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A Study of the Interactions Between Phenolic Resin and Metal Sulphides and their Contribution to PAD Performance and Wear

2020-10-02
In order to keep the coefficient of friction stable, some additives such as metal sulphides, are included in the brake pads formulation. Previous work from RIMSA has shown that oxidation temperature range of the metal sulphides can be one of the key properties to explain their contribution to the performance and wear of a PAD. This new work is a step forward in the interpretation of the mechanism of sulphides as chemically active additives in the brake pads. Phenolic resin is the matrix of the brake pads and starts to decompose around 300 ?C in presence of oxygen and temperature. In order to establish a connection on between sulphide oxidation and phenolic resin degradation, several studies based on heat treatment of blends of different metal sulphides (Iron sulphide, Tin sulphide and Composite sulphide) with phenolic resin have been done. Then the material evolution was studied with techniques such as TGA - DSC, XRD, IR and SEM - EDS.
Video

Controlling Performance of Copper-Free Brake-Pads by Varying Size of Graphite Particles (SAE Paper 2020-01-1604)

2020-10-02
Graphite plays a crucial role in friction materials, since it has good thermal conductivity, lubricity and act as a friction modifier. The right type, amount, shape, and size of the particles control the performance of the brake-pads. The theme of the study was investigating the influence of size of graphite particles (having all other specifications identical) on performance properties of brake-pads containing graphite particles in the average size of 60 �m, 120 �m, 200 �m and 400 �m. Physical, mechanical and chemical characterization of the developed brake-pads was done. The tribological performance was studied using a full- scale inertia brake dynamometer following a Japanese automobile testing standard (JASO C406). Tribo-performance in terms of fade resistance, friction stability and wear resistance were observed best for smaller graphite particles. It was concluded that smaller size serves best for achieving best performance properties barring compressibility.
Video

Impact of Microstructure of Coated and Non-Coated Grey Cast Iron Rotors on their Thermal Properties

2020-10-02
Friction interaction between brake materials see a rise in temperatures of over 1000 oC contributing to thermal fade of brakes and deterioration/cracking of rotors. Various microstructural features like alloying, graphite morphology and size, morphology and contents of pearlite and ferrite could influence the thermal properties and related friction performance of the brake materials. Even more relevant impact on thermal properties of rotors can be expected after their coating by ceramics. The primary purpose of this research is to identify the impact of microstructure on thermal diffusivity of a commercially available ASTM A48 Class 30 gray cast iron brake rotor and an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) of Ford F150 combined with effects of ceramic coatings. Thermal diffusivity is a relevant property controlling the speed at which is heat dissipated from friction surfaces.
Video

Impact of Ceramic Coatings on Grey Cast Iron Rotors on Friction Performance of Automotive Brakes

2020-10-02
Increasing concerns towards non-exhaust emissions from friction brake engagements has led researchers to explore coatings for brake rotors with the aim of improving their corrosion and wear resistance. The development of regenerative braking systems also adds to the thrive towards a better environment through increasing power conservation and decreasing friction interactions by ~ 5-20% reduction in the friction brake engagements compared with traditional friction braking systems. This research focuses on friction performance of a typical ASTM A48 Class 30 gray cast iron brake rotor and an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) Ford F150 brake rotor, both coated with a newly patented ceramic coating, tested against commercially available low metallic (LM) aftermarket brake pads. The friction performance was evaluated according to ISO/SAE J2522 test procedure carried out using a scaled down bench top wear tester (Bruker Tribolab).
Video

Impact of Acrylic Fiber on the Performance of Newly Developed Friction Materials for Vehicles with Regenerative Braking

2020-10-02
Regenerative braking in conjunction with friction braking represents one of the most common braking strategies employed in electric and hybrid vehicles. The considerably different role of the friction brake in these ?blended scenarios?, when compared with braking solely by friction brakes, creates potential for development of new advanced and sustainable brake materials and brake designs. Fiber reinforcements used in friction brake material play an important role in improving strength, stability, and frictional properties [1, 2, 3]. This study concentrated on the development of a new generation of lightweight, ?quiet? and environmentally sustainable brake pad materials to be used with coated cast iron rotors in vehicles with regenerative braking.
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Performance Evaluation of New Series of Kevlar Fiber Based Nano Composite Friction Material Tested on Coated Rotors

2020-10-02
Regenerative braking is an important system of an electric/hybrid vehicle as it enables to recover the considerable part of its kinetic energy. Since the braking torque demand could often be higher than the torque provided by the electric motor, a ??blended?? approach of friction and regenerative braking is used [1]. This provides an opportunity for development of advanced new designs of regenerative brakes and a new series of advanced lightweight, low wear, high strength, corrosion mitigating and sustainable friction materials. This study focuses on the performance of a newly patented polyimide matrix composites reinforced with Kevlar fabric and further modified with carbon nanoadditives. These alternative friction materials are very light and are free of not only asbestos and copper, but also of other environmentally challenging constituents potentially used in friction materials.
Video

Spotlight on Design Insight: Composite Materials: New Trends in Automotive Design

2015-05-08
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. When automotive and aerospace manufacturers look for a material with superior lightweight and strength characteristics, they often look no further than composite materials. In the episode “Composite Materials: New Trends in Automotive Design” (10:20), an engineer from Molded Fiber Glass Research Company demonstrates how they develop and test the properties of composite materials, and an engineer at MirTEQ Incorporated discusses designing molds for an aftermarket composite part.
Video

Spotlight on Design: Composite Materials: Advanced Materials and Lightweighting

2015-04-15
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. In the episode “Composite Materials: Advanced Materials and Lightweighting” (30:20), Molded Fiber Glass Companies, known for its deep involvement in the creative development of the molded fiberglass process for the Corvette, demonstrates the manufacturing of sheet molded composite for fiberglass parts. Tanom Motors introduces the Tanom Invader, a blend between an automobile and a motorcycle made exclusively with composite materials. Finally, Euro-Composites demonstrates the manufacturing of honeycomb core material made out of aramid paper and phenolic resin used in aircraft structures.
Video

Performance of Particle Oxidation Catalyst and Particle Formation Studies with Sulphur Containing Fuels

2012-06-18
The aim of this paper is to analyse the quantitative impact of fuel sulphur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulphur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higher sulphur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulphur level. The Fuel Sulphur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC.
Video

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Video

Composite Predictive Engineering Studies - American Chemistry Council Plastics Division

2012-05-29
Since 2006 Oak Ridge National Labs (ORNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Labs (PNNL) have conducted research of injection molded long glass fiber thermoplastic parts funded by U.S. DOE. At DOE's request, ACC's Plastics Division Automotive Team and USCAR formed a steering committee for the National Labs, whose purpose was to provide industry perspective, parts materials and guidance in processing. This ACC affiliation enabled the plastics industry to identify additional key research requirements necessary to the success of long glass fiber injection molded materials and their use in the real world. Through further cooperative agreements with Autodesk Moldflow and University of Illinois, a new process model to predict both fiber orientation distribution and fiber length distribution is now available. Mechanical property predictive tools were developed and Moldflow is integrating these models into their software.
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Low Cost Carbon Fiber Materials and Processing Technologies

2012-05-29
The need for light-weighting of automotive structures has spurred on a tremendous amount of interest in and development of low cost carbon fiber composite materials and manufacturing. This presentation provides a description of the commercial carbon fiber concept compared to traditional aerospace and specialty carbon fiber products. A specific update is presented on the development and commercialization of new low cost carbon fiber based on lignin / PAN precursor technology. The second focus of the presentation is on carbon fiber composite manufacturing processes, including carbon SMC, RTM, prepregs, and thermoplastic processes. Advantages and disadvantages of these processes are discussed, especially related to low cost manufacturing. Presenter George Husman, Zoltek Companies Inc.
Video

NHTSA Lightweighting and Safety Studies

2012-05-29
Historically, studies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in support of CAF� rulemaking indicate that lightweighting vehicles lead to degraded safety. However, recent studies provided to NHTSA show that good designs for lightweighting can provide equivalent safety. This presentation highlights two studies funded by NHTSA in part to address these latest findings. The first is a George Washington University study, �Investigate Opportunities for Lightweighting Vehicles Using Advanced Plastics and Composites.� The second is an Electricore study, �Mass Reduction for Light-Duty Vehicles for Model Years 2017-2015. The findings presented include that it is possible to lightweight vehicles and provide equivalent safety and that costs drive designers toward the use of advanced metals.
Video

Using the Beer-Lambert Law and Kubelka-Munk Theory to Model Percent Transmittance of Multilayer Composite Coatings

2012-05-23
Transmission of light through automotive topcoat and primer layers can lead to degradation of the underlying electrocoat layer and to topcoat delamination. In order to protect against this, it is critical that transmission of both ultraviolet wavelengths and certain visible wavelengths be effectively blocked by the topcoat and primer layers. The clearcoat, basecoat and primer each have their own role and combine to protect against light transmission. The transmittance of these combined layers is typically measured by the Integrating Sphere UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. It would both simplify measurement of the topcoat systems and allow better system modeling if these layers could be measured separately and combined mathematically. We demonstrate here that absorbing and reflecting pigments can be effectively modeled using the Beer-Lambert law while results for scattering pigments are consistent with the Kubelka-Munk theory.
Video

Development of Scratch Resistant Clear Coat for Automotive

2012-05-23
Scratch resistance is one of the most important customer requirements for automotive painting. Scratches occur as a result of a load being imposed on a paint film, which then destroys or deforms it. In order to improve the scratch resistance properties of clear coat, a specially developed molecular that act to accelerate closslinking reaction was added to the clear coat main resin. This developed molecular facilitates closslinking between multiple molecules and creates an unprecedentedly fine molecular structure. The result is a soft, highly elastic, and durable clear coat with improved resistance to light and acid as well as enhanced deformation recovery properties. It requires no special maintenance, prevents luster degradation caused by surface scratches and helps to prolong new-car color and gloss. Developmental Clear Coat is introduced into the flagship of the Lexus range - the LS as Self-restoring Coat in 2009. Presenter Junya Ogawa, Developmental Center
Video

Lightweight Door Panel Made with Bio-Based Composite Material

2012-05-23
This paper presents a new concept for a 100% plastic prototype automotive door panel. This concept has the potential of providing a weight reduction of up to 40% compared to conventional steel door panels, but with equivalent performance (static strength). This innovative technology can be used for a variety of exterior automotive parts. The concept includes a composite sandwich panel combination of GFRP (glass fiber reinforced polymer), and LACTIF®, which is expanded beads foam made from PLA (polylactic acid) and developed by JSP Corporation. This GFRP+LACTIF® composite design offers the following characteristics: Excellent environmental resistance Strong adhesion Equivalent static strength (vs. conventional door panels) Design flexibility This concept also offers an alternative to conventional steel door panel systems by using unsaturated polyester material of plant origin as part of the GFRP composite.
Video

5000 Hours Aging of THERBAN® (HNBR) Elastomers in an Aggressive Biodiesel Blend

2012-05-23
TERBAN® hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is a specialty elastomer used in demanding engineering applications such as the automotive, heavy duty, and industrial markets. It has excellent combination of heat, oil and abrasion resistance in addition to its high mechanical strength, very good dynamic and sealing properties. This paper will present data on aging HNBR for five thousand hours in an aggressive and un-stabilized B30A biodiesel fuel blend (70% ULSD, 30% SME, and an aggressive additive package) and explore the effect of HNBR polymer properties and vulcanizate composition on the performance in such fuel blends. Presenter Victor Nasreddine
Video

Polycarbonate Glazing - Accelerated Wiper Testing, Surface Characterization and Comparison with On-Road Fleet Data

2012-05-23
Exatec� PC glazing technology team, has developed advanced weathering and abrasion resistant coatings technology that can be applied to protect polycarbonate. It is of particular interest to quantify and understand the factors that determine the surface abrasion performance of coated PC in rear window and backlight applications that have a wiper system. In the present study we describe Exatec's lab scale wiper testing equipment and test protocols. We also describe adaptation of optical imaging system to measure contrast and nano-profiling using nano-indenter, as post wiper surface characterization methods. These methods are more sensitive to fine scratches on glazing surface than standard haze measurement and mechanical profilometry. Three coating systems were investigated; Siloxane wetcoat (A), Siloxane wetcoat (B), and Siloxane wetcoat (B) plus plasma coat (Exatec� E900 coating). The performance comparisons were made using all these surface characterization methods.
Video

Development of High Strength Polymer Based Bearing for Automotive Parts under Boundary Lubrication

2012-05-23
Composite bearings of PTFE as the base material have been widely used for automotive parts. However, in recent years, due to downsizing, faster sliding speeds, and tendency to increase the bearing load with high performance, particularly for boundary lubrication conditions, the PTFE-based composite bearing is often worn, making it difficult to apply to some applications. A high strength polymer was selected as an alternative to PTFE base material, and the mechanical properties and performance in a start-stop test, reciprocating sliding test and seizure test were evaluated. Focusing on the characteristics of high strength, by applying a PEEK resin, in each evaluation, it was confirmed that superior performance was achieved compared with a conventional PTFE based composite bearing. Presenter Yohei Takada, Daido Metal Co., Ltd.
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