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Technical Paper

The Behavior of Fuel Droplets on a Heated Substrate

2021-10-15
2021-01-5099
The processes of surface wetting and film evaporation play a major role in any application using liquid fuels. Since the behavior of entire multi-liquid films is influenced by many simultaneously occurring physical processes, exact modeling is not yet possible. In order to reduce the complexity and to determine the basic effects in the spreading and evaporation of multi-component films, this study was carried out by placing single 5 μl droplets on a heated metal surface. Various alkanes, ethanol, and mixtures, as well as real gasoline, were studied at surface temperatures between 69°C and 140°C. To describe the processes qualitatively and determine the time-dependent wetted surface area, the droplets were visualized using cameras. With the results, it was possible to determine the course of the wetted surface over time and to compare different liquids under varying surface temperatures.
Research Report

Unsettled Economic, Environmental, and Health Issues of Ammonia for Automotive Applications

2021-10-15
EPR2021022
Ammonia has been previously trialed as an automotive fuel; however, it was hardly competitive with fossil fuels in terms of cost, energy density, and practicality. However, due to climate change, those practical and cost-related parameters have finally become secondary deciding factors in fuel selection. Ammonia is safer than most fuels and it offers superior energy densities compared to compressed or liquefied hydrogen. It is believed that ammonia might be an ultimate clean fuel choice and an extension to the emerging hydrogen economy. Unsettled Economic, Environmental, and Health Issues of Ammonia for Automotive Applications examines the major unsettled issues of using ammonia as a clean automotive fuel alternative, including the lack of regulations and standards for automotive applications, technology readiness, safety perception, and presently limited supply.
Technical Paper

Energy Saving Speed Planning Prompting System for Commercial Vehicle Driving In Mountain Area

2021-10-11
2021-01-1279
The mountainous roads are very complex and changeable. When commercial vehicles are driving in mountain areas, the using of brakes can not only reduce the fuel economy, but also increase the brake wear. The aim of this system is utilizing the terrain changes of mountainous roads to guide the driver to control the accelerator pedal reasonably through the mutual transformation of kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy for reducing the energy loss caused by braking on downhill road. The theoretical control points of releasing the accelerator pedal on the uphill road are determined based on the road digital elevation model (DEM) information and the vehicle dynamic model.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Control System of Magnetic-Impulse Parts Processing in Ship Repair Production

2021-10-04
2021-01-5096
Humanity has been interested in magnetism for over 300 years. Many authors have studied the use of applied magnetism to change the properties of products and expand the use of magnetic processing in ship repair production [1, 2]. Experience shows that magnetic pulse processing (MPP) is a simple and economical way to increase the durability of metal-cutting tools, increase the resource of the most worn parts of machines and mechanisms, and increase the durability of friction units, assembly units, and structures during their repair and manufacture. MPP has a number of advantages: simplicity of electromagnetic energy concentration on the product, its rapid accumulation by the material of the working elements of the part, and the efficiency of improving the operational characteristics (processing time is 0.3 ... 2.0 s with insignificant energy consumption).
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance Assessment on Typical SUV Car Model by On-Road Surface Pressure Mapping Method

2021-10-01
2021-28-0188
Aerodynamics of on-road vehicles has come to the limelight in the recent years. Better aerodynamic design of vehicle would improve vehicle fuel efficiency with increased acceleration performance. To obtain best aerodynamic body, the series of design modifications and different testing methodologies must be involved in vehicle design and validation phase. Wind tunnel aerodynamic force measurement, road load determination and computational fluid dynamics were the common methods used to evaluate the aerodynamic behavior of the vehicle body. As a novel approach, the present work discusses about the on-road (Real time) testing methodology that is aimed to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of vehicle body using surface pressure mapping. A 64-Channel digital pressure scanner has been utilized in this work for mapping the pressure at different locations of the typical vehicle body.
Technical Paper

Tribological Evaluation of Organic Frictional Composites Filled with Various Nano-Solid Lubricants

2021-10-01
2021-28-0259
Incorporating of organic fibers originated from plants in polymer composite have gained significant attention over a period of time as they provide eco-friendly lighter composites. The increasing demand by automotive sectors for wear and frictional areas where the conservation of energy is concerned is expected with addition of nano -solid lubricants. Our aim is to fabricate organic frictional composites of basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites along with three possible combination of nano - solid lubricants like (1) graphite (2) graphene (3) molybdenum disulfide through hot press technique. The outcome of the tribological tests (by varying load and sliding velocity) indicates that these three-organic fiber-based polymer composites have been effectively modified by nano-solid lubricants leading to significant enhancement. In which molybdenum disulfide- based brake pad material is an attractive material to replace the practical problems in automotive sector was the key finding.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on Corrosion and Wear Behavior of Automotive Materials

2021-10-01
2021-28-0238
The energy demand of the world is keep increasing, major share of the demand is compensated by non-renewable fossil fuels. Automotive sector consumes a huge amount of fossil fuels, as majority of the segment use internal combustion as a prime mover. In the present era researches are carried to figure out the suitable replacements for fossil fuels to attain sustainable environment. One of the major challenge and keen interest of everyone is on waste management, several researches are aimed to bridge the gap between energy demand and waste management. In such way biofuels came into limelight a decade ago, still numerous works are carried in the area for creating socio economic friendly environment. Enormous studies have been carried out to assess their performance in the internal combustion engines, here in the present study performance of the working material against the biodiesel is studied.
Technical Paper

A Unique Methodology to Evaluate the Metallic Noise Concern of a Dual-Mass Flywheel in Real-World Usage Conditions

2021-10-01
2021-28-0249
Dual mass flywheel (DMF) is an excellent solution to improve the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) characteristic of any vehicle by isolating the driveline from the engine torsional vibrations. For the same reason, DMF’s are widely used in high power-density diesel and gasoline engines. However, the real-world usage conditions pose a lot of challenges to the robustness of the DMF. In the present work, by capturing the Real-World Usage Profile (RWUP) conditions, a new methodology is developed to evaluate the robustness of a DMF fitted in a Sports utility vehicle (SUV). Ventilation holes are provided on clutch housing to improve convective heat transfer. Improvement in convective heat transfer will increase the life and will reduce clutch burning concerns. Cities like Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, roads will have clogged waters during rainy season. When the vehicle was driven in such roads, water enters inside the clutch housing through ventilation holes.
Technical Paper

Effect of Single Layer Thin Film Thermal Barrier Coatings on Mechanical, Thermal and Tribological Characterization of Cast Iron (GJL 300)

2021-10-01
2021-28-0285
Thermal Barrier Coating (TBCs) is one of the most promising technologies for reducing heat dissipation through the combustion chamber in Internal Combustion (IC) Engines. In this paper, Gadolinium Zirconate (GZ) was chosen as a coating material and prepared using a solid-state synthesis process. Cast iron (GJL 300) was selected as the substrate, which is predominantly used as the cylinder head material, and GZ was deposited using Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition technique (EB-PVD). The mechanical, thermal, and tribological properties were evaluated as per the ASTM standards. Improved hardness and wear resistance is noted on coated substrates. The thermal conductivity and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of the coated substrates decreased by 3.43% and 5.03% respectively when compared with uncoated substrates. Hence, it is confirmed that thin-film TBCs has potential to provide the thermal and wear protection inside the combustion chamber of IC engines.
Technical Paper

Implementation of K* Classifier for Identifying Misfire Prediction on Spark Ignition Four-Stroke Engine through Vibration Data

2021-10-01
2021-28-0282
Misfire represents a crucial problem for vehicles, adding to the energy depletion in the midst of air pollution such as CO and NOx caused by exhaust gases. Because of a special cylinder, misfire produces a particular vibration pattern. These patterns can isolate and interpret valuable properties to detect misfires. In this paper, a machine learning approach is used as a predictive model for the identification of misfires. In the current research, vibratory signals were taken as a kind of misfire that is unique to each cylinder (acquired with the help of a piezoelectric accelerometer). Statistical characteristics are then extracted and feature selection is applied using the J48 decision tree algorithm from the features obtained. In the classification of misfires in the cylinders, the K* classification was used. The experiment was conducted in Maruti Suzuki Baleno. Every single cylinder was tested on a separate basis.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Transient Response on a Downsized 4 Cylinder Engine for Automobile Application

2021-10-01
2021-28-0280
Ever since mainstreaming of automobiles, engineers are focusing on making the vehicles better by means of making them more efficient, powerful and less polluting. In this study, venues of improving low end torque via improvement in volumetric efficiency as well as proper selection of turbochargers is done. An in-depth analysis of gas dynamics with respect to valve timing is studied along with the AVL Boost 1D simulation. It was found that volumetric efficiency starts to improve when there is a reduction in exhaust - exhaust valve overlap. There is an improvement found in the fresh air ratio (lambda) as the residual gas content is reduced. After the selection of valve timing, turbocharger optimization is done with comparison between two turbine sizes. Along with turbocharger comparison, technology comparison is also done namely between normal electronic VGT (Variable Geometry Turbo) (bigger turbine) and electronic VGT coupled with waste gate (smaller turbine).
Technical Paper

Energy Impact Analysis of Switchable Coolant Pump in a High Power Density Diesel Engine

2021-10-01
2021-28-0279
Over the years, Internal Combustion engines have evolved drastically from large naturally aspirated engines to small sized forced aspiration engines which have a power output comparable to that of higher capacity engines. Engine downsizing has become more prominent in the present world due to higher focus being exerted on Fuel Economy and tighter emission norms. In the process of achieving these highly efficient engines, their cooling systems are also designed to handle the higher thermal operating conditions. This leads to a negative impact on the cold NEDC cycle by resulting in a longer warmup periods to get the engine upto its optimum operating temperature. This has a major effect on both the combustion efficiency as well as the frictional resistance of the engine. Switchable coolant pumps are one way to address this problem by creating zero flow conditions to warmup the engine by restricting any unnecessary heat rejection and improving the in-cylinder temperature.
Technical Paper

Regeneration of Waste Energy from Tire Strain and Rapid Charging Through Super-Capacitor for Electric Vehicles

2021-10-01
2021-28-0278
Vehicle tyres lead us to move miles and miles, which faces a lots of heat and stresses all that energy should not go in vain, Peizoelectric materials are materials which have the ability to convert the applied mechanical stress into electrical charge. Our experimental work deals with the conversion of heat and stress of the tyre into an electrical energy by using piezoelectric transducer followed by rapid collection and storage of electric energy using super-capacitor. For this experimental study, electric bike was taken and conventional tyres was replaced by regenerative tyre. PZT (lead zirconate titanate) type PET is chosen for greater stability and higher operating temperature. PET is placed in the order of 8 columns in which 4 columns is placed over another 4 columns and 40 rows in the circumference of the inner tyre at about 320 PET in each tyre.
Technical Paper

Design, Development and Experimental Investigation on the Effect of HVAC Power Consumption in Electric Vehicle Integrated with Thin Film Solar PV Panels

2021-10-01
2021-28-0234
Air conditioning systems are one of the significant auxiliary loads on the vehicle powertrain. In an Electric Vehicle (EV) where the available energy is limited, it becomes crucial to optimize the overall energy consumption of the auxiliary loads. The major power consuming components in an automotive HVAC system (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) are: Compressor, Cabin blower, Condenser cooling fan and the Control devices. Significant progress is already made in enhancing the energy efficiency of the above-mentioned power consuming components part of vehicle HVAC system. Alternate energy sources are being explored recently, to reduce the energy demand from vehicle. One such proposal is to harness the abundant solar energy available, through solar panels and consume this energy to supplement the power required for HVAC system components. Solar panels convert solar energy to electrical energy by the principle of the photovoltaic effect.
Technical Paper

Effect of Calcium Oxide Nano Fluid Additive on Diesel Engine Characteristics Fuelled with Ternary Blend

2021-10-01
2021-28-0236
Biodiesel was found to be a promising alternative source to diesel fuel for which the engine characteristics can be improved by means of Nano additives. The present work deals with the effect of calcium oxide Nano fluid on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with ternary blends comprising of Calophyllum, Neem biodiesel and diesel fuel. Calcium oxide was synthesized by means of calcination process from Mactra Corallina sea shell which imparts novelty to the present work. The calcium oxide was converted into Nano particles by means of ball milling and dispersed in distilled water using ultra-sonication to form Nano fluids. The stability of Nano fluid was found to be effective at 100 ppm. Blend selected for the study has the proportion of 95 % biodiesel (B20), 3 % Nano fluid and 2 % Tween 20 surfactant labelled as B20 + NF.
Technical Paper

Chain Load Optimization through Fuel Pump Lobe Phasing and CAE Simulations for a BS6 Compliant Diesel Engine

2021-10-01
2021-28-0163
The introduction of CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) norms has put a lot of importance on improving the fuel economy of passenger car vehicles. One of the areas to improve the fuel economy is by reducing engine friction. Camshaft drive torque reduction is one such area that helps in engine friction reduction. This paper explains the camshaft drive torque optimization work done on a passenger car Diesel engine with DOHC (double overhead camshaft). The exhaust camshaft of the engine drives the high-pressure Fuel Injection Pump (FIP) in addition to valve actuation. Camshaft drive torque is reduced by reducing the chain load. This is done through optimum phasing of the FIP lobe that drives the fuel injection pump and the cam lobe actuating the exhaust valves. Additional boundary condition for the phasing is ensuring that the FIP lobe is in the fall region of its profile while the piston is at TDC. This helps in avoiding rail pressure fluctuation.
Technical Paper

Assessing the effect of torque converter losses on the start emission and Engine stability in TGDI AT Vehicle

2021-10-01
2021-28-0185
The emission norms around the world are continuously changing and getting stringent with every revision. India is on its way to make its emission norms at par with that prevailing in the developed nations. The cold-start condition is an important factor affecting vehicle emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) engines. In this paper, the effects of change in torque converter losses on emissions are experimentally investigated in a TGDI AT vehicle. The instant engagement of the torque converter puts a sudden torque on the engine and thus affects its stability. Thus, to overcome the stability issue, Engine torque has to be simultaneously increased for smooth engagement. As a result, the likelihood of the slightly leaner air-fuel mixture in the cylinder, which results in higher Nox formation, is much greater in an AT vehicle than that of a similar MT vehicle.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Charge Motion Development for Gasoline Engine

2021-09-22
2021-26-0062
In the recent years world-wide automotive manufacturers are continuously working in the research of the suiTable technical solutions to meet upcoming stringent carbon dioxide (CO2) emission targets, defined by regulatory authorities across the world. Many technologies have been already developed, or are currently under study, to meet the legislated targets. To meet this objective, the generation of tumble at intake stroke and the conservation of turbulence intensity at the end of compression stroke inside the combustion chamber have a significant role in the contribution towards accelerating the burning rate, increasing the thermal efficiency and reducing the cyclic variability [1]. Tumble generation is mainly attained by intake port design, and conservation is achieved during the end of compression stroke 690 ~ 720 crank angles (CA) which is strictly affected by the piston bowl geometry and pentroof combustion chamber shape.
Technical Paper

The Study and Deep Insights of Port Injection Turbocharged CNG Engine Development for Trucks and Buses

2021-09-22
2021-26-0214
The intensifying demand of cleaner fuelled vehicles considering current norms of BSIV and upcoming stringent norms of BSVI with low cost solutions has promoted the development of CNG and dual fuel vehicles. CNG vehicle is anticipated to discover its extensive use for environment fortification and effective deployment of energy capitals. Thus, CNG vehicles can be pretty effective in averting environment deterioration. CNG has low carbon to hydrogen ratio, this leads to very low CO2 emissions compared to gasoline and diesel vehicles. CNG engines have the potential of low NOx and particulate emissions. Natural gas vehicle development has been directed on the way to current use of direct injection and port injection with S.I. engines. Generally for low cost development, all OEMs prefer optimization of existing engines. Similarly for this project, a diesel engine was converted to S.I. engine for development of low emission CNG engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Welding Consumables on Static and Dynamic Properties of Representative Welded Joints for Chassis Structure

2021-09-22
2021-26-0259
Automotive suspension system forms the basis for the design of vehicle with durability, reliability, dynamics and NVH requirements. The automotive suspension systems are exposed to dynamic and static loads which in turn demands the highest integrity and performance against fatigue based metallic degradation. The current focus in automotive industry is to reduce the weight of the automotive parts and components without compromising with its static and dynamic mechanical properties. This weight reduction imparts fuel efficiency with added advantages. High-Strength Low Alloy steel (HSLA) offers optimum combination of ductility, monotonic and cyclic mechanical properties. Furthermore, welding processes offer design flexibility to achieve robust and lightweight designs with high strength steels.
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