engine concept with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and pre-chamber technology, a potential route for carbon-neutral powertrains is observed. To ensure safe engine operation using hydrogen as fuel, it is crucial to consider strict safety measures to prevent issues such as knock, pre-ignition, and backfiring. One potential solution to these challenges is the use of direct injection, which has the potential to improve engine efficiency and expand the range of load operation.
Technical Paper

Miller Cycle and Internal EGR in Diesel Engines Using Alternative Fuels

2024-07-02
2024-01-3020
The Single Cylinder Research Engine (SCRE) at the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Powertrain Systems is equipped with a variable valve train that allows to switch between regular intake valve lift and early intake valve closing (Miller). On the exhaust side, a secondary valve lift on each valve is possible with adjustable back pressure and thus the possibility of realising internal EGR. In combination with alternative fuels, even if they are Drop-In capable as HVO, properties differ and can influence the emission and efficiency behaviour. The investigations of this paper are focusing on regenerative Drop-In fuel (HVO), fossil fuel (B7), and an oxygenate (OME), that needs adaptions at the engine control unit, but offers further emission potential. By commissioning a 2-stage boost system, it is possible to fully equalize the air mass in Miller mode compared to the normal valve lift.
Technical Paper

Traceability E-Fuels 2035

2024-07-02
2024-01-3022
EU legislation provides for only local CO2 emission-free vehicles to be allowed in individual passenger transport by 2035. In addition, the directive provides for fuels from renewable sources, i.e. defossilised fuels. This development leads to three possible energy sources or forms of energy for use in individual transport. The first possibility is charging with electricity generated from renewable sources, the second possibility is hydrogen generated from renewable sources or blue production path. The third possibility is the use of renewable fuels, also called e-fuels. These fuels are produced from atmospheric CO2 and renewable hydrogen. Possible processes for this are, for example, methanol or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The production of these fuels is very energy-intensive and large amounts of renewable electricity are needed.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Fuels for Long-Haul Truck Engines: a 1D-CFD Analysis

2024-06-12
2024-37-0027
Heavy duty truck engines are quite difficult to electrify, due to the large amount of energy required on-board, in order to achieve a range comparable to that of diesels. This paper considers a commercial 6-cylinder engine with a displacement of 12.8 L, developed in two different versions. As a standard diesel, the engine is able to deliver more than 420 kW at 1800 rpm, whereas in the CNG configuration the maximum power output is 330 kW at 1800 rpm. Maintaining the same combustion chamber design of the last version, a theoretical study is carried out in order to run the engine on Hydrogen, compressed at 700 bar. The study is based on GT-Power simulations, adopting a predictive combustion model, calibrated with experimental results. The study shows that the implementation of a combustion system running on lean mixtures of Hydrogen, permits to cancel the emissions of CO2, while maintaining the same power output of the CNG engine.
Technical Paper

Exploring methanol and naphtha as alternative fuels for a hybrid-ICE battery-driven light-duty vehicle

2024-06-12
2024-37-0021
In pursuing sustainable automotive technologies, exploring alternative fuels for hybrid vehicles is crucial in reducing environmental impact and aligning with global carbon emission reduction goals. This work compares methanol and naphtha as potential suitable alternative fuels for running in a battery-driven light-duty hybrid vehicle by comparing their performance with the diesel baseline engine. This work employs a 0-D vehicle simulation model within the GT-Power suite to replicate vehicle dynamics under the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC). The vehicle choice enables the assessment of a delivery application scenario using distinct payload capacities: 0%, 25%, 50%, and 100%. The model is fed with engine maps derived from previous experimental work conducted in the same engine, in which a full calibration was obtained that ensures the engine's operability in a wide region of rotational speed and loads.
Technical Paper

Comparison Of the Effects of Renewable Fuels on The Emissions of a Small Diesel Engine for Urban Mobility

2024-06-12
2024-37-0019
The current work presents the results of an investigation on the impact of renewable fuels on the combustion and emissions of a turbocharged compression-ignition internal combustion engine. An experimental study was undertaken and the engine settings were not modified to account for the fuel's chemical and physical properties, to analyze the performance of the fuel as a potential drop-in alternative fuel. Three fuels were tested: mineral diesel, a blend of it with waste cooking oil biodiesel and a hydrogenated diesel. The analysis of the emissions at engine exhaust highlights that hydrogenated fuel allows to reduce CO, total hydrocarbon emissions, particulate matter and NOx.
Technical Paper

Effect of Dithering on post-catalyst exhaust gas composition and on short time regeneration of deactivated PdO/Al2O3 catalysts under real engine conditions

2024-06-12
2024-37-0002
Fossil fuels such as natural gas used in engines still play the most important role worldwide despite such measures as the German energy transition which however is also exacerbating climate change as a result of carbon dioxide emissions. One way of reducing carbon dioxide emissions is the choice of energy sources and with it a more favourable chemical composition. Natural gas, for instance, which consist mainly of methane, has the highest hydrogen to carbon ratio of all hydrocarbons, which means that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced by up to 35% when replacing diesel with natural gas. Although natural gas engines show an overall low CO2 and pollutant emissions level, methane slip due to incomplete combustion occurs, causing methane emissions with a more than 20 higher global warming potential than CO2.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lignin Fuels for CI Engines

2024-06-12
2024-37-0022
This study explores the feasibility of using a sustainable lignin-based fuel, consisting of 44 % lignin, 50 % ethanol, and 6 % water, in conventional compression ignition (CI) marine engines. Through experimental evaluations on a modified small-bore CI engine, we identified the primary challenges associated with lignin-based fuel, including engine startup and shutdown issues due to solvent evaporation and lignin solidification inside the fuel system, and deposit formation on cylinder walls leading to piston ring seizure. To address these issues, we developed a fuel switching system transitioning from lignin-based fuel to cleaning fuel with 85 vol% of acetone, 10 vol% of water and 5 vol% of ignition improving additive, effectively preventing system clogs.
Technical Paper

Assessing Heavy Duty Vehicle CO2 Emissions for Qualification as a Zero Emissions Vehicle

2024-06-12
2024-37-0007
The global transportation industry, and road freight in particular, faces formidable challenges in reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions; both Europe and the US have already enabled legislation with CO2 / GHG reduction targets. In Europe, targets are set on a fleet level basis: a CO2 baseline has already been established using Heavy Duty Vehicle (HDV) data collected and analyzed by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in 2019/2020. This baseline data has been published as the reference for the required CO2 reductions. More recently, the EU has proposed a Zero Emissions Vehicle definition of 3g CO2/t-km. The Zero Emissions Vehicle (ZEV) designation is expected to be key to a number of market instruments that improve the economics and practicality of hydrogen trucks. This paper assesses the permissible amount of carbon-based fuel in hydrogen fueled vehicles – the Pilot Energy Ratio (PER) – for each regulated subgroup of HDVs in the baseline data set.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid-Electric Medium-HD Demonstrator Vehicle with a Pent-Roof SI Natural Gas Engine

2024-06-12
2024-37-0026
In response to global climate change, there is a widespread push to reduce carbon emissions in the transportation sector. For the difficult to decarbonize heavy-duty (HD) vehicle sector, lower carbon intensity fuels can offer a low-cost, near-term solution for CO2 reduction. The use of natural gas can provide such an alternative for HD vehicles while the increasing availability of renewable natural gas affords the opportunity for much deeper reductions in net-CO2 emissions. With this in consideration, the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory launched the Natural Gas Vehicle Research and Development Project to stimulate advancements in technology and availability of natural gas vehicles. As part of this program, Southwest Research Institute developed a hybrid-electric medium-HD vehicle (class 6) to demonstrate a substantial CO2 reduction over the baseline diesel vehicle and ultra-low NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Condensation Particle Counter-Based Portable Solid Particle Number System for Applications with High Water Content in Exhaust

2024-04-22
2024-01-5048
The Particle Number–Portable Emission Measurement System (PN-PEMS) came into force with Euro VI Phase E regulations starting January 1, 2022. However, positive ignition (PI) engines must comply from January 1, 2024. The delay was due to the unavailability of the PN-PEMS system that could withstand high concentrations of water typically present in the tailpipe (TP) of CNG vehicles, which was detrimental to the PN-PEMS systems. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the condensation particle counter (CPC)-based PN-PEMS measurement capabilities that was upgraded to endure high concentration of water. The PN-PEMS measurement of solid particle number (SPN23) greater than 23 nm was compared against the laboratory-grade PN systems in four phases. Each phase differs based upon the PN-PEMS and PN system location and measurements were made from three different CNG engines. In the first phase, systems measured the diluted exhaust through constant volume sampler (CVS) tunnel.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of closed-loop combustion phase optimization for varying fuel compensation and cylinder balancing in a HD SI-ICE

2024-04-09
2024-01-2837
Alternative fuels, such as natural and bio-gas, are attractive options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from combustion engines. However, the naturally occurring variation in gas composition poses a challenge and may significantly impact engine performance. The gas composition affects fundamental fuel properties such as flame propagation speed and heat release rate. Deviations from the gas composition for which the engine was calibrated result in changes in the combustion phase, reducing engine efficiency and increasing fuel consumption and emissions. However, the efficiency loss can be limited by estimating the combustion phase and adapting the spark timing, which could be implemented favorably using a closed-loop control approach. In this paper, we evaluate the efficiency loss resulting from varying gas compositions and the benefits of using a closed-loop controller to adapt the spark timing to retain the nominal combustion phase.
Technical Paper

Optical diagnostic study on ammonia-diesel and ammonia-PODE dual fuel engines

2024-04-09
2024-01-2362
Ammonia shows promise as an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines (ICEs) in reducing CO2 emissions due to its carbon-free nature and well-established infrastructure. However, certain drawbacks, such as the high ignition energy, the narrow flammability range, and the extremely low laminar flame speed, limit its widespread application. The dual fuel (DF) mode is an appealing approach to enhance ammonia combustion. The combustion characteristics of ammonia-diesel dual fuel mode and ammonia-PODE3 dual fuel mode were experimentally studied using a full-view optical engine and the high-speed photography method. The ammonia energy ratio (ERa) was varied from 40% to 60%, and the main injection energy ratio (ERInj1) and the main injection time (SOI1) were also varied in ammonia-PODE3 mode.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Internal and External EGR Effects on a CNG-OME Dual-Fuel Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2361
Dual-fuel engines powered by renewable fuels provide a potential solution for reducing the carbon footprint and emissions of transportation, contributing to the goal of achieving sustainable mobility. The investigation presented in the following uses a dual-fuel engine concept running on biogas (referred to as CNG in this paper) and the e-fuel polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether (OME). The current study focuses on the effects of exhaust gas rebreathing and external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on emissions and brake thermal efficiency (BTE). A four-cylinder heavy-duty engine converted to dual-fuel operation was used to conduct the engine tests at a load point of 1600 min-1 and 9.8 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The respective shares of high reactivity fuel (HRF, here: OME) and low reactivity fuel (LRF, here: CNG) were varied, as were the external and internal EGR rates and their combinations.
Technical Paper

A Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of an Ammonia-Biodiesel Dual-Fuel Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2369
Internal combustion engines, as the dominant power source in the transportation sector and the primary contributor to carbon emissions, face both significant challenges and opportunities in the context of achieving carbon neutral goal. Biofuels, such as biodiesel produced from biomass, and zero-carbon fuel ammonia, can serve as alternative fuels for achieving cleaner combustion in internal combustion engines. The dual-fuel combustion of ammonia-biodiesel not only effectively reduces carbon emissions but also exhibits promising combustion performance, offering a favorable avenue for future applications. However, challenges arise in the form of unburned ammonia (NH3) and N2O emissions. This study, based on a ammonia-biodiesel duel-fuel engine modified from a heavy-duty diesel engine, delves into the impact of adjustments in the two-stage injection strategy on the combustion and emission characteristics.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Ammonia Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Converted to Spark Ignition Operation

2024-04-09
2024-01-2371
Ammonia is one of the carbon-free alternatives considered for power generation and transportation sectors. But ammonia’s lower flame speed, higher ignition energy, and higher nitrogen oxides emissions are challenges in practical applications such as internal combustion engines. As a result, modifications in engine design and control and the use of a secondary fuel to initiate combustion such as natural gas are considered for ammonia-fueled engines. The higher-octane number of methane (the main component in natural gas) and ammonia allows for higher compression ratios, which in turn would increase the engine's thermal efficiency. One simple approach to initiate and control combustion for a high-octane fuel at higher compression ratios is to use a spark plug. This study experimentally investigated the operation of a heavy-duty compression ignition engine converted to spark ignition and ammonia-methane blends.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Performance and Emissions of BS VI Complaint EFI Motorbike with Oxygenated Fuel Blends (E0, E10, E20 & M15)

2024-04-09
2024-01-2372
Net-Zero emission ambitions coupled with availability of oxygenated fuels like ethanol encouraged the Government towards commercial implementation of fuels like E20. In this background, a study was taken up to assess the impact of alcohol blended fuels on performance and emission characteristics of a BS-VI complaint motorbike. A single cylinder, 113-cc spark ignition, ECU based electronic fuel injection motorbike was used for conducting tests. Pure gasoline (E0), 10% ethanol-gasoline (E10), 20% ethanol-gasoline (E20) and 15% methanol-gasoline (M15) blends meeting respective IS standards were used as test fuels. The oxygen content of E10, E20 and M15 fuels were 3.7%, 7.4% and 8.35% by weight respectively. Experiments were conducted following worldwide motorcycle test cycle (WMTC) as per AIS 137 standard and wide-open-throttle (WOT) test cycle, using chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Development of Oxygenated Diesel Fuel and Impact on Vehicle Performance

2024-04-09
2024-01-2374
World is moving towards cleaner, greener and energy efficient fuels. The rapid increase in the consumption of petroleum fuel has led to twin problem of air pollution and energy security. India being a developing nation, fuel demand and consumption in various industries, especially in road transport sector has been rising continuously. Fossil fuels are the main source of energy and approximately 85% of domestic need met through import of crude oil. The increasing fuel consumption has created interest for the blending of biofuels in conventional fuel and renewable fuels also. Among biofuels ethanol is one of them and preferable choice for blending in gasoline which is a fuel for spark ignition engines and flex fuel vehicles. As such ethanol/methanol cannot be used in compression-ignition diesel engines without engine modifications due to inherent low cetane number and lubricity of alcohols.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of High Octane Gasoline Fuel(s) on High Compression Ratio (HCR) Motorcycle – Based on Chassis Dynamometer Test

2024-04-09
2024-01-2375
The present study aims to determine the comparative performance evaluation in terms of fuel economy (kmpl) and wide open throttle (WOT) power derived from set of different blends of high octane gasoline fuel(s) i.e., Neat Gasoline (E0), E10 & E20 (With different dosages of additives) in high compression ratio (HCR) motorcycle on chassis dynamometer facility. With the Government of India focus on use of alcohol as co-blend of gasoline with the endeavour to save foreign exchange and also to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The commercially available blended fuels, E10 & E20, have high research octane number (RON, 92-100) and as per the available literature high RON fuel have the better anti-knocking tendencies thereby lead to higher fuel economy. There are various routes to formulate high octane fuel (refining technologies, additive approach & ethanol blending route) in the range of 92-100 octane number which are currently commercialized in Indian market.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis of Fuel Cells for High Altitude Long Flight Multi-rotor Drones

2024-04-09
2024-01-2177
In recent years, the burgeoning applications of hydrogen fuel cells have ignited a growing trend in their integration within the transportation sector, with a particular focus on their potential use in multi-rotor drones. The heightened mass-based energy density of fuel cells positions them as promising alternatives to current lithium battery-powered drones, especially as the demand for extended flight durations increases. This article undertakes a comprehensive exploration, comparing the performance of lithium batteries against air-cooled fuel cells, specifically within the context of multi-rotor drones with a 3.5kW power requirement. The study reveals that, for the specified power demand, air-cooled fuel cells outperform lithium batteries, establishing them as a more efficient solution.
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