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Technical Paper

The Behavior of Fuel Droplets on a Heated Substrate

2021-10-15
2021-01-5099
The processes of surface wetting and film evaporation play a major role in any application using liquid fuels. Since the behavior of entire multi-liquid films is influenced by many simultaneously occurring physical processes, exact modeling is not yet possible. In order to reduce the complexity and to determine the basic effects in the spreading and evaporation of multi-component films, this study was carried out by placing single 5 μl droplets on a heated metal surface. Various alkanes, ethanol, and mixtures, as well as real gasoline, were studied at surface temperatures between 69°C and 140°C. To describe the processes qualitatively and determine the time-dependent wetted surface area, the droplets were visualized using cameras. With the results, it was possible to determine the course of the wetted surface over time and to compare different liquids under varying surface temperatures.
Research Report

Unsettled Economic, Environmental, and Health Issues of Ammonia for Automotive Applications

2021-10-15
EPR2021022
Ammonia has been previously trialed as an automotive fuel; however, it was hardly competitive with fossil fuels in terms of cost, energy density, and practicality. However, due to climate change, those practical and cost-related parameters have finally become secondary deciding factors in fuel selection. Ammonia is safer than most fuels and it offers superior energy densities compared to compressed or liquefied hydrogen. It is believed that ammonia might be an ultimate clean fuel choice and an extension to the emerging hydrogen economy. Unsettled Economic, Environmental, and Health Issues of Ammonia for Automotive Applications examines the major unsettled issues of using ammonia as a clean automotive fuel alternative, including the lack of regulations and standards for automotive applications, technology readiness, safety perception, and presently limited supply.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on Corrosion and Wear Behavior of Automotive Materials

2021-10-01
2021-28-0238
The energy demand of the world is keep increasing, major share of the demand is compensated by non-renewable fossil fuels. Automotive sector consumes a huge amount of fossil fuels, as majority of the segment use internal combustion as a prime mover. In the present era researches are carried to figure out the suitable replacements for fossil fuels to attain sustainable environment. One of the major challenge and keen interest of everyone is on waste management, several researches are aimed to bridge the gap between energy demand and waste management. In such way biofuels came into limelight a decade ago, still numerous works are carried in the area for creating socio economic friendly environment. Enormous studies have been carried out to assess their performance in the internal combustion engines, here in the present study performance of the working material against the biodiesel is studied.
Technical Paper

Effect of Calcium Oxide Nano Fluid Additive on Diesel Engine Characteristics Fuelled with Ternary Blend

2021-10-01
2021-28-0236
Biodiesel was found to be a promising alternative source to diesel fuel for which the engine characteristics can be improved by means of Nano additives. The present work deals with the effect of calcium oxide Nano fluid on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with ternary blends comprising of Calophyllum, Neem biodiesel and diesel fuel. Calcium oxide was synthesized by means of calcination process from Mactra Corallina sea shell which imparts novelty to the present work. The calcium oxide was converted into Nano particles by means of ball milling and dispersed in distilled water using ultra-sonication to form Nano fluids. The stability of Nano fluid was found to be effective at 100 ppm. Blend selected for the study has the proportion of 95 % biodiesel (B20), 3 % Nano fluid and 2 % Tween 20 surfactant labelled as B20 + NF.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol-Blended Fuel on Combustion Characteristics, Gaseous and Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines

2021-09-22
2021-26-0356
Ethanol fuel blends with gasoline for spark ignition (SI) internal combustion engines are widely used on account of their advantages in terms of fuel economy and emissions reduction potential. The focus of this paper is to study the effects of these blends on combustion characteristics such as in-cylinder pressure profiles, gas-phase emissions (e.g., unburned hydrocarbons, NOx) and particulates (e.g., particulate matter and particle number) using both measurement campaigns and digital engineering workflows. Nineteen load-speed operating points in a 1L 3-cylinder GDI SI engine were measured and modelled. The measurements for in-cylinder pressure and emissions were repeated at each operating point for three types of fuel: gasoline (E0, 0% by volume of ethanol blend), E10 (10 % by volume of ethanol blend) and E20 (20% by volume of ethanol blend).
Technical Paper

Deployment of Energy Saving Technologies on 2 Cylinder Common Rail Diesel Engine to Improve the Engine Mechanical Efficiency Moving from BSIV to BSVI

2021-09-22
2021-26-0046
Today the whole automotive world is progressively transforming towards the adoption of new alternate, advanced and innovative technologies evolving in ICE and Vehicle technology to meet the stringent emission regulations and future CO2 goals while protecting the environment. May it be Engine downsizing, Down speeding, Cylinder deactivation, VCR, VVT, Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF), Alternate fuels, Alternate materials, Steel pistons, Advanced thermal barrier/coating technology, Electrification or Various degrees of hybridization. The key to achieve better FE or reduction in CO2 emissions is realized by saving every pie of energy spent or reducing the parasitic losses and improving overall engine efficiencies wherever possible. In this paper, an experimental study on the deployment of various energy saving technologies, concepts are exploited on small 2 cylinder common rail BSVI engine for friction reduction and efficiency improvements while moving forward from BSIV to BSVI legislation phase.
Technical Paper

Development of an all Speed Governed Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Engine for Farm Applications

2021-09-22
2021-26-0101
This paper discusses the development of an all speed governed diesel-natural gas dual fuel engine for agricultural farm tractor. A 45 hp, 2.9 liters diesel-natural gas dual fuel engine with a novel closed loop secondary fuel injection system was developed. A frugal approach without any modification of the base mechanical diesel fuel injection system was followed. This approach helped to minimize the cost impact, while meeting performance and emissions at par with neat diesel operation. Additional cost on gas injection system is redeemed by cost savings on diesel fuel. The dual fuel technology developed by Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd., substitutes on an average approximately 40% of diesel with compressed natural gas, meeting the TREM III A emission norms for dual fuel while meeting all application requirements. The governing performance of the tractor was found to be superior than base diesel tractor.
Technical Paper

Total Life Cycle Analysis of CNG and Hydrogen Enriched CNG Powered Vehicles: A Comparative Evaluation

2021-09-22
2021-26-0105
Vehicles consume energy and release harmful emissions throughout their life period from the manufacturing stage of raw materials to the vehicle scrapyard. The current Green-House Gas (GHG) emissions from diesel and petrol vehicles are reported to be 164 g CO2/km and 156 g CO2/km respectively. Thus, enormous research studies are been carried out for low-carbon alternative fuel-powered vehicles to reduce the overall GHG emissions. Numerous research on hydrogen as a transportation fuel has demonstrated the potential of reduced vehicular emissions compared to conventional fuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a comprehensive methodology used for estimating the overall environmental impact of vehicles. In this present work, a comparative LCA is conducted between Compressed Natural gas (CNG) powered vehicles and H-CNG powered vehicles. The effect of the two alternative vehicles is assessed from various points in their lifetime using the GREET model software.
Technical Paper

Application of Electric Cam Phaser System (ECP) for Smooth Engine Starting Behavior in Hybrid Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0057
In the current situation and upcoming government regulations, hybrid vehicles are very promising in terms of meeting fuel economy and stringent requirements of emission norms. Herein, hybridization will be mostly done with gasoline and CNG vehicles. As a normal practice, engine is switched off at the signal and again restart with engine start-stop technology. So, instances of engine start/stop are increased in hybrid vehicle in comparison with standard IC engine vehicle. In order to achieve smooth engine start, engine starting torque can be optimized by adjusting engine valve timing. As Electric Cam Phaser (ECP) meets valve timing target even before first engine combustion start, this is one of the critical technologies in reducing engine starting torque and time reaching to idle speed. This engine starting strategy also gives benefits in terms of reducing engine start emissions and improving fuel economy.
Technical Paper

A Review on the Assessment of Injection Characteristics and Energy Levels for CNG and Hydrogen Gas Injectors

2021-09-22
2021-26-0223
In today’s world, fuel injection technology is vital in the development of vehicles powered by gaseous fuel to achieve United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Affordable and Clean Energy, as energy is the enabler of all other SDGs. There is a definite scope of gaseous injectors for development and testing of H2 engine. This paper describes the procedures to select injectors for handling hydrogen fuels in SI engines and the suitability of compressed natural gas (CNG) injector for using hydrogen fuel. The selection of injectors for introducing gaseous fuel depends on the parameters such as duty cycle and pulse width of the injector. The calculation for injector pulse width and injector flow/spray for determining the engine performance also discussed. The final calculated results are validated with experimental results, as well as engine performance parameters, which are within 10 % of the calculated results.
Technical Paper

Chemical Profiling of Exhaust Particulate Matter from Indian In-Service Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0192
Particulate matter is one of the major pollutant responsible for deteriorating air quality, particularly in urban centers. Information on contributing sources with the share from different sources is a first and one of the important steps in controlling pollution. Diverse sources, anthropogenic as well as natural, like industries, transport, domestic burning, construction, wind-blown dust, road dust contribute to particulate matter pollution. Receptor modeling is a scientific method which is utilized for assessment of the contribution of various sources based on chemical characteristics of particulate matter sources and ambient air particulate matter. Representative data of fractions of various chemical species in the particulate matter from the different sources i.e. source fingerprint is an essential input for the receptor modeling approach.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spark Plug Location on Combustion, Performance and Emission of High-Speed Digital Three Spark Ignition (DTSI) Engine Fueled with Gasoline and Hydrogen

2021-09-22
2021-26-0227
The United Nations sustainable development goals can be met by reduced use of fossil fuels in the power & transportation sector and by protecting the environment. Various efforts to utilize alternative fuels (with low or without carbon contents) in the transportation sector are in the anvil. In this research, an experimental study is performed on a single cylinder gasoline engine of 200 cc with port fuel injection and digital three spark ignition (DTSI). The effect of spark plug location is analyzed using gasoline and hydrogen fuels separately. The combustion, performance, and emissions characteristics are analyzed at 6000 rpm, Wide Open Throttle (WOT) condition with a compression ratio of 11: 1 for three different spark plug locations, i.e., at Center, Left-hand side and Right-hand side of combustion bowl. The following are the best results for a centrally located spark plug in comparison with the spark plug located at the sides.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on Adsorption/Desorption Process in SI Engine

2021-09-21
2021-01-1184
Ethanol is regarded as a potential alternative fuel for combustion engine as it provides lower exhaust emissions, higher efficiency and higher octane rating. However, the solubility of ethanol in oil can effect lubricant quality. The impact of ethanol-blend gasoline on lubricants is a matter of concern that must be addressed. With this in mind, the current study investigates the effect of blending ethanol with gasoline on the oil layer adsorption/desorption mechanism. The blends used for the study are E0, E5, E10, and E15. The study is carried out with the help of a mathematical model that predicts the fuel adsorbed/desorbed in the oil layer of an engine. The mathematical model predictions are compared to experimental results obtained on a single-cylinder gasoline engine. Fuel adsorbed in the oil layer ranges from 0.46% for E0 fuel to 0.35% for E15 fuel. Similarly, the desorbed fuel ranges from 0.45% to 0.29% as the ethanol fraction increases from 0% to 15%.
Technical Paper

Study on Effects of Methanol on Material Compatibility of a Fuel Supply System in a Spark Ignition Engine

2021-09-21
2021-01-1189
The components of fuel supply system of a methanol fuelled spark ignition engine come in direct contact with the fuel. Corrosive nature of methanol affects the material properties. The present study deals with the compatibility of various materials of the fuel supply system including elastomers (nitrile, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) nitrile, chloroprene, natural rubber and ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM)), aluminium and fuel filter (outer tin coated circular plate and paper) with methanol. The specimens of the parts of the fuel supply system were immersed in methanol for a period of ninety days under atmospheric conditions. The properties of the specimens such as physical changes using scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the surfaces and mechanical properties including tensile strength and strain at break were studied. It was observed from the images that the coating over the circular plate of fuel filter eroded while elastomers developed a whitish coat on their surface.
Technical Paper

Evaporation Characteristics of Fuels for Low Temperature Combustion Engine Applications

2021-09-21
2021-01-1210
The research on reducing emissions from automotive engines through modifications in the combustion mode and the fuel type is gaining momentum because of the increasing contribution to global warming by the transportation sector. The combustion and emission formation in the advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) engine strategies are susceptible to fuel molecular composition and properties. Ignition timing in LTC strategies is primarily controlled by fuel composition and associated chemical kinetics. Thus, tailoring of fuel properties is required to address the limitations of LTC in terms of lack of control on ignition timing and narrow engine operating load range. Utilizing fuel blends and additives such as nanoparticles is a promising approach to achieving targeted fuel property. An improved understanding of fundamental processes, including fuel evaporation, is required due to its role in fuel-air mixing and emission formation in LTC.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on the Effects of Water Injection in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operated with Biodiesel Fuel

2021-09-21
2021-01-1207
In-cylinder emission control methods for simultaneous reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) are gaining attention due to stringent emission targets and the higher cost of after-treatment systems. In addition, there is a renewed interest in using carbon-neutral biodiesel due to global warming concerns with fossil diesel. The bi-directional NOx-PM trade-off is reduced to a unidirectional higher NOx emission problem with biodiesel. The effect of water injection with biodiesel with low water quantities is relatively unexplored and is attempted in this investigation to mitigate higher NOx emissions. The water concentrations are maintained at 3, 6, and 9% relative to fuel mass by varying the pulse width of a low-pressure port fuel injector. Considering the corrosive effects of water at higher concentrations, they are maintained below 10% in the present work.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel by Reforming with Cross-Metathesis Reaction

2021-09-21
2021-01-1205
The boiling point curve of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), or biodiesel fuel, can be adapted to that of diesel fuel by breaking FAME down into a low-molecular structure using a cross-metathesis reaction with a short-chain olefin. Reformulated FAME by a metathesis reaction consists mainly of medium-chain olefins and fatty acid methyl esters. In the present study, the engine performance and exhaust emissions from reformulated FAME were investigated through engine bench tests. Surrogate fuels made from typical chemical components of reformulated FAME were used to clarify the effects of respective components upon combustion. Surrogate fuels were made by mixing 1-decene, 1-tetradecene, methyl laurate, methyl palmitate, and methyl oleate to simulate the boiling point, oxygen mass concentration, and calorific value of reformed biodiesel of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WME). A single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with common-rail-type injection system was used.
Technical Paper

Performance Comparison of LPG and Gasoline in an Engine Configured for EGR-Loop Catalytic Reforming

2021-09-21
2021-01-1158
In prior work, the EGR loop catalytic reforming strategy developed by ORNL has been shown to provide a relative brake engine efficiency increase of more than 6% by minimizing the thermodynamic expense of the reforming processes, and in some cases achieving thermochemical recuperation (TCR), a form of waste heat recovery where waste heat is converted to usable chemical energy. In doing so, the EGR dilution limit was extended beyond 35% under stoichiometric conditions. In this investigation, a Microlith®-based metal-supported reforming catalyst (developed by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI)) was used to reform the parent fuel in a thermodynamically efficient manner into products rich in H2 and CO. We were able to expand the speed and load ranges relative to previous investigations: from 1,500 to 2,500 rpm, and from 2 to 14 bar break mean effective pressure (BMEP).
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Advanced Compression Ignition Load Limits

2021-09-21
2021-01-1172
In order to maximize the efficiency of light-duty gasoline engines, the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Co-Optima) initiative from the U.S. Department of Energy is investigating multi-mode combustion strategies. Multi-mode combustion can be describe as using conventional spark-ignited combustion at high loads, and at the part-load operating conditions, various advanced compression ignition (ACI) strategies are being investigated to increase efficiency. Of particular interest to the Co-Optima initiative is the extent to which optimal fuel properties and compositions can enable higher efficiency ACI combustion over larger portions of the operating map. Extending the speed-load range of these ACI modes can enable greater part-load efficiency improvements for multi-mode combustion strategies.
Technical Paper

Effect of North American Certification Test Fuels on Emissions from On-Road Motorcycles

2021-09-21
2021-01-1225
Chassis dynamometer tests were conducted on three Class III on-highway motorcycles produced for the North American market and equipped with advanced emission control technologies in order to inform emissions inventories and compare the impacts of existing Tier 2 (E0) fuel with more market representative Tier 3 and LEV III certification fuels with 10% ethanol. For this study, the motorcycles were tested over the US Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the World Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) certification test cycles as well as a sample of real-world motorcycle driving informally referred to as the Real World Driving Cycle (RWDC). The primary interest was to understand the emissions changes of the selected motorcycles with the use of certification fuels containing 10% ethanol compared to 0% ethanol over the three test cycles.
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