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Technical Paper

New Criteria for 0D/1D Knock Models to Predict the Knock Boundary for Different Gasoline Fuels

2021-04-06
2021-01-0377
As engine knock limits the efficiency of spark ignition engines and consequently further reduction of CO2 emissions, SI engines are typically designed to operate at the knock boundary. Therefore, a precise knock model is necessary to consider this phenomenon in an engine process simulation. The basis of the introduced 0D/1D knock model is to predict when the unburnt mixture auto-ignites, since auto-ignitions precede knocking events. The knock model further needs to evaluate the auto-ignition, because not every auto-ignition results in engine knock. As the introduced model’s prediction of the auto-ignition onset is already validated at extensive variations of operating conditions, this publication focusses on its evaluation. For this, two new, independent criteria are developed that take the pre-reactions of the unburnt mixture before the start of combustion into account to calculate a respective threshold for the auto-ignition onset at the knock boundary.
Technical Paper

Knock Model Covering Thermodynamic and Chemical Influences on the Two-Stage Auto-Ignition of Gasoline Fuels

2021-04-06
2021-01-0381
Engine knock is limiting the efficiency of spark ignition engines and consequently further reduction of CO2 emissions. Thus, an combustion process simulation needs a well working knock model to take this phenomenon into account. As knocking events result from auto-ignitions, the basis of a knock model is the accurate modeling of the latter. For this, the introduced 0D/1D knock model calculates the Livengood-Wu integral to estimate the state of the pre-reactions of the unburnt mixture and considers the two-stage auto-ignition of gasoline fuels, which occurs at specific boundary conditions. The model presented in this publication is validated against measurement data of a single cylinder engine. For this purpose, more than 12 000 knocking working cycles are investigated, covering extensively varied operating conditions for a wide-ranging validation.
Technical Paper

Systematic Analysis and Particle Emission Reduction of Homogeneous Direct Injection SI Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-0248
Due to increasing interest in air quality concerns, worldwide legislation towards lower particle emissions is getting more and more stringent. Because of this, the development towards even cleaner internal combustion engines (ICE) with Spark Ignition (SI) is of upmost importance. Along with the development targeting higher efficiency and specific power output, Direct Injection (DI) technology became more and more important than Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and is one of the main SI engine development fields. SI engine mixture preparation (PFI or DI) and combustion produce much lower particle raw emissions than Diesel engines, but these emissions also have to be reduced to fulfill worldwide legislation and customer expectations. In this paper the focus lies on the analysis and development methods used to drastically reduce particle emissions in a gasoline-fueled DI SI engine.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Combustion Mode Switch Between SI and Gasoline HCCI

2012-04-16
2012-01-1105
The worldwide stricter emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, challenging approach, especially regarding the combustion mode switch between spark-ignited (SI) and gasoline HCCI mode and vice-versa. Naturally aspirated (n.a.) HCCI shows considerable potential, but the operation range is air breathing limited due to hot residuals required for auto-ignition and to slow down reaction kinetics. Therefore it is limited to part-load operation. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized gasoline engines, it is imperative to investigate the synergies and challenges of boosted HCCI.
Technical Paper

Design of a Boosted 2-Cylinder SI-Engine with Gasoline Direct Injection to Define the Needs of Future Powertrains

2012-04-16
2012-01-0832
To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance to the SI-engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so leads to new challenges concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine with gasoline direct injection was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor and Bosch. This paper wants to offer an insight in the design process. The mechanical design as well as the combustion system concept process will be discussed.
Journal Article

Advanced Combustion System Analyses on a 125cc Motorcycle Engine

2011-11-08
2011-32-0557
Environmental consciousness and tightening emissions legislation push the market share of electronic fuel injection within a dynamically growing world wide small engines market. Similar to automotive engines during late 1980's, this opens up opportunities for original equipment manufacturers (OEM) and suppliers to jointly advance small engines performance in terms of fuel economy, emissions, and drivability. In this context, advanced combustion system analyses from automotive engine testing have been applied to a typical production motorcycle small engine. The 125cc 4-stroke, 2-valve, air-cooled, single-cylinder engine with closed-loop lambda-controlled electronic port fuel injection was investigated in original series configuration on an engine dynamometer. The test cycle fuel consumption simulation provides reasonable best case fuel economy estimates based on stationary map fuel consumption measurements.
Technical Paper

Study on Boosted Direct Injection SI Combustion with Ethanol Blends and the Influence on the Ignition System

2011-10-04
2011-36-0196
The stricter worldwide emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption and CO2-emission require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Ethanol fuel combined with boosting on direct injection gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, a challenging approach. Brazil is one of the main Ethanol fuel markets with its E24 and E100 fuel availability, which covers a large volume of the national needs. Additionally, worldwide Ethanol availability is becoming more and more important, e.g., in North America and Europe. Considering the future flex-fuel engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized spark ignition engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of Ethanol boosted operation. Main topic of the present work focuses on the operation of Ethanol blends up to E100 at high loads up to 30 bar imep.
Technical Paper

A Thermodynamic Study on Boosted HCCI: Experimental Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0905
Stricter emissions legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with boosted air systems on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising, yet challenging, approach. Naturally aspirated (NA) HCCI has already shown considerable potential in combustion efficiency gains. Nevertheless, since the volumetric efficiency is limited in the NA HCCI operation range due to the hot residuals required to ignite the mixture and slow down reaction kinetics, only part-load operation is feasible in this combustion mode. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified in downsized gasoline engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of controlled, boosted HCCI.
Journal Article

Engine Start-Up Optimization using the Transient Burn Rate Analysis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0125
The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emission legislation require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. Therefore, adaptations to the start-up conditions of the known models by Woschni, Hohenberg and Bargende were introduced for calculation of the wall heat transfer coefficient in SI engines with gasoline direct injection. This paper shows how the indicated values can be measured during the engine start-up.
Journal Article

Novel Transient Wall Heat Transfer Approach for the Start-up of SI Engines with Gasoline Direct Injection

2010-04-12
2010-01-1270
The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emissions limits require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. But with a fraction of nearly 45% of the burned fuel energy, the wall heat is very important for the calculation of energy balance and for the combustion process analysis.
Journal Article

A Thermodynamic Study on Boosted HCCI: Motivation, Analysis and Potential

2010-04-12
2010-01-1082
Due to the increasingly stricter emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption, there have been significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission requirements. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with turbo/supercharging on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, a challenging approach. Naturally aspirated (n.a.) HCCI has already shown a considerable potential of about 14% in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) compared with a conventional 4-cylinder 2.0 liter gasoline Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engine without any advanced valve-train technology. The HCCI n.a. operation range is air breathing limited due to the hot residuals required for the self-ignition and to slow down reaction kinetics, and therefore is limited to a part-load operation area.
Technical Paper

Pressure Trace Analysis Methods to Analyze Combustion Features and Cyclic Variability of Different Gasoline Combustion Concepts

2009-04-20
2009-01-0501
Pressure Trace Analysis (PTA) is the basis for any combustion concept development and analysis of its combustion features. Cyclic variability analysis is also addressed using PTA, for example by means of heat release calculation. To fulfill that requirement with a low computational effort, methods for reliable fast heat release calculation of single cycles are presented. A new approach to determine the temperature in the burnt zone of a 2-zone-model is introduced as well. These PTA methods were applied to chosen combustion concepts at a representative operation point: 2000/3 bar imep (work integral over 720 cad). The gasoline combustion concepts used in this study are: homogeneous charge stoichiometric spark ignition (SI) using standard valve-train and additionally using a variable valve-train regarding lift and timing (VVA); stratified charge spray guided direct injection (SGDI) and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI).
Journal Article

Investigations on the Transient Wall Heat Transfer at Start-Up for SI Engines with Gasoline Direct Injection

2009-04-20
2009-01-0613
The introduction of CO2-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emissions regulations require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes it necessary to carry out an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up. As of today, the well-known thermodynamic analysis using in-cylinder pressure traces at stationary condition is transmitted to the highly dynamic engine start-up. Due to this approximation the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes by Woschni, Hohenberg and Bargende do not lead to desired results. But with a fraction of approximately 40 % of the burnt fuel energy, the wall heat is very important for the calculation of energy balance and for the combustion process analysis during start-up.
Journal Article

A New Method to Detect Knocking Zones

2009-04-20
2009-01-0698
It is a well known fact that indicated efficiency of a SI engine at WOT is predominantly limited by knock occurrence. Therefore many investigations have been carried out to avoid knocking. Considering the further development of downsized engines knocking will also pose a greater challenge. Not only knocking but also irregular combustion in general will require further investigation in supercharged SI eingines. Premature ignition, for instance, hasn’t yet been completely understood and therefore limits the low end torque of supercharged SI engines. The purpose of this paper is to introduce different analysis methods which allow to identify the knock onset and the knocking zones in the combustion chamber. In addition to established methods new techniques have been developed to account for the complex nature of pressure oscillation during knocking combustion. Experimental data was acquired on a single cylinder research engine to validate the methodology using six pressure transducers.
Journal Article

Analysis of Different Gasoline Combustion Concepts with Focus on Gas Exchange

2008-04-14
2008-01-0427
Novel combustion technologies, which de-throttle the gasoline spark ignition (SI) engine, show high potential in reducing the fuel consumption. Technologies like variable valve actuation and/or gasoline direct injection, allow new strategies to run the SI engine unthrottled with early inlet valve closing (SI-VVA), charge stratification (SI-STRAT) and controlled auto ignition (CAI), also known as gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). These diverse combustion concepts show thermodynamic gains that stem from several, often different, sources. A multitude of definitions of thermodynamic gas exchange potentials arise when looking at the various publications concerning de-throttled combustion concepts. This paper shows a summary and comparison of these definitions and points out which one can be applied in general to evaluate various combustion concepts under the same basis of evaluation.
Technical Paper

Multi-Mode Combustion Strategies with CAI for a GDI Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0214
The controlled auto-ignition1 (CAI) improves dramatically the efficiency of a gasoline engine and brings it in close competition to the diesel engine without penalties in emissions. With CAI run in part-load, the gasoline engine reaches a standard driving cycle advantage of 12% in fuel economy compared to current commercial engines operating solely in homogeneous gasoline direct injection (GDI) with a stoichiometric charge. CAI is run lean in fuel and thus limited in load similar to the second generation spray guided stratified GDI strategy that promises at least the same fuel efficiency but is plagued with high NOx emissions requiring complex after-treatment systems. Although CAI produces negligible NOx, and a simple three-way catalyst suffices, it depends strongly on judiciously operating the engine within the dynamic operating cycle. Direct injection, valve actuation flexibility and advanced controls based on combustion state sensing are indispensable for this.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Analysis and Benchmark of Various Gasoline Combustion Concepts

2006-04-03
2006-01-0231
Novel Combustion technologies and strategies show high potential in reducing the fuel consumption of gasoline spark ignition (SI) engines. In this paper, a comparison between various gasoline combustion concepts at two representative engine operating points is shown. Advantages of the combustion concepts are analyzed using thermodynamic split of losses method. In this paper, a tool for thermodynamic assessment (Split of Losses) of conventional and new operating strategies of SI engine and its derivatives is used. Technologies, like variable valve actuation and/or gasoline direct injection, allow new strategies to run the SI engine unthrottled with early inlet valve closing (SI-VVA) combined with high EGR, charge stratification (SI-STRAT) and controlled auto ignition (CAI), also known as gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). These diverse combustion concepts show thermodynamic gains that stem from several, often different sources.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Self Ignition in HCCI and Partial HCCI Engines Using a Reduced Order Model

2005-04-11
2005-01-0159
In this paper, a newly developed model that can be applied for the prediction of ignition delay times and heat release in engines operating in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode is presented. The proprietary numerical model is based on multi-zone application of the First Law of Thermodynamics and is coupled with a newly developed reduced kinetic schemes describing the oxidation of primary reference fuels (n-Heptane and iso-Octane). This proprietary code takes into account the influence of inhomogeneities of residual gas, air-to-fuel ratio and temperature distribution on combustion processes in a simplified fashion. The proposed reaction schemes are validated by comparison with shock-tube measurements of ignition delay times at various pressures, fuel-to-air ratios and temperatures. Furthermore, the performance of reduced models are tested by comparing the results with predictions of detailed reaction mechanisms which are available in the literature.
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