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Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment for Heavy Commercial Vehicle Safety (SAE Paper 2020-01-1646)

This paper summarizes initial results and findings of a model developed to determine the braking performance of commercial motor vehicles in motion regardless of brake type or gross weight. Real-world data collected by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for a U.S. Department of Energy study was used to validate the model. Expanding on previous proof-of-concept research showing the linear relationship of brake application pressure and deceleration additional parameters such as elevation were added to the model. Outputs from the model consist of coefficients calculated for every constant pressure braking event from a vehicle that can be used to calculate a deceleration and thus compute a stopping distance for a given scenario. Using brake application pressure profiles derived from the dataset, stopping distances for light and heavy loads of the same vehicle were compared for various speed and road grades.

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

For internal combustion engines and industrial machinery, it is well recognized that the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption and extending service life is through lubricant development. This presentation summarizes our recent R&D achievements on developing a new class of candidate lubricants or oil additives ionic liquids (ILs). Features of ILs making them attractive for lubrication include high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, non-flammability, and intrinsic high polarity. When used as neat lubricants, selected ILs demonstrated lower friction under elastohydrodynamic lubrication and less wear at boundary lubrication benchmarked against fully-formulated engine oils in our bench tests. More encouragingly, a group of non-corrosive, oil-miscible ILs has recently been developed and demonstrated multiple additive functionalities including anti-wear and friction modifier when blended into hydrocarbon base oils.

Consumer Behavior and Risk Aversion

Auto manufacturers have known and surveys confirm that consumers require short payback periods (2-4 years) for investments in fuel economy. Using societal discount rates, engineering-economic generally find substantial potential to increase fuel economy, cost-effectively. This phenomenon, often referred to as the ?energy paradox?, has been observed in nearly all consumers? choices of energy-using durable goods. Loss aversion, perhaps the most well established theory of behavioral economics, provides a compelling explanation. Engineering economic analyses generally overlook the fact that consumers? investments in fuel economy are not sure things but rather risky bets. Future energy prices, real world on-road fuel economy, and many other factors are uncertain. Loss aversion describes a fundamental human tendency to exaggerate the potential for loss relative to gain when faced with a risky bet. It provides a sufficient explanation for consumers?