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Impact of Acrylic Fiber on the Performance of Newly Developed Friction Materials for Vehicles with Regenerative Braking

Regenerative braking in conjunction with friction braking represents one of the most common braking strategies employed in electric and hybrid vehicles. The considerably different role of the friction brake in these ?blended scenarios?, when compared with braking solely by friction brakes, creates potential for development of new advanced and sustainable brake materials and brake designs. Fiber reinforcements used in friction brake material play an important role in improving strength, stability, and frictional properties [1, 2, 3]. This study concentrated on the development of a new generation of lightweight, ?quiet? and environmentally sustainable brake pad materials to be used with coated cast iron rotors in vehicles with regenerative braking.

Performance of Particle Oxidation Catalyst and Particle Formation Studies with Sulphur Containing Fuels

The aim of this paper is to analyse the quantitative impact of fuel sulphur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulphur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higher sulphur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulphur level. The Fuel Sulphur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC.

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

For internal combustion engines and industrial machinery, it is well recognized that the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption and extending service life is through lubricant development. This presentation summarizes our recent R&D achievements on developing a new class of candidate lubricants or oil additives ionic liquids (ILs). Features of ILs making them attractive for lubrication include high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, non-flammability, and intrinsic high polarity. When used as neat lubricants, selected ILs demonstrated lower friction under elastohydrodynamic lubrication and less wear at boundary lubrication benchmarked against fully-formulated engine oils in our bench tests. More encouragingly, a group of non-corrosive, oil-miscible ILs has recently been developed and demonstrated multiple additive functionalities including anti-wear and friction modifier when blended into hydrocarbon base oils.

A350XWB Fiber Placement Spars; From R&D Conception Phase to Serial Production

At the end of 2006, two MTorres engineers visited the plant of Airbus UK in Filton receiving a new challenge: Find a more efficient way to manufacture Carbon Fiber Spars for the new A350 program. The range of possibilities were wide: manual infusion methods (RTM, RIM, RFI...), Automatic Taping & hot forming, or the new technology proposed, Fiberplacement or AFP. Two (2) options were considered: hot forming+ATL and AFP (both using prepeg technology.) The usage of a flat lay-up + hot forming technology was used in the only Airbus program that used carbon fiber for the wing manufacturing so far, the A400M. The expected greater complexity of A350 spar created doubts on the feasibility of using the above process, while the AFP technology, consisting of laying up directly on the final shape of the spar, also raised questions of technical feasibility, apart from the economic ?business case?, in case the productivity of the cell was not big enough. A ?Spar team?

RFID on Aircraft Parts - Industry Initiatives, Testing Standards, and Best Practices for Storing Maintenance History Information Directly on Aircraft Parts

The aerospace industry has long sought a solution for storing maintenance history information directly on aircraft parts. In 2005 leading airframe manufacturers determined that passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology presented a unique opportunity to address this industry need. Through the efforts of the Air Transport Association (ATA) RFID on Parts Committee and SAE International testing standards and data specifications are in place to support the broad adoption of passive RFID for storing parts history information directly on aircraft parts. The primary focus of the paper will be on the SAE AS-5678 environmental testing standard for passive RFID tags intended for aircraft use. Detail will be provided to help aerospace manufacturers understand their role and responsibilities for current programs and understand how this may impact their parts certification process.

A Methodology to Assess the Capabilities of a Cluster of Companies: The Case of "Torino Piemonte Aerospace"

The increasing complexity of aerospace products and programs and the growing competitive pressure is facilitating the aggregation of small, medium and large enterprises of certain geographical regions into more integrated and collaborative entities (clusters). Clusters are by their same nature formed by heterogeneous companies, with huge differences not only in size but also for their core competences: such a diversity is a strength of the cluster, but it also increases its complexity. The purpose of this paper is to describe a benchmarking methodology that can be adopted to assess the performances of companies belonging to a cluster from different perspectives: economics and financials, competitive differentiators, specific know how, business strategies, production and logistic effectiveness, quality of core and supporting processes.

Certification of Engine Health Management Systems: Guidelines for Selecting Software Assurance Levels

The use of Engine Health Management (EHM) systems has been growing steadily in both the civilian and the military aerospace sectors. Barring a few notable exceptions (such as certain temperature and thrust margin monitoring) regulatory authorities around the world have not required these systems to be certified in any way. This is changing rapidly. New airframes and engines are increasingly being designed with the assumption that EHM will be an integral part of the way customers will operate these assets. This leads to a need for better guidelines on how such systems should be certified. The SAE E-32 committee on Propulsion System Health Monitoring is leading an industry-wide effort to develop a set of guidelines for certifying EHM systems.

Vertical Picture-Frame Wing Jig Structure Design with an Eye to Foundation Loading

The foundation of many production aircraft assembly facilities is a more dynamic and unpredictable quantity than we would sometimes care to admit. Any tooling structures constructed on these floors, no matter how thoroughly analyzed or well understood, are at the mercy of settling and shifting concrete, which can cause very lengthy and costly periodic re-certification and adjustment procedures. It is with this in mind, then, that we explore the design possibilities for one such structure to be built in Belfast, North Ireland for the assembly of the Shorts C-Series aircraft wings. We evaluate the peak floor pressure, weight, gravity deflection, drilling deflection, and thermal deflection of four promising structures and discover that carefully designed pivot points and tension members can offer significant benefits in some areas.