Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Traceability E-Fuels 2035

2024-07-02
2024-01-3022
EU legislation provides for only local CO2 emission-free vehicles to be allowed in individual passenger transport by 2035. In addition, the directive provides for fuels from renewable sources, i.e. defossilised fuels. This development leads to three possible energy sources or forms of energy for use in individual transport. The first possibility is charging with electricity generated from renewable sources, the second possibility is hydrogen generated from renewable sources or blue production path. The third possibility is the use of renewable fuels, also called e-fuels. These fuels are produced from atmospheric CO2 and renewable hydrogen. Possible processes for this are, for example, methanol or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The production of these fuels is very energy-intensive and large amounts of renewable electricity are needed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Dithering on Post-Catalyst Exhaust Gas Composition and on Short Time Regeneration of Deactivated PdO/Al2O3 Catalysts under Real Engine Conditions

2024-06-12
2024-37-0002
Fossil fuels such as natural gas used in engines still play an important role worldwide which however is also exacerbating climate change as a result of carbon dioxide emissions. Although natural gas engines show an overall low pollutant emissions level, methane slip due to incomplete combustion occurs, causing methane emissions with a more than 20 times higher global warming potential than CO2. Additionally, further tightening of emissions legislation is to be expected bringing methane emissions even more into focus making exhaust gas aftertreatment issues remain relevant. For lean gas applications, (Pd)-based catalysts turned out to convert CH4 most efficiently usually being supported by metal oxides such as aluminium oxide (Al2O3). Water (H2O) contained in the exhaust gas causes strong inhibition on Pd catalysts.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Fuels for Long-Haul Truck Engines: A 1D-CFD Analysis

2024-06-12
2024-37-0027
Heavy duty engines for long-haul trucks are quite difficult to electrify, due to the large amount of energy that should be stored on-board to achieve a range comparable to that of conventional fuels. In particular, this paper considers a stock engine with a displacement of 12.9 L, developed by the manufacturer in two different versions. As a standard diesel, the engine is able to deliver about 420 kW at 1800 rpm, whereas in the compressed natural gas configuration the maximum power output is 330 kW, at the same speed. Three possible alternatives to these fossil fuels are considered in this study: biodiesel (HVOlution by Eni), bio-methane and green hydrogen. While the replacement of diesel and compressed natura gas with biofuels does not need significant hardware modifications, the implementation of a hydrogen spark ignition combustion system requires a deep revision of the engine concept.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lignin Fuels for CI Engines

2024-06-12
2024-37-0022
This study explores the feasibility of using a sustainable lignin-based fuel, consisting of 44 % lignin, 50 % ethanol, and 6 % water, in conventional compression ignition (CI) marine engines. Through experimental evaluations on a modified small-bore CI engine, we identified the primary challenges associated with lignin-based fuel, including engine startup and shutdown issues due to solvent evaporation and lignin solidification inside the fuel system, and deposit formation on cylinder walls leading to piston ring seizure. To address these issues, we developed a fuel switching system transitioning from lignin-based fuel to cleaning fuel with 85 vol% of acetone, 10 vol% of water and 5 vol% of ignition improving additive, effectively preventing system clogs.
Technical Paper

Experimental Assessment of Drop-In Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) in a Medium-Duty B7 Diesel Engine for Low-Emissions Marine Applications

2024-06-12
2024-37-0023
Nowadays, the push for more ecological low-carbon propulsion systems is high in all mobility sectors, including the recreational or light-commercial boating, where propulsion is usually provided by internal combustion engines derived from road applications. In this work, the effects of replacing conventional fossil-derived B7 diesel with Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) were experimentally investigated in a modern Medium-Duty Diesel Engine, using the advanced biofuel as ‘drop-in’ and testing according to the ISO 8178 marine standard. The compounded results showed significant benefits in terms of NOx, Particulate Matter, mass fuel consumption and especially Well-to-Wake (WtW) CO2 thanks to the inner properties of the aromatic-free, hydrogen-rich renewable fuel, with no impact on the engine power and minimal deterioration of the volumetric fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Decarbonization: Vol. 1

2024-05-10
EPRCOMPV242023
Most heavy trucks should be fully electric, using a combination of batteries and catenary electrification, but heavy trucks requiring very long unsupported range will need chemical fuels. Hydrogen is the key to storing renewably generated electricity chemically. At the scale of heavy trucks, compressed hydrogen can match the specific energy of diesel, but its energy density is five times lower, limiting the range to around 2,000 km. Scaling green hydrogen production and addressing leakage must be priorities. Hydrogen-derived electrofuels—or “e-fuels”—have the potential to scale, and while the economic comparison currently has unknowns, clean air considerations have gained new importance. The limited supply of bioenergy should be reserved for critical applications, such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), aviation, shipping, and road freight in the most remote locations.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Internal and External EGR Effects on a CNG-OME Dual-Fuel Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2361
Dual-fuel engines powered by renewable fuels provide a potential solution for reducing the carbon footprint and emissions of transportation, contributing to the goal of achieving sustainable mobility. The investigation presented in the following uses a dual-fuel engine concept running on biogas (referred to as CNG in this paper) and the e-fuel polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether (OME). The current study focuses on the effects of exhaust gas rebreathing and external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on emissions and brake thermal efficiency (BTE). A four-cylinder heavy-duty engine converted to dual-fuel operation was used to conduct the engine tests at a load point of 1600 min-1 and 9.8 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The respective shares of high reactivity fuel (HRF, here: OME) and low reactivity fuel (LRF, here: CNG) were varied, as were the external and internal EGR rates and their combinations.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Performance and Emissions of BS VI Complaint EFI Motorbike with Oxygenated Fuel Blends (E0, E10, E20 & M15)

2024-04-09
2024-01-2372
Net-Zero emission ambitions coupled with availability of oxygenated fuels like ethanol encouraged the Government towards commercial implementation of fuels like E20. In this background, a study was taken up to assess the impact of alcohol blended fuels on performance and emission characteristics of a BS-VI complaint motorbike. A single cylinder, 113-cc spark ignition, ECU based electronic fuel injection motorbike was used for conducting tests. Pure gasoline (E0), 10% ethanol-gasoline (E10), 20% ethanol-gasoline (E20) and 15% methanol-gasoline (M15) blends meeting respective IS standards were used as test fuels. The oxygen content of E10, E20 and M15 fuels were 3.7%, 7.4% and 8.35% by weight respectively. Experiments were conducted following worldwide motorcycle test cycle (WMTC) as per AIS 137 standard and wide-open-throttle (WOT) test cycle, using chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Development of Oxygenated Diesel Fuel and Impact on Vehicle Performance

2024-04-09
2024-01-2374
World is moving towards cleaner, greener and energy efficient fuels. The rapid increase in the consumption of petroleum fuel has led to twin problem of air pollution and energy security. India being a developing nation, fuel demand and consumption in various industries, especially in road transport sector has been rising continuously. Fossil fuels are the main source of energy and approximately 85% of domestic need met through import of crude oil. The increasing fuel consumption has created interest for the blending of biofuels in conventional fuel and renewable fuels also. Among biofuels ethanol is one of them and preferable choice for blending in gasoline which is a fuel for spark ignition engines and flex fuel vehicles. As such ethanol/methanol cannot be used in compression-ignition diesel engines without engine modifications due to inherent low cetane number and lubricity of alcohols.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of High Octane Gasoline Fuel(s) on High Compression Ratio (HCR) Motorcycle – Based on Chassis Dynamometer Test

2024-04-09
2024-01-2375
The present study aims to determine the comparative performance evaluation in terms of fuel economy (kmpl) and wide open throttle (WOT) power derived from set of different blends of high octane gasoline fuel(s) i.e., Neat Gasoline (E0), E10 & E20 (With different dosages of additives) in high compression ratio (HCR) motorcycle on chassis dynamometer facility. With the Government of India focus on use of alcohol as co-blend of gasoline with the endeavour to save foreign exchange and also to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The commercially available blended fuels, E10 & E20, have high research octane number (RON, 92-100) and as per the available literature high RON fuel have the better anti-knocking tendencies thereby lead to higher fuel economy. There are various routes to formulate high octane fuel (refining technologies, additive approach & ethanol blending route) in the range of 92-100 octane number which are currently commercialized in Indian market.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Knock Formation in Gasoline and Methanol Combustion Using a Multiple Spark Ignition Approach: An Optical Investigation

2024-04-09
2024-01-2105
Engine knock is a major challenge that limits the achievement of higher engine efficiency by increasing the compression ratio of the engine. To address this issue, using a higher octane number fuel can be a potential solution to reduce or eliminate the propensity for knock and so obtain better engine performance. Methanol, a promising alternative fuel, can be produced from conventional and non-conventional energy resources, which can help reduce pollutant emissions. Methanol has a higher octane number than typically gasolines, which makes it a viable option for reducing knock intensity. This study compared the combustion characteristics of gasoline and methanol fuels in an optical spark-ignition engine using multiple spark plugs. The experiment was carried out on a single-cylinder four-stroke optical engine. The researchers used a customized metal liner with four circumferential spark plugs to generate multiple flame kernels inside the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Combustion Characteristics of a Fuel Blend Consisting of Methanol and Ignition Improver, Compared to Diesel Fuel and Pure Methanol

2024-04-09
2024-01-2122
The increasing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and shift away from fossil fuels has raised an interest for methanol. Methanol can be produced from renewable sources and can drastically lower soot emissions from compression ignition engines (CI). As a result, research and development efforts have intensified focusing on the use of methanol as a replacement for diesel in CI engines. The issue with methanol lies in the fact that methanol is challenging to ignite through compression alone, particularly at low-load and cold starts conditions. This challenge arises from methanol's high octane number, low heating value, and high heat of vaporization, all of which collectively demand a substantial amount of heat for methanol to ignite through compression.
Technical Paper

Light Duty Engine Performance Characteristics with Dimethyl Ether and Propane

2024-04-09
2024-01-2126
The paper explores the performance characteristics of a compression ignition HYUNDAI 2.2L engine operating with Dimethyl Ether (DME). Test are carried out at three operating conditions that weigh heavily in the FTP75 certification cycle (1000rpm-12Nm, 1500rpm-50Nm, 2000rpm-100Nm). The engine features a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system designed to operate with liquified gases. The main component of the fuel system is a high-pressure pump that incorporates an electronic inlet metering valve commanded on a crank-angle base to control the rail pressure. The pump, which requires no pressure regulator, provides the flow needed to the injectors without flow returning to the inlet. This novel fueling system is leveraged in tests that are conducted to examine the impact of EGR, combustion phasing, injection pressure on efficiency and emissions. In addition, the impact of introducing 15% Propane by mass is examined.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Pilot Injection Strategies to Aid Low Load Compression Ignition of Neat Methanol

2024-04-09
2024-01-2119
The growing demand to lower greenhouse gas emissions and transition from fossil fuels, has put methanol in the spotlight. Methanol can be produced from renewable sources and has the property of burning almost soot-free in compression ignition (CI) engines. Consequently, there has been a notable increase in research and development activities directed towards exploring methanol as a viable substitute for diesel fuel in CI engines. The challenge with methanol lies in the fact that it is difficult to ignite through compression alone, particularly in low-load and cold start conditions. This difficulty arises from methanol's high octane number, relatively low heating value, and high heat of vaporization, collectively demanding a considerable amount of heat for methanol to ignite through compression. Previous studies have addressed the use of a pilot injection in conjunction with a larger main injection to lower the required intake air temperature for methanol to combust at low loads.
Technical Paper

Study of Dimethyl Ether Fuel Spray Characteristics and Injection Profile

2024-04-09
2024-01-2702
The majority of transportation systems have continued to be powered by the internal combustion engine and fossil fuels. Heavy-duty applications especially are reliant on diesel engines for their high brake efficiency, power density, and robustness. Although engineering developments have advanced engines towards significantly fewer emissions and higher efficiency, the use of fossil-derived diesel as fuel sets a fundamental threshold in the achievable total net carbon reduction. Dimethyl ether can be produced from various renewable feedstocks and has a high chemical reactivity making it suitable for heavy-duty applications, namely compression ignition direct injection engines. Literature shows the successful use of DME fuels in diesel engines without significant hardware modifications.
Technical Paper

Methanol Mixing-Controlled Compression Ignition with Ignition Enhancer for Off-Road Engine Operation

2024-04-09
2024-01-2701
Methanol is one of the most promising fuels for the decarbonization of the off-road and transportation sectors. Although methanol is typically seen as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engines, mixing-controlled compression ignition (MCCI) combustion is typically preferred in most off-road and medium-and heavy-duty applications due to its high reliability, durability and high-efficiency. In this paper, the potential of using ignition enhancers to enable methanol MCCI combustion was investigated. Methanol was blended with 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) and experiments were performed in a single-cylinder production-like diesel research engine, which has a displacement volume of 0.83 L and compression ratio of 16:1. The effect of EHN has been evaluated with three different levels (3%vol, 5%vol, and 7%vol) under low- and part-load conditions. The injection timing has been swept to find the stable injection window for each EHN level and load.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spark Assisted Compression Ignition on the End-Gas Autoignition with DME-air Mixtures in a Rapid Compression Machine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2822
Substantial effort has been devoted to utilizing homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to improve thermal efficiency and reduce emission pollutants in internal combustion engines. However, the uncertainty of ignition timing and limited operational range restrict further adoption for the industry. Using the spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) technique has the advantage of using a spark event to control the combustion process. This study employs a rapid compression machine to characterize the ignition and combustion process of Dimethyl ether (DME) under engine-like background temperature and pressures and combustion regimes, including HCCI, SACI, and knocking onsite. The spark ignition timing was swept to ignite the mixture under various thermodynamic conditions. This investigation demonstrates the presence of four distinct combustion regimes, including detonation, strong end-gas autoignition, mild end-gas autoignition, and HCCI.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Ammonia-Methanol Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Spark Ignition Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2820
Ammonia and methanol are both future fuels with carbon-neutral potential. Ammonia has a high octane number, a slow flame speed, and a narrow ignition limit, while methanol has a fast flame speed with complementary combustion characteristics but is more likely to lead to pre-ignition and knock. In this paper, the combustion and emission characteristics of ammonia-methanol solution in a high compression ratio spark ignition engine are investigated. The experimental results show that the peak in-cylinder pressure and peak heat release rate of the engine when using ammonia-methanol solution are lower and the combustion phase is retarded compared with using methanol at the same spark timing conditions. Using ammonia-methanol solution in the engine resulted in a more ideal combustion phase than that of gasoline, leading to an increase in indicated thermal efficiency of more than 0.6% and a wider range of efficient operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Mixing of Bio-Hybrid Fuels in a Direct Injection Engine with a Pre-Chamber Ignition System

2024-04-09
2024-01-2619
Numerical analyses of the liquid fuel injection and subsequent fuel-air mixing for a high-tumble direct injection engine with an active pre-chamber ignition system at operation conditions of 2000 RPM are presented. The Navier-Stokes equations for compressible in-cylinder flow are solved numerically using a hierarchical Cartesian mesh based finite-volume method. To determine the fuel vapor before ignition large-eddy flow simulations are two-way coupled with the spray droplets in a Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT) formulation. The combined hierarchical Cartesian mesh ensures efficient usage of high performance computing systems through solution adaptive refinement and dynamic load balancing. Computational meshes with approximately 170 million cells and 1.0 million spray parcels are used for the simulations.
Technical Paper

Sulfur Impact on Methane Steam Reforming over the Stoichiometric Natural Gas Three-Way Catalyst

2024-04-09
2024-01-2633
The steam reforming of CH4 plays a crucial role in the high-temperature activity of natural gas three-way catalysts. Despite existing reports on sulfur inhibition in CH4 steam reforming, there is a limited understanding of sulfur storage and removal dynamics under various lambda conditions. In this study, we utilize a 4-Mode sulfur testing approach to elucidate the dynamics of sulfur storage and removal and their impact on three-way catalyst performance. We also investigate the influence of sulfur on CH4 steam reforming by analyzing CH4 conversions under dithering, rich, and lean reactor conditions. In the 4-Mode sulfur test, saturating the TWC with sulfur at low temperatures emerges as the primary cause of significant three-way catalyst performance degradation. After undergoing a deSOx treatment at 600 °C, NOx conversions were fully restored, while CH4 conversions did not fully recover.
X