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Technical Paper

Empowering the brake systems

2021-10-11
2021-01-1261
Some researches show that the transport system is one of the main responsible for the emission of pollutants in the atmosphere. The growing demand for automobiles contrasts directly with the scarcity of inputs, planet temperature increasing and air quality degradation in large cities. This counterpoint is explored and discussed a lot, demanding that studies would be conducted to find out sustainable solutions in the production to end-customers. Instead of use fossil resources, one of the options to reduce gas emissions is the use of vehicles powered by electricity. When converting part of the vehicle's kinetic energy into electrical one its reduces emissions in the production electricity – power plants - as well burning gases in transport. Through technological innovations applied in brake systems with stability control embark safety and environment considering a single system.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the effect of the wedged type brake caliper piston on brake drag

2021-10-11
2021-01-1293
Reducing brake drag has always been one of the most important goals among brake system engineers and its importance has never been higher due to the historic rise in global fuel economy and carbon emission standards. Although many studies have been done with regard to the improvement of brake drag, previous papers have focused mainly on studying the optimization of traditionally well-known factors such as geometry of the piston seal groove where the piston seal is to be located, piston materials, properties of the piston seal, and so forth. In contrast, only few papers deal with the entire mechanism of the piston roll-back. The present work tries to change the shape of the piston(wedged type) to differentiate the mechanism of the piston roll-back from the conventional method and attempts to illuminate the interaction between wedged type brake caliper piston and piston seal.
Technical Paper

Energy Saving Speed Planning Prompting System for Commercial Vehicle Driving In Mountain Area

2021-10-11
2021-01-1279
The mountainous roads are very complex and changeable. When commercial vehicles are driving in mountain areas, the using of brakes can not only reduce the fuel economy, but also increase the brake wear. The aim of this system is utilizing the terrain changes of mountainous roads to guide the driver to control the accelerator pedal reasonably through the mutual transformation of kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy for reducing the energy loss caused by braking on downhill road. The theoretical control points of releasing the accelerator pedal on the uphill road are determined based on the road digital elevation model (DEM) information and the vehicle dynamic model.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic performance assessment on typical SUV car model by on-road surface pressure mapping method

2021-10-01
2021-28-0188
Aerodynamics of on-road vehicles has come to the limelight in the recent years. Better aerodynamic design of vehicle would improve vehicle fuel efficiency with increased acceleration performance. To obtain best aerodynamic body, the series of design modifications and different testing methodologies must be involved in vehicle design and validation phase. Wind tunnel aerodynamic force measurement, road load determination and computational fluid dynamics were the common methods used to evaluate the aerodynamic behavior of the vehicle body. As a novel approach, the present work discusses about the on-road (Real time) testing methodology that is aimed to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of vehicle body using surface pressure mapping. A 64-Channel digital pressure scanner has been utilized in this work for mapping the pressure at different locations of the typical vehicle body.
Technical Paper

AN INVESTIGATION ON CORROSION AND WEAR BEHAVIOR OF AUTOMOTIVE MATERIALS

2021-10-01
2021-28-0238
Corrosive and wear characteristics of biodiesel are important for long term durability of engine parts. The present study aims to compare the corrosion and wear behavior of aluminum and cast iron in both diesel and biodiesel. Immersion tests in biodiesel (B100) and diesel (D100) were carried out at 30°C for 1300 h. At the end of the test, corrosion characteristic was investigated by weight loss measurements and changes on the exposed metal surface. Surface morphology and Energy dispersive x-ray analysis was examined by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX). The Results show that the extent of corrosion and change in fuel properties upon exposure to metals are more in biodiesel than that in diesel. Wear tests are performed for variety of reason, characterize materials and to select material for specific applications. To investigate the friction an wear behavior of bio diesel based lubricant variants pin on disc tribometer (Ducom).
Technical Paper

Assessing the effect of torque converter losses on the start emission and Engine stability in TGDI AT Vehicle

2021-10-01
2021-28-0185
The emission norms around the world are continuously changing and getting stringent with every revision. India is on its way to make its emission norms at par with that prevailing in the developed nations. The cold-start condition is an important factor affecting vehicle emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) engines. In this paper, the effects of change in torque converter losses on emissions are experimentally investigated in a TGDI AT vehicle. The instant engagement of the torque converter puts a sudden torque on the engine and thus affects its stability. Thus, to overcome the stability issue, Engine torque has to be simultaneously increased for smooth engagement. As a result, the likelihood of the slightly leaner air-fuel mixture in the cylinder, which results in higher Nox formation, is much greater in an AT vehicle than that of a similar MT vehicle.
Technical Paper

Chain load optimisation through Fuel pump packaging and CAE simulations for a BS6 compliant Diesel engine

2021-10-01
2021-28-0163
The introduction of CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) norms has put a lot of importance on improving the fuel economy of passenger car vehicles. One of the areas to improve the fuel economy is by reducing engine friction. Camshaft drive torque reduction is one such area that helps in engine friction reduction. This paper explains the camshaft drive torque optimization work done on a passenger car Diesel engine with DOHC (double overhead camshaft). The exhaust camshaft of the engine drives the high-pressure fuel injection pump in addition to valve actuation. Camshaft drive torque is reduced by reducing the chain load. This is done through optimum phasing of the FIP lobe that drives the fuel injection pump and the cam lobe actuating the exhaust valves. Additional boundary condition for the phasing is ensuring that the FIP lobe is in the fall region of its profile while the piston is at TDC. This helps in avoiding rail pressure fluctuation.
Technical Paper

Effect of CaO Nano particles from sea shell on diesel engine characteristics fuelled with ternary biodiesel blends

2021-10-01
2021-28-0236
Biodiesel was found to be a promising alternative source to diesel fuel for which the engine characteristics can be improved by means of Nano additives. The present work deals with the effect of calcium oxide Nano fluid on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with ternary blends comprising of Calophyllum, Neem biodiesel and diesel fuel. Calcium oxide was synthesised by means of calcination process from Mactra Corallina sea shell. The calcium oxide was converted into Nano particles by means of ball milling and dispersed in distilled water using ultra-sonication to form Nano fluids. The stability of Nano fluid was found to be effective at 100 ppm. Blend selected for the study has the proportion of 95 % biodiesel (B20), 3 % Nano fluid and 2 % surfactant labelled as B20 + NF. Results show that addition of Nano fluid to biodiesel increased Brake Thermal Efficiency and reduced Brake Specific Fuel Consumption.
Technical Paper

Design, Development And Experimental Investigation On The Effect Of HVAC Power Consumption In Electric Vehicle Integrated With Thin Film Solar PV Panels.

2021-10-01
2021-28-0234
Air conditioning systems are one of the significant auxiliary loads on the vehicle powertrain. In an Electric Vehicle (EV) where the available energy is limited, it becomes crucial to optimize the overall energy consumption of the auxiliary loads. The major power consuming components in an automotive HVAC system (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) are: Compressor, Cabin blower, Condenser cooling fan and the Control devices. Significant progress is already made in enhancing the energy efficiency of the above-mentioned power consuming components part of vehicle HVAC system. Alternate energy sources are being explored recently, to reduce the energy demand from vehicle. One such proposal is to harness the abundant solar energy available, through solar panels and consume this energy to supplement the power required for HVAC system components. Solar panels convert solar energy to electrical energy by the principle of the photovoltaic effect.
Technical Paper

A Unique Methodology to Improve the Clutch Pedal Characteristics of a Compact Sports Utility vehicle

2021-10-01
2021-28-0243
Clutch characteristics play a vital role in ensuring a smooth and comfortable customer experience of any vehicle. The expectation is to have an optimized clutch pedal effort, reduced pedal travel, adequate modulation zone and a smooth and quick pedal returnability. However, achieving all these customer requirements is extremely challenging in some cases. In the present work, the authors discuss on improving the clutch pedal characteristics of a compact sports utility vehicle (SUV by adapting a unique approach of combining a dual torsion spring (DTS) and a return spring (RS). DTS is widely used in the clutch pedal to improve the pre-load at zero travel (1.5 kg to 2.0 kg) to improve the pedal returnability in the free-play zone. Moreover, it is also quite helpful to reduce the peak pedal effort by giving a positive assistance.
Technical Paper

Tribological evaluation of organic frictional composites filled with various nano- solid lubricants

2021-10-01
2021-28-0259
Incorporation of organic fibers originate from plants in polymer composite is not new as they provide eco-friendly lighter composite and it have gained attention over a period of time because of the specific applications. The augmenting demanded by automotive sectors for wear and frictional areas where the conservation of energy is concerned is expected one with the addition of nano – solid lubricants. Our aim is to highlight the possibility of organic basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites along with three possible combination of nano – solid lubricants like graphite/graphene/ molybdenum disulfide was chosen and to fabricate tribo-materials through hot press technique.
Technical Paper

Emission Improvement and Heat Balance Analysis for the Usage of Switchable Water Pump in Cold NEDC Cycle

2021-10-01
2021-28-0279
Over the years, Internal Combustion engines have evolved drastically from large naturally aspirated engines to small sized forced aspiration engines which have a power output comparable to that of higher capacity engines. Engine downsizing has become more prominent in the present world due to higher focus being exerted on Fuel Economy and tighter emission norms. As downsized engines generally operate in high BMEP conditions, their cooling systems are designed for handling high thermal loads. This leads to a negative impact on the cold emission cycle by resulting in a longer warmup periods to get the engine up to its optimum operating temperature. This has a major effect on both the combustion efficiency as well as the frictional resistance of the engine. Switchable coolants pumps are one way to address this problem by creating zero flow conditions to warmup the engine by restricting any unnecessary heat rejection and improving the in-cylinder temperature.
Technical Paper

Regeneration of waste energy from tire strain and rapid charging through super-capacitor for electric vehicles

2021-10-01
2021-28-0278
Vehicle tyres lead us to move miles and miles, which faces a lot of heat and stresses all that energy should not go in vain, Peizoelectric materials are materials which have the ability to convert the applied mechanical stress into electrical charge. Our work deals with the conversion of heat and stress of the tyre into an electrical energy by using piezoelectric transducer, rapid collection and storage of electric energy using super-capacitor. For this experimental study, electric bike was taken and its tyres was replaced by regenerative tyre, which is made of two tyres mounted in the same rim inbetween them piezoelectric transducer was placed, its also called as piezoelectric sandwich tyre structure. In the order of 4 columns and 40 rows in the circumference of the inner tyre at about 320 PZT (lead zirconate titanate) for both tyres. The PZT has greater stability and higher operating temperature.
Technical Paper

Effect of combustion bowl shape on performance combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine using biodiesel with TiO2 nanoparticle additive as fuel

2021-10-01
2021-28-0284
The purpose of this experimental investigation is to determine the optimized geometry for the combustion bowl of invariant speed compression ignition engine operated with biodiesel. The sesame biodiesel has been considered for the current proposed work. To enhance the performance characteristics and reduce the emission magnitudes, the sesame methyl ester of 20% blended with diesel fuel of 80% (S20-D80).The nanoparticle additive of titanium oxide at the rate 0f 25 ppm was added to the blend (S20-D80+ 25 ppm). Furthermore improvement in performance of the engine, two diverse combustion bowls was designed with respect to various literature studies.Toroidal U- shape combustion bowl (MP-i) and Toroidal Stepped V-shape combustion bowl (MP-ii) were selected for the current study.The engine performance, combustion and emissions has been analyzedon both modified piston bowl and compared with the standard piston.
Technical Paper

Implementation of K* classifier for Identifying Misfire Prediction on Spark Ignition Four-Stroke Engine through Vibration Data

2021-10-01
2021-28-0282
Misfire represents a crucial problem for vehicles, adding to the energy depletion in the midst of air pollution such as CO and NOx caused by exhaust gases. Because of a special cylinder, misfire produces a particular vibration pattern. These patterns can isolate and interpret valuable properties to detect misfires. In this paper, a machine learning approach is used as a predictive model for the identification of misfires. In the current research, vibratory signals were taken as a kind of misfire that is unique to each cylinder (acquired with the help of a piezoelectric accelerometer). Statistical characteristics are then extracted and feature selection is applied using the J48 decision tree algorithm from the features obtained. In the classification of misfires in the cylinders, the K* classification was used. The experiment was conducted in Maruti Suzuki Baleno. Every single cylinder was tested on a separate basis.
Technical Paper

Machine Learning based Operation Strategy for EV Vacuum Pump

2021-09-22
2021-26-0139
In an automobile braking system, Vacuum pump is used to generate vacuum in the vacuum servo or brake booster in order to enhance the safety and comfort to the driver or operator. The vacuum pump operation in the braking system varies from conventional to electric vehicles. The vacuum pump is connected to the alternator shaft or CAM shaft in a conventional vehicle, operates continuously at engine speed and supplies continuous vacuum to the brake servo irrespective of vacuum requirement. To sustain continuous operation, these vacuum pumps are generally oil cooled. Whereas in electric vehicles, the use of a motor-driven vacuum pump is very much needed for vacuum generation as there is no engine present. Thus, with the assistance of an electronic control unit, the vacuum pump can be operated only when needed saving a significant amount of energy contributing to fuel economy and range improvement and emission reduction.
Technical Paper

AVL’s perspective on future powertrains for mobile agricultural and construction machinery

2021-09-22
2021-26-0047
Zero emission technologies are arriving in the OFF-Road industry, driven by government regulations to reduce emissions and noise. Furthermore, future city bans will prohibit transit of vehicles with diesel engines in the central areas. These stricter legal requirements force the manufactures of mobile agricultural and construction machinery to develop vehicles with diesel alternative powertrains. This paper will discuss the potential of different powertrains using full battery electric, hybrid, fuel cell or hydrogen ICE technology. The technologies we be evaluated and compared in terms of integration ability, operation- and refilling time and TCO. There are considerable challenges in bringing alternative powertrains into typical off-road applications. Especially the huge number of different applications with specific requirements will lead to high diversity of powertrain architectures, which have to be managed by vehicle manufactures.
Technical Paper

Engine out particulate emission optimization with multiple injection strategy for 3-cylinder TGDI E6d engine

2021-09-22
2021-26-0070
Abstract With the increase in the number of automobiles on road, there is a very strong emphasis on reducing the air pollution which led to evolution of stringent emission norms. To meet these stringent emission norms, the ideal solution is to optimize the engine hardware and the combustion system to reduce the emission at source thereby reducing the dependency on exhaust after treatment system. Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines are gaining popularity worldwide as they provide a balance between fun to drive and fuel efficiency. Controlling the particle emissions especially Particle Number (PN) is a challenge in GDI engines due to the nature of its combustion system. In this study, experiments were performed on a 1.2Litre 3 cylinder 250bar GDI engine to capture the effect of injection strategies on PN.
Technical Paper

In Cylinder Charge Motion Development for Gasoline Engine

2021-09-22
2021-26-0062
In recent years, world-wide automotive manufacturers have been continuously working in the research of suitable technical solutions to meet upcoming stringent carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction and Real Driving Emission (RDE) targets, as set by international regulatory authorities. Many technologies have been already developed, or are currently under study by automotive manufacturer for gasoline engines, to meet legislated targets. In-line with above objective, the enhancement of turbulence intensity inside the combustion chamber has a significant importance which contributes to accelerating the burning rate, to increase the thermal efficiency and to reduce the cyclic variability. Turbulence generation is mainly achieved during the intake stroke which is strictly affected by the intake port geometry, orientation and to certain extends by combustion chamber masking.
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