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Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Transportation Ecosystem

2019-11-25
EPR2019005
Over the last 100 years, the automobile has become integrated in a fundamental way into the broader economy. A broad and deep ecosystem has emerged, and critical components of this ecosystem include insurance, after-market services, automobile retail sales, automobile lending, energy suppliers (e.g., gas stations), medical services, advertising, lawyers, banking, public planners, and law enforcement. These components – which together represent almost $2 trillion of the United State economy – are in equilibrium based on the current capabilities of automotive technology. However, the advent of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and technologies like electrification have the potential to significantly disrupt the automotive ecosystem. The critical cog governing the rate and pace of this shift is the management of the test and verification of AVs.
Research Report

Unsettled Impacts of Integrating Automated Electric Vehicles into a Mobility-as-a-Service Ecosystem and Effects on Traditional Transportation and Ownership

2019-11-25
EPR2019004
The current business model of the automotive industry is based on individual car ownership, yet new ride sharing companies such as Uber and Lyft are well capitalized to invest in large, commercially operated, on-demand mobility service vehicle fleets. Car manufacturers like Tesla want to incorporate personal car owners into part time fleet operation by utilizing their commercial fleet service. These robotaxi-fleets can be operated profitably when the technology works in a reliable manner and regulators allow driverless operation. Although Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) models of private and commercial vehicles fleets can complement public transportation models, they may contribute to lower public transportation ridership and thus higher subsidies per ride. This can lead to inefficiencies in the utilization of existing public transportation infrastructure.
Technical Paper

Determining the State Of Health [SOH] of Li Ion cell

2019-11-21
2019-28-2579
“NuGen Mobility Summit-2019” Paper Title : Determining the State Of Health [SOH] of Li Ion cell Authors: Sushant Mutagekar, Ashok Jhunjhunwala, Prabhjot Kaur Objective Cells age with life. This aging is dependant on various factors like charging/discharging rates, DOD of operation and operating temperature. As the cell ages it undergoes power fade (ability to deliver required power at particular State of Charge [SOC]) and capacity fade (the charge storage capacity of cell). In an Electric Vehicle it is important to know what power shall be demanded from a battery irrespective of what its current SOC is and number of cycles it has undergone. With minimal accuracy and less computational power, it is difficult for a Battery Management System [BMS] to accurately determine SOH; the paper proposes a a precise model that may help.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Car in India

2019-11-21
2019-28-2522
Automation is expanding in every possible direction and it was only time before it reached the Automobile sector. There has been tremendous traction towards autonomous cars since last 2-3 yrs as a probable solution to reduce accidents and promote safe and comfortable commute. Many companies have expressed their interest in developing some part(s) of it and when would all of this culminate resulting in a fully autonomous car. But as every coin has two aspects so same does automation. This paper covers the future of autonomous cars from Indian perspective, covering possible challenges, complex use cases, advantages, technology enablers, economy outlook etc. India has the dubious honor of ranking first in road deaths in the world at present & accounts for 10 percent of global road accidents with more than 1.46 lakh fatalities annually.
Technical Paper

Computer Vision and Monocular Camera System for Cost Efficient Autonomous Vehicle

2019-11-21
2019-28-2518
The positioning of the sensors on vehicle will play a critical role in autonomous cars, it improves the performance of overall system by all the means and make it cost effective by reducing a total system cost. This paper contributes in deciding the best position of camera location on the vehicle with complete geometric and system calculation based on the maximum speed of vehicle, hardware processing speed, camera parameters, actuation and control time, Blind spot detections, maximum Height of objects, etc. The paper presents the technologies and datasets used for lane lines and other object detections. It focusses on newly proposed technique and its calculations to decide the best location of monocular camera sensor on the vehicle by considering all other parameters of autonomous vehicle system. It enhances the performance of overall system as well as reduces the system cost which takes us closer to the futuristic dream of efficient and low-cost autonomous vehicle.
Technical Paper

Snowmobii 2.0 (Snow mobility Unmanned Vehicle)

2019-11-21
2019-28-2516
In this paper we propose the snow mobility vehicle in order increase the mobility and decrease the risk of accidents for carry food and medicines on snow bounded areas using unmanned tracked vehicle called as snowmobii 2.0. Our unmanned tracked vehicle can transport Food/medicines as well as Defence in snow bounded areas. This unmanned robot can run in loose as well as hard snow due to it have specific featured technology in base wheel(track wheel system) such as hub with outer seals that improve its durability. The proposed snow mobility vehicle is consist of many sophisticated-designed systems such as navigation system, obstacle detection system, communication system, temperature sensing system. Snowmobii 2.0 is easy to get command and enable significant reduction in losses of many solder’s precious lives due to unavailability of food and medicines at that place.
Technical Paper

Design improvements in advanced automotive batteries using AI

2019-11-21
2019-28-2505
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and with this comes challenges to improve the performance of battery to optimize power consumption in electric vehicles. Objective: This paper would focus on the optimization of battery performance incoherent with vehicle power consumption behavior in terms of efficiency using decision-making ability based on given input signals
Technical Paper

Impact of Vehicle Electrification on Brake Design

2019-11-21
2019-28-2499
Electric vehicles have come full circle from being primary vehicle type in 19th century (much before IC powered vehicles) to 21st century where major stake holders in mobility have announced plans towards vehicle electrification. Apart from battery & powertrain system, braking system is area which will undergo major changes because of vehicle electrification. But Why? Major keywords are regenerative braking, increased vehicle weight, no or insufficient vacuum from engine and silent powertrains. This paper tries to outline potential impact on hydraulic brake system & its component design for M1 and N1 category of four wheelers with advent of vehicle electrification. Needless to say extent of change will vary depending upon extent of electrification and extent of recuperation during regenerative braking. Extent of electrification depends upon whether vehicle is range extender type hybrid vehicle, plug in hybrid vehicle, battery electric vehicle, fuel cell vehicle etc.
Technical Paper

Wiring Harness Optimization towards Wireless Vehicle

2019-11-21
2019-28-2530
Paper Title - Wiring Harness Optimization towards Wireless vehicle Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective (maximum 100 words)  In current scenario, wiring harness plays a vital role in inter-connecting electrical & electronic components fitted all across the vehicle.  As per cable standard, DIN 72551 or ISO 6722, copper conductors being used in stranded wires against cable cross-section & corresponding weight.  While going complete wire-less requires each component to have its own battery, ground, transmitter & receiver which indeed is a very costly affair to be employed in vehicle as huge development cost is required.  Here I'm suggesting an innovative method to make a vehicle apparently Wire-Less by creating local clusters connected to each other via conventional wiring harness & wire-less module.  Such method will apparently give a look of Wire-less vehicle itself & better advantages in terms of installation, service, troubleshooting, uptime & customer delight.  Moreover, direct benefits of Cost, Weight, FE will also be achieved.
Technical Paper

Passenger "Sleeper Bus" Structure, an Optimization Study using Finite Element Analysis

2019-11-21
2019-28-2537
Sleeper buses are increasingly used as connectivity between cities and remote areas with sleeping comfort for passengers. During the normal operation, the bus body is subjected to several loads, external loads from the road (i.e. crossing over a speed bump, breaking & cornering). Moreover, there is a substantial possibility that these loads may lead to a structural failure. Hence, it is necessary to determine stresses occurred in the bus body to ensure its integrity under these driving scenarios. During the accident, rollover/front/rear/side impact, energy absorbing capacity of bus body structure is crucial for safety of passengers. The objective of this study is to reduce weight of bus structure while maintaining cost & safety as constraint. 3D Model prepared in NX and finite element model created in hypermesh ,LS-dyna/optistruct used as solver and post processing done in hyperview. In this study, fully loaded bus with passengers as well as maximum language mass, considered.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Vehicle Controller by using MBD approach

2019-11-21
2019-28-2494
The automobile industry is moving towards electrification of Vehicle to remove the exhaust gas emissions. A project was undertaken to develop Electric Vehicle control system from concept to vehicle trials in less than a year. The complete development cycle of an electronic controller required to be compressed to prepare mule electric vehicle within timeline. Agile methodology has been used for this project instead of waterfall as other control systems were in developing stage; system requirements were changing frequently. This paper presents the electric vehicle control unit development with agile methodology using model based development (MBD) in MATLAB and Simulink environment. The project flow consists of major phases like design of electrical architecture, system requirements specification, selection and setting up the simulation platform, EVCU strategy development, testing on Model in Loop (MIL)/ Hardware in Loop (HIL), vehicle trials.
Technical Paper

A Philosophy of Full Vehicle Simulation for analysing the Road NVH Problems

2019-11-21
2019-28-2491
Road and Engine borne noise are the most prominent sources of noise in any commercial vehicle. With advancement in technology and encouraging prospects in hybrid & electric vehicles, road noise can be set aside as the single most dominant source for vehicular NVH problems. In this paper, a full vehicle model is considered for complete NVH simulation with two acoustic and two structural response points. Random road excitations are applied at various vehicle speeds to determine the response characteristics. An elaborate study is conducted to understand the effects of vehicle speed and road conditions on the vehicle. An attempt is also successfully made to diagnose the effects of road excitations on the system behaviour by considering the suitable transfer functions. The methodology can be readily extended to any type of vehicle and speed as the excitations are independent of these parameters.
Technical Paper

Electric Commercial Vehicles And Charging Solutions

2019-11-21
2019-28-2476
Objective : Objective of the paper is to acquaint the audience with the concept of electric vehicles, Powertrain components used in an electric bus, Siemens contribution to the field of Electromobility, Typical configurations used in an electric bus, challenges and current limitations, emerging Technologies, future, how to address the future charging infra requirement. Methodology : The subject shall be discussed with the audience through a presentation coupled with Explanation by the presenter. The topic shall be opened with the concept of electromobility followed By history of electromobility at Siemens, contribution to the field of electro mobility, typical configurations of electric vehicles, Advantages of electric vehicles vis a vis conventional diesel buses, typical configurations of an electric bus, feasibility of electric buses for various transport services. Comparison of induction motor Vs.
Technical Paper

Non-linear dynamic Modeling, Simulation and Control of Five-Phase 10/8 Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2473
The SRM is gaining much interest for EVs due to its rare-earth-free characteristic and excellent performance. SRM possess several advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, high power density, fault-tolerant and it can produce extended constant power region, and this makes SRM as viable alternative over conventional PM drives. Objective: The objective of this paper is to establish proof of theoretical concepts related to SRM. The key to achieve an effective SRM modeling is to use a methodology that allow the nonlinearity of its magnetic characteristics to be represented while maximizing the simulation speed. This paper represents how magnetization data obtained from FEA in the form of look up tables is most appropriate way to represent SRM model. In this paper, performance analysis of SRM is done with the help of Open loop and Closed loop MATLAB simulations. These dynamic simulations of SRM will assist in understanding behavior of SRM in various loading and speed conditions.
Technical Paper

PMSM motor drive for Electric Vehicle applications

2019-11-21
2019-28-2475
To control air pollution in urban areas and to reduce carbon print in the cities, nowadays EV’s are preferred over IC engine vehicles. Earlier Electric vehicles used DC motor and Induction motors. But Brushless Permanent Magnet motors are preferred over Induction motor for EV’s due to their High Torque density, high-power density and highly efficiency. Prevalent Electric vehicles today have Brushless DC motors. Compared to BLDC, PMSM motor have smoother control and negligible torque ripplesThus, PMSM motor is preferred over BLDC for Electric Vehicle, because of its sinusoidal back emf which results in smoother control, and results into smoother and more comfortable driving experience to users. Methodology Sensor based field-oriented control (FOC) is implemented in 48 V 5kW Interior PMSM motor. . To start the Synchronous motor initial position of the rotor magnetic field should be known.
Technical Paper

Development of PCX Electric

2019-11-21
2019-28-2470
We developed the electric motorcycle model “PCX ELECTRIC” that satisfies usability under the traffic environment in apan and ASEAN’s motorcycle sales major countries. The PCX ELECTRIC features easily removable battery packs, which practically helps eliminate the waiting time associated with charging the battery. The compactly designed EV system, which is efficiently packaged in the vehicle, uses two removable 48 V battery packs connected in series to realize a 96 V system suitable for driving the electric motorcycle. The EV system mounted on the body of the 2018 PCX achieves a motor power of 4.2 kW, top speed of 60 km/h, and cruising range of 41 km (at a steady 60 km/h). In addition, we developed a highly-convenient battery attaching system that enables fixing of the battery to the vehicle body and engaging of the connectors with a single action operation.
Technical Paper

Noise and vibration simulations method for electric hybrid tractor powertrain.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2469
Internal combustion (IC) engines have been serving as prime source of power in tractors, since late 19th Century. Over this period, there have been significant improvements in IC engine technology leading to increased power density, reduction in tailpipe emissions and refinement in powertrain noise of tractors. As the regulations governing tailpipe emissions continue to be more stringent, original equipment manufacturers also have initiated work on innovative approaches such as diesel-electric hybrid powertrains to ensure compliance with new norms. However, introduction of such technologies may impact customer’s auditory, vibratory and drivability perceptions. Absence of conventional IC engine noise, association of electric whistle and whine, torque changes with activation/de-activation of motors and transmission behavior under transient conditions may result in new NVH issues in hybrid electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Improved Performance of Electric Vehicles with Supercapacitor

2019-11-21
2019-28-2468
Background: Due to Environmental concern worldwide, Mobility is under pressure to shift gear from fossil fuel to Electric. This is Rebirth of Electric Mobility is with state’s initiative, but it is facing bigger challenges than the 1900s era. Fossil fuel vehicles have already carved the benchmark on ease of range per charge, and time of charge (filling of fossil fuel), which needs to be at least matched by Electric Vehicles. The success of electric vehicles will not only be driven by state policy but also by performance and Economic Viability. While at this introduction level state is trying best to offset cost by way of subsidy/tax-sops offering. So, in clear terms “Performance of Electric Vehicles” need to be addressed and enhanced to put them in main stream in place of fossil fuel vehicles. In last 100 years there has been significant technological development in Motors, and Energy Storage, which is base of Electric mobility.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Road condition monitoring for developing countries

2019-11-21
2019-28-2462
"According to Data on Road accidents in India by Transport Research Wing of Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, more than 4 Lakhs road accidents happened every year from year 2003 to 2017. Poor road conditions and badly designed roads are the common cause of road accidents besides the driver's negligence. Poor roads and badly designed speed breakers are common in developing countries. Apart from accidents, poor road conditions can cause excessive fuel consumption & damage to vehicles. Road condition monitoring solutions aim to warn the drivers of upcoming bad patch on the road and optionally report road conditions to authorities. There are multiple existing solutions that use motion sensors and GPS to detect a bad patch on the road. The presented solution builds over capability of existing solutions by adding useful features making it more practical and useful.
Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
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