Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Video

Development and Industrialization of a Laser-Based Hard Material Coating System for Brake Discs

2020-11-09
Fine dust emissions caused by road transportation are being investigated and discussed in detail by governments and vehicle manufacturers. Brake abrasion contributes to a significant extent to this ambient air pollution. There are different approaches to minimize this brake disc abrasion, one of the most promising is the coating of the friction surface with wear resistant layers, i.e. with metal matrix composite (MMC). One coating technology, the extreme high-speed laser material deposition, has proven to be extremely effective, especially in combination with appropriately adapted brake pads. In detailed investigations with various brake disc manufacturers, HPL Technologies in Aachen, Germany, examined influences on the quality such as reliable corrosion and wear resistance.
Video

Enclosure-in-Chamber Setup to Achieve Near-Zero Background Concentrations for Brake Emissions Testing (SAE Paper 2020-01-1634)

2020-11-09
Measuring brake emission continues to be a challenging non-standardized task. Extensive research is ongoing and as seen in the work in progress presented at SAE Brake Colloquium and PMP meetings. However, open items include how to achieve lower background concentration and how to design the brake enclosure. A low background concentration is essential as brake events are short and some emissions are in the range of reported background levels. Hence these emissions are difficult to distinguish from the background level. Even more critical, a high background concentration can result in a wrong particle number emissions value, either overestimated, background counted as emissions, or underestimated, background level subtracted, and low emission events no longer detected and counted. Reducing the background level to less than 100 #/cm3 appeared to be quite challenging.
Video

Ultraviolet and Titanium Dioxide Based Photocatalysis HVAC System to Eliminate COVID-19 for Occupant�s Safety & Health in Automobiles

2020-11-09
In a photocatalytic air purifier system, the catalyst that cleans the air is typically titanium dioxide and it is energized by ultraviolet (UV) light. UV is the short-wavelength light just beyond the blue/violet part of the electromagnetic spectrum that our eyes can detect. This shortwave-length light has much more energy than ordinary, visible light�and exactly the right amount of energy to get titanium dioxide excited. Titanium dioxide is a semiconductor that covers the filter surface. Just a thin film of titanium dioxide is required at the filter surface with a substrate. When UV light shines on the titanium dioxide, electrons (negatively charged particles inside atoms) are released at its surface. The electrons interact with water molecules (H2O) in the air, breaking them up into hydroxyl radicals (OH�), which are highly reactive, short-lived, uncharged forms of hydroxide ions (OH−).
Video

e-Fuel Production via Renewables and the Impact on the In-Use CO2 Performance

2020-11-06
The trend towards renewable energy sources will continue under the pre-amble of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets. The main question is how to harvest and store renewable energy properly. The challenge of intermittency of the renewable energy resources make the supply less predictable compared to the traditional energy sources. Chemical energy carriers like hydrogen and synthetic fuels (e-Fuels) seem to be at least a part of the solution for storing renewable energy. The usage of e-Fuels in the existing ICE-powered vehicle fleet has a big lever arm to reduce the GHG emissions of the transport sector in the short- and medium term. The paper covers the whole well-to-wheel (WtW) pathway by discussing the e-Fuel production from renewable sources, the storage and the usage in the vehicle. It will be summarized by scenarios on the impact of e-Fuel to the WtW CO2 fleet emissions.
Video

Powertrain Committee Panel: Ultra-low NOx, Durability and Warranty, Part 1 - Catalyst and Aftertreatment

2020-11-05
Moderator - Ryan Bradley, CNH Industrial Panelists - Louise Arnold, Johnson Matthey Inc. Kevin Hallstrom, BASF AG Achim Heibel, Corning Inc. Paul Rodatz, Vitesco Technologies GmbH For the Commercial Vehicle industry to play its part in addressing the environmental impact of fossil fuels on the environment, pending emissions regulations will establish ultra-low NOx, extended durability and warrant requirements. The Powertrain Committee has assembled two panels of experts to provide insight into novel technology approaches and a progress report aimed at achieving these requirements for both the on-road and off-road segments of the industry. Panel 1 will focus on catalyst and aftertreatment, while panel 2 will focus on engine and powertrain integration challenges and innovations.
Video

Modeling of an Integrated Internal Heat Exchanger and Accumulator in R744 Mobile Air-Conditioning Applications

2020-11-05
Carbon dioxide (CO2 or R744) is a promising next-generation refrigerant for mobile air-conditioning applications (MAC), which has the advantages of good heating performance in cold climates and environmental-friendly properties. This paper presents a simulation model of an integrated internal heat exchanger (IHX) and accumulator (Acc) using the finite volume method. The results are validated by a group of experimental data collected with different transcritical R744 mobile air-conditioner and heat pump (MHP) systems, and the error was within �10%. The impacts of refrigerant mass flow rate and operating temperatures on the heat transfer rate of the IHX, improvement on refrigeration capacity and the liquid level in the Acc were studied. Results show that the net benefits of IHX are significant in AC mode, while it helps preventing flooding of the compressor in MHP mode.
Video

The Effect of the Abrasive Particle Size in the Friction Material on the Concentration and Size Distribution of Particulate Matter (PM)

2020-11-04
The correlation between the aggressiveness of the brake friction material and brake emission was investigated by using the abrasives in different sizes. The friction materials with three different zircon (ZrSiO4) particles in 1�m, 50�m, 150 �m in average diameter were produced. The emission test was carried out following a WLTC test procedure using a 1/5 scale brake dynamometer designed for brake emission measurements. The concentration and size distribution of the airborne particles were analyzed using an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI+). Results showed that the friction material with larger abrasives increased the wear rate of the gray iron disc and led to the high iron content in PM. The high iron content also changed the size distribution of the PM due to the electrostatic attraction changed by iron particles during the agglomeration of nano-sized wear particles.
Video

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation (SAE Paper 2020-01-1633)

2020-11-04
The particulate emissions of two brake systems were characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust PN regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a section (trip-10) novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of trip-10 tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Video

Intake Air Conditioning for Fuel Cell Systems

2020-11-04
As part of the rise of E-mobility, fuel cells continue to expand as an alternative powertrain option for a variety of industries (e.g. automotive, marine, locomotive, and material handling). At first glance, the requirements for a fuel cell (FC) air intake system are no different from a traditional internal combustion engine (ICE). The purpose in both powertrain systems is maximizing long driving range, with acceptable pressure losses. While these traditional objectives remain important, fuel cell powertrain requires additional protection & functionality to obtain best performance of the FC stack. The first is protection against the ambient environment. Tailpipe emissions, industrial exhaust and road dust contribute to small particles (PM1.0, PM10) with high concentrations and hazardous gases/ odors like NOx, SO2, H2S, Hydrocarbons, Ammonia.
Video

Increasing Electric Vehicle Driving Range by Incorporating an Innovative Thermoelectric Heat Pump Subsystem into R1234yf and CO2 HVAC Systems

2020-11-03
Under cold operating conditions (ambient temperature of 20oF), the electric energy consumed to provide occupant comfort and system thermal management in battery electric vehicles (BEVs) can reduce driving range up to 40% compared to the baseline operation in a 75oF ambient temperature. In hot environments (ambient temperature of 95oF), BEVs can suffer a 15-20% driving range penalty from HVAC energy consumption compared to the baseline. Effective integration of newly designed thermoelectric (TE) systems that use available TE materials provide performance enhancement in both R1234yf and CO2 HVAC systems. This presentation discusses subsystem designs, design tradeoffs and performance gains. The TE subsystems utilize an integrated design with cycle and material fabrication advancements to improve the coefficient of performance (COP) and reduce the size of HVAC systems that operate with low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants.
Video

Deposit Formation in SCR-Systems - Optical Investigations

2020-11-03
The permanently tightening emission regulations for nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollutants force further development of mobile exhaust aftertreatment systems with selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Of particular interest is the long-term reliability of SCR-systems with regard to unfavorable operating conditions, such as high injection rates of urea water solution (UWS) or low exhaust gas temperatures. Both may lead to the formation of solid deposits which decrease system efficiency by increasing backpressure and impairing ammonia formation. In order to study the most relevant processes of deposit formation, an optical box with heat resistant glass was designed. Three UWS injectors with different spray characteristics were used to study their influence on the deposit formation under a wide range of stationary and transient operating conditions. Infrared thermography was applied to observe spray-induced wall cooling, both below and above the Leidenfrost point.
Video

Potentials and Challenges of a Brake Particle Emission Collecting System (SAE Paper 2020-01-1635)

2020-11-03
Brake particle emissions as a part of non-exhaust emissions are becoming more and more relevant, various international research activities can be stated. Also from the legislation side, first hints are given in regards of possible regulations.One possible approach for the reduction of brake particle emissions deals with the collection of those particles close to the foundation brake. The presented paper will follow such an approach and give some insights.In a first step, the technical layout is described for bench and vehicle testing. While for bench testing a PMP-like style of the setup could be chosen, the vehicle test setup is oriented on conventional wheel dust measurements.Hence, presented results of laboratory testing are dealing with PN and PM measurements. Also the impact on particle size distribution is discussed. It can be stated, that the particle collecting system is able to improve PN and PM emissions.
Video

Use of Partial Recirculation to Limit Build-Up of Cabin Carbon Dioxide Concentrations to Safe Limits per ASHRAE Standard-62

2020-11-03
Carbon dioxide exhaled by occupants remains within the cabin during operation of HVAC unit in recirculation mode. The CO2 inhaled by the occupants goes into their blood stream that negatively affects occupant�s health. ASHRAE Standard-62 (1999) specifies the safe levels of carbon dioxide in conditioned space for humans. The CO2 concentration limit per ASHRAE is 700 ppm over ambient conditions on a continuous basis. Based on the test data, at worst case scenario (idle condition where body leakage will be a minimal) results in CO2 concentrations of 1601, 2846, 4845 and 6587 ppm respective for 1 to 4 occupants in 30 minutes. Author has also conducted test by imposing ASHRAE standard-62. A controller was programmed for operating the blower unit�s intake door to go from recirculation to OSA mode when the measured carbon dioxide ppm level goes above 1100 ppm. The door stays in OSA mode until the cabin carbon dioxide falls to approximately 500ppm.
Video

Tutorial: Aerosol Measurements - Principles, Techniques and Application to Brake Emissions

2020-11-02
The proper measurement and assessment of brake emissions is a challenge to traditional testing in many aspects. First, the analysis itself can involve over 100 data channels for a single brake. Besides, the orders of magnitude are much larger or significantly smaller, compared to legacy brake tests, from measuring distances in millimeters to measuring particles in nanometers (one-millionth of a millimeter). And, from counting items in hundreds (degrees of temperature or braking events) to counting particles in millions, or tens of millions for particles on a single particle size bin during a brake test. This tutorial helps the audience navigate through brake emissions data, make sense of its meaning, and make better decisions for a vehicle, a system, or a component program. The tutorial (using examples and real time measurements) explains critical concepts related to particle mass (PM), particle number (PN), size distribution, and new particle formation process.
Video

Powertrain Committee Panel: Ultra-low NOx, Durability and Warranty, Part 2 - Engine and Powertrain Integration

2020-11-02
Moderator - Alexander Taylor, BMTS Technology US Corporation Panelists - Lisa Farrell, Cummins Inc. Gustav Johnson, AVL Powertrain Engineering Inc. Navtej Singh, Navistar Inc. For the Commercial Vehicle industry to play its part in addressing the environmental impact of fossil fuels on the environment, pending emissions regulations will establish ultra-low NOx, extended durability and warrant requirements. The Powertrain Committee has assembled two panels of experts to provide insight into novel technology approaches and a progress report aimed at achieving these requirements for both the on-road and off-road segments of the industry. Panel 1 will focus on catalyst and aftertreatment, while panel 2 will focus on engine and powertrain integration challenges and innovations.
Video

The Effect of the Brake Disc Materials on the Particulate Matter Emission

2020-11-02
The amount of particulate matter (PM) emission from the brake friction couple was examined by using different types of brake discs. The gray iron brake discs with small, medium, and high carbon contents and oxynitrided gray iron discs were tested to compare the amount of brake emission during the WLTC test procedure using a non-steel type brake friction material. A ceramic disc based on SiC/C was also tested with the same friction material for comparison. The emission test was carried out using a 1/5 scale dynamometer designed for the brake emission study. The concentration and size distribution of the airborne particles were measured using an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI+) in the aerodynamic size range of 6 nm to 10 ��m. Results showed that the gray iron discs with high carbon contents produced more PM than low carbon content gray iron discs in moderate braking conditions.
Video

SAE Eye on Engineering: Ford's new steel-bodied Ranger

2020-10-30
Today, ford motor company begins U.S. production of its 2019 Ranger, the company's first midsize pickup. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Editor-in-Chief Lindsay Brooke looks at the new steel-bodied Ranger. SAE Eye on Engineering also airs Monday mornings on WJR 760 AM Detroit's Paul W. Smith Show.
Video

Spotlight on Design Insight: The Impact of Additive Manufacturing in Automotive Applications

2016-04-12
In “The Impact of Additive Manufacturing in Automotive Applications”, a professor from Kettering University explains why additive manufacturing will be a game changer for car makers, and how process control is one of the biggest challenges ahead. An engineer at Local Motors in Arizona shows how the company builds its cars using a large-scale 3D printer, including how a variety of materials is being evaluated for optimal performance in this type of application. The episode highlights: The expected positive impact of AM on smaller car makers and suppliers The key difference between small 3D printers and large-scale ones The need to find the best possible material combination so vehicles that are #D-printed are as safe as traditional ones Also Available in DVD Format To subscribe to a full-season of Spotlight on Design, please contact SAE Corporate Sales: CustomerSales@sae.org or 1-888-875-3976.
Video

Performance of Particle Oxidation Catalyst and Particle Formation Studies with Sulphur Containing Fuels

2012-06-18
The aim of this paper is to analyse the quantitative impact of fuel sulphur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulphur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higher sulphur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulphur level. The Fuel Sulphur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC.
X