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Video

Numerical simulation of super-cooled large droplet icing on commercial axial fan blade

2021-03-16
Icing simulation of super-cooled large droplet on a commercial axial fan is performed. It is well-known that the SLD icing has the characteristic behavior i.e. splash-bounce, deformation, and breakup of the SLD droplet, and the computational models are introduced to reproduce the SLD-characteristic behavior. The effect of the models on the icing was investigated. A weak coupling between flow field and motion of the SLD droplet is employed: the Eulerian and Lagrangian methods are used to simulate the flow field and droplet, respectively. An extended Messinger model is used for thermodynamic computation of the icing. To validate numerical results, we make a SLD icing simulation of a NACA0012 airfoil. The ice shape and collection efficiency reasonably agree with the existing experimental data. The splash and bounce events considerably influence the icing phenomena, whereas the effects of deformation are negligibly small.
Video

Thermodynamic Analysis of Aeroderivative Gas Turbine Engine Featuring Ceramic Matrix Composite Rotating Blades (SAE Paper 2021-01-0033)

2021-03-16
The quest for achieving more efficient gas turbine engine systems (GTESs) has led the researchers to try getting into many new dimensions of research. Simple Brayton cycle-based GTESs were coupled with recuperators, regenerators and reheaters to avoid/recoup heat energy from being wasted and these were designated as complex GTESs. Multistage compression (multi-casing) in axial compressors and multistage (two-cylinder) expansions in turbines paved the path to optimize the plant design for greater thrust to weight ratio and greater efficiency of the GTESs. Since the increase in efficiency of any power plant is directly or indirectly related to temperatures at which the plant cycle is being operated, this thermodynamic constraint had led to the development of high temperature materials such as single crystal nickel-based superalloys.
Video

Turbojet Engine Parameters Calculation Based on Fuel Flow and Exhaust Gas Temperature (SAE Paper 2021-01-0029)

2021-03-16
The aircraft jet engine is one of the most complex multivariable systems with multiple inputs and multiple outputs. To attempt to optimize control functions or to address diagnostic problems, a detailed knowledge of all jet engine design parameters and performances is required. Although jet engines have been around for almost a century, there are only a few companies in the world presently designing and manufacturing them; as such these companies possess detailed knowledge of all relevant design characteristics and performance parameters. In the event where jet engine technical details are unknown, or only a few of them are known from manufacturer�s catalogues, the challenge becomes how to calculate and extrapolate critical performance parameters based on only fuel flow, jet exhaust temperature and total thrust.
Video

AS13100 Executive Overview Part 1: The Aerospace Industry

2021-03-02
AS13100 creates a single, harmonized set of requirements that are aligned to AS9100 and AS9145 for the aerospace engine supply chain. In doing this, it will significantly reduce the number of customer-specific requirements and help to create a common language for quality.
Video

AS13100 Executive Overview Part 2: Formation of AESQ

2021-03-02
The Aerospace Engine Supplier Quality Strategy Group (AESQ) has a vision to establish, deploy, and maintain a common set of quality requirements that enable the global aero engine supply chain to be truly competitive through lean, capable processes and a culture of continuous improvement.
Video

AS13100 Executive Overview Part 3: The Need for AS13100

2021-03-02
The AESQ wants to simplify, harmonize and create a common language through AS13100. Although there's already an aerospace standard called AS9100, the engine manufacturers have had to put supplemental requirements around this because they're expected to flow down the requirements from their regulator, the customer, and their own business. Because of the criticality of the engine and the potential consequence of any non-conformance, many of the requirements are far more stringent than you would get on any other commodity on the aircraft. The purpose of AS13100 is to take these supplemental requirements and build it into a single standard.
Video

Regulatory Panel Discussion

2020-12-02
"Tail pipe emissions are considered one of the major factors adversely affecting the environment. There is an urgent demand in many regions of the world to reduce the carbon footprints due to transportation. Smog generated from mobility applications has crippling effects in mega urban areas. The increasing focus on fuel economy and emissions reduction have caused a rapid expansion of sustainable mobility applications. Electrification of cars and trucks will significantly reduce the dependence on the internal combustion engine using fossil fuels, leading to a significant positive impact on cleaning the environment. In this panel discussion, the focus is on the rapidly changing regulations landscape and the technological advances required to achieve the fuel economy and emissions mandates. Moderator - Bashar AbdulNour, Kettering Univ. Panelists - Chenise Farquharson, US Environmental Protection Agency Steven Myers, BorgWarner Inc. Tao Zhan, California Air Resources Board"
Video

Technical Keynotes

2020-12-02
This session will feature 3 technical keynotes focusing on the latest climate control and thermal management technologies. Real-world Evaluation of National Energy Efficiency Potential of Cold Storage Evaporator Technology in the Context of Engine Start-Stop Systems (SAE Paper #2020-01-1252) - Jason Lustbader, Eric Wood, Michael O'Keefe, Nicholas Reinicke, Jeff Mosbacher, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Forrest Jehlik, Alvaro Demingo, Argonne National Laboratory; David Cosgrove, Toyota Motor Corp; Yuanpei Song, DENSO International America Heat Pump Integration into Climate Control - Jeffrey Bozeman, General Motors LLC Ultraviolet and Titanium Dioxide Based Photocatalysis HVAC System to Eliminate COVID-19 for Occupant�s Safety & Health in Automobiles -Gursaran Mathur, Calsonic Kansei North America Inc.
Video

Real-world Evaluation of National Energy Efficiency Potential of Cold Storage Evaporator Technology in the Context of Engine Start-Stop Systems

2020-11-09
National concerns over energy consumption and emissions from the transportation sector have prompted regulatory agencies to implement aggressive fuel economy targets for light-duty vehicles through the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration/Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program. Automotive manufacturers have responded by bringing competitive technologies to market that maximize efficiency while meeting or exceeding consumer performance and comfort expectations. In a collaborative effort among Toyota Motor Corporation, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the real-world savings of one such technology is evaluated. A commercially available Toyota Highlander equipped with two-phase cold storage technology was tested at ANL?s chassis dynamometer testing facility.
Video

Enclosure-in-Chamber Setup to Achieve Near-Zero Background Concentrations for Brake Emissions Testing (SAE Paper 2020-01-1634)

2020-11-09
Measuring brake emission continues to be a challenging non-standardized task. Extensive research is ongoing and as seen in the work in progress presented at SAE Brake Colloquium and PMP meetings. However, open items include how to achieve lower background concentration and how to design the brake enclosure. A low background concentration is essential as brake events are short and some emissions are in the range of reported background levels. Hence these emissions are difficult to distinguish from the background level. Even more critical, a high background concentration can result in a wrong particle number emissions value, either overestimated, background counted as emissions, or underestimated, background level subtracted, and low emission events no longer detected and counted. Reducing the background level to less than 100 #/cm3 appeared to be quite challenging.
Video

Ultraviolet and Titanium Dioxide Based Photocatalysis HVAC System to Eliminate COVID-19 for Occupant�s Safety & Health in Automobiles

2020-11-09
In a photocatalytic air purifier system, the catalyst that cleans the air is typically titanium dioxide and it is energized by ultraviolet (UV) light. UV is the short-wavelength light just beyond the blue/violet part of the electromagnetic spectrum that our eyes can detect. This shortwave-length light has much more energy than ordinary, visible light�and exactly the right amount of energy to get titanium dioxide excited. Titanium dioxide is a semiconductor that covers the filter surface. Just a thin film of titanium dioxide is required at the filter surface with a substrate. When UV light shines on the titanium dioxide, electrons (negatively charged particles inside atoms) are released at its surface. The electrons interact with water molecules (H2O) in the air, breaking them up into hydroxyl radicals (OH�), which are highly reactive, short-lived, uncharged forms of hydroxide ions (OH−).
Video

Ignition Delay Model Parameterization Using Single-Cylinder Engines Data

2020-11-06
The confluence of increasing fuel economy requirements and increased use of ethanol as a gasoline blend component has led to various studies into the efficiency and performance benefits of higher octane numbers and high ethanol content fuels in modern engines. As part of a comprehensive study of the autoignition of different fuels in both the CFR octane rating engine and a modern, direct injection, turbocharged spark-ignited engine, a series of fuel blends were prepared with varying composition, octane numbers and ethanol blend levels. The paper reports on the third part of this study where cylinder pressures were recorded for fuels under knocking conditions in both a single-cylinder research engine (SCE), utilizing a GM LHU head and piston, as well as the CFR engines used for octane ratings.
Video

e-Fuel Production via Renewables and the Impact on the In-Use CO2 Performance

2020-11-06
The trend towards renewable energy sources will continue under the pre-amble of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets. The main question is how to harvest and store renewable energy properly. The challenge of intermittency of the renewable energy resources make the supply less predictable compared to the traditional energy sources. Chemical energy carriers like hydrogen and synthetic fuels (e-Fuels) seem to be at least a part of the solution for storing renewable energy. The usage of e-Fuels in the existing ICE-powered vehicle fleet has a big lever arm to reduce the GHG emissions of the transport sector in the short- and medium term. The paper covers the whole well-to-wheel (WtW) pathway by discussing the e-Fuel production from renewable sources, the storage and the usage in the vehicle. It will be summarized by scenarios on the impact of e-Fuel to the WtW CO2 fleet emissions.
Video

Real-World Application of Variable Pedal Feeling Using an Electric Brake Booster with Two Motors (SAE Paper 2020-01-1645)

2020-11-06
A new type of electric brake booster, which can control brake pedal feeling completely with software, has been developed to explore how a brake system can be used to differentiate and personalize vehicles. In the future, vehicles may share an increasing amount of hardware and rely more heavily on software to differentiate between models. Car sharing, vehicle subscriptions, and other new business models may create a new emphasis on the personalization of vehicles that may be achieved most cost effectively by using software. This new brake booster controls the brake pedal force and brake pressure independently based on the brake pedal stroke so that the pedal feeling is completely defined by software. The booster uses two electric motors and one master cylinder. One electric motor controls the pedal force and provides an assist force that amplifies the force that the driver applies to the brake pedal.
Video

Four Research Projects Driving Commercial Vehicle Powertrain Development

2020-11-06
Moderator - Tim Kroeger, Texas A&M Univ. Vijay Sankar Anil, OSU Center for Automotive Research - Powertrain Design Optimization for a Series Plug-in Hybrid Delivery Vehicle George Koutsakis, Univ. of Wisconsin Madison - Predicting Wall Temperature of Multi-Layer Coated Combustion Chamber Surfaces Miles Droege, Purdue University - Model-Based Control Strategies for Extending the Safety & Efficiency Benefits of Class 8 Truck Platooning & Auto-Follow Operation to Hilly Terrain
Video

Modeling of an Integrated Internal Heat Exchanger and Accumulator in R744 Mobile Air-Conditioning Applications

2020-11-05
Carbon dioxide (CO2 or R744) is a promising next-generation refrigerant for mobile air-conditioning applications (MAC), which has the advantages of good heating performance in cold climates and environmental-friendly properties. This paper presents a simulation model of an integrated internal heat exchanger (IHX) and accumulator (Acc) using the finite volume method. The results are validated by a group of experimental data collected with different transcritical R744 mobile air-conditioner and heat pump (MHP) systems, and the error was within �10%. The impacts of refrigerant mass flow rate and operating temperatures on the heat transfer rate of the IHX, improvement on refrigeration capacity and the liquid level in the Acc were studied. Results show that the net benefits of IHX are significant in AC mode, while it helps preventing flooding of the compressor in MHP mode.
Video

Method for Using Modeling Fidelity in Battery-Electric Vehicle Thermal System Simulations to Optimize Real-World Component Design Targets

2020-11-05
The optimal performance of a battery electric vehicle (BEV) is highly dependent on the thermal environment in which the electric components operate. If the maximum temperature levels for crucial elements are exceeded, there are impacts to the life and reliability of the component. While the standard industry practice is to protect for the worst-case steady-state thermal load condition, this may result in the over-specification of the cooling system. It�s been established that BEVs are impacted by temperature, they are also sensitive to the mass of the cooling system, therefore components must not be over-designed to target extreme operating points. In order to meet these demands, a system level simulation has been developed to analyze the performance of several key electrical components. Detailed component models of the BorgWarner electric motor and inverter are included so that the temperature within these components can be monitored.
Video

A Study on Optimization of Brake Feeling and Method for Flexible Brake with Integrated Electronic Booster (SAE Paper 2020-01-1642)

2020-11-05
Throughout the automotive industry, the application of an integrated electronic booster (IEB) system has been actively applied following with diversify powertrain types and expand autonomous vehicles.[1, 2] Compared to the existing vacuum boosters, the performance advantages of IEB are 1) robustness against environmental changes, 2) rapid hydraulic reactivity, etc., and the advantages of cost / university are 1) flexibility for powertrain changes 2) weight saving 3) package simplification. Although IEB has a great advantage in performance and cost, it still needs a lot of research in various fields to realize the braking feeling, which is the performance of the emotional aspect, similar to the existing system. [3, 4]
Video

Start-up Impact on the Industry: Eco-System and Business Model of Start-ups

2020-11-05
Moderator - Tony Cannestra, DENSO International America Inc. Panelists - Julie Blumreiter, Clearflame Engines Inc. Jonathan Eckhardt, Univ. of Wisconsin Ross McKenzie, Univ. of Waterloo David Stout, Global Electronics Limited The role of startups in the commercial vehicle industry is evolving and important to continued innovation in the commercial vehicle industry. As the disruptive technologies from startups becomes more important in the development process, startups are being integrated into the OEM, Tier 1, Tier 2 ecosystem. These symposia will explore who the startups are, how they fit in the ecosystem, why they are important, what technologies are being innovated, and the industry response.
Video

Start-up Impact on the Industry: Relationships of Start-ups and Larger, Established Companies

2020-11-05
Moderator - Richard Holloway, CNH Industrial Panelists - Mark Kuhn, Ricardo Greg Mann, Allison Transmission Inc. Stephan A. Olsen, PACCAR Stephan Tarnutzer, AVL The role of startups in the commercial vehicle industry is evolving and important to continued innovation in the commercial vehicle industry. As the disruptive technologies from startups becomes more important in the development process, startups are being integrated into the OEM, Tier 1, Tier 2 ecosystem. These symposia will explore who the startups are, how they fit in the ecosystem, why they are important, what technologies are being innovated, and the industry response.
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