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Video

Controlling Performance of Copper-Free Brake-Pads by Varying Size of Graphite Particles (SAE Paper 2020-01-1604)

2020-10-02
Graphite plays a crucial role in friction materials, since it has good thermal conductivity, lubricity and act as a friction modifier. The right type, amount, shape, and size of the particles control the performance of the brake-pads. The theme of the study was investigating the influence of size of graphite particles (having all other specifications identical) on performance properties of brake-pads containing graphite particles in the average size of 60 �m, 120 �m, 200 �m and 400 �m. Physical, mechanical and chemical characterization of the developed brake-pads was done. The tribological performance was studied using a full- scale inertia brake dynamometer following a Japanese automobile testing standard (JASO C406). Tribo-performance in terms of fade resistance, friction stability and wear resistance were observed best for smaller graphite particles. It was concluded that smaller size serves best for achieving best performance properties barring compressibility.
Video

Performance of Particle Oxidation Catalyst and Particle Formation Studies with Sulphur Containing Fuels

2012-06-18
The aim of this paper is to analyse the quantitative impact of fuel sulphur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulphur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higher sulphur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulphur level. The Fuel Sulphur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC.
Video

5000 Hours Aging of THERBAN® (HNBR) Elastomers in an Aggressive Biodiesel Blend

2012-05-23
TERBAN® hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is a specialty elastomer used in demanding engineering applications such as the automotive, heavy duty, and industrial markets. It has excellent combination of heat, oil and abrasion resistance in addition to its high mechanical strength, very good dynamic and sealing properties. This paper will present data on aging HNBR for five thousand hours in an aggressive and un-stabilized B30A biodiesel fuel blend (70% ULSD, 30% SME, and an aggressive additive package) and explore the effect of HNBR polymer properties and vulcanizate composition on the performance in such fuel blends. Presenter Victor Nasreddine
Video

Polycarbonate Glazing - Accelerated Wiper Testing, Surface Characterization and Comparison with On-Road Fleet Data

2012-05-23
Exatec� PC glazing technology team, has developed advanced weathering and abrasion resistant coatings technology that can be applied to protect polycarbonate. It is of particular interest to quantify and understand the factors that determine the surface abrasion performance of coated PC in rear window and backlight applications that have a wiper system. In the present study we describe Exatec's lab scale wiper testing equipment and test protocols. We also describe adaptation of optical imaging system to measure contrast and nano-profiling using nano-indenter, as post wiper surface characterization methods. These methods are more sensitive to fine scratches on glazing surface than standard haze measurement and mechanical profilometry. Three coating systems were investigated; Siloxane wetcoat (A), Siloxane wetcoat (B), and Siloxane wetcoat (B) plus plasma coat (Exatec� E900 coating). The performance comparisons were made using all these surface characterization methods.
Video

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

2012-05-10
For internal combustion engines and industrial machinery, it is well recognized that the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption and extending service life is through lubricant development. This presentation summarizes our recent R&D achievements on developing a new class of candidate lubricants or oil additives ionic liquids (ILs). Features of ILs making them attractive for lubrication include high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, non-flammability, and intrinsic high polarity. When used as neat lubricants, selected ILs demonstrated lower friction under elastohydrodynamic lubrication and less wear at boundary lubrication benchmarked against fully-formulated engine oils in our bench tests. More encouragingly, a group of non-corrosive, oil-miscible ILs has recently been developed and demonstrated multiple additive functionalities including anti-wear and friction modifier when blended into hydrocarbon base oils.
Video

A Methodology to Assess the Capabilities of a Cluster of Companies: The Case of "Torino Piemonte Aerospace"

2012-03-21
The increasing complexity of aerospace products and programs and the growing competitive pressure is facilitating the aggregation of small, medium and large enterprises of certain geographical regions into more integrated and collaborative entities (clusters). Clusters are by their same nature formed by heterogeneous companies, with huge differences not only in size but also for their core competences: such a diversity is a strength of the cluster, but it also increases its complexity. The purpose of this paper is to describe a benchmarking methodology that can be adopted to assess the performances of companies belonging to a cluster from different perspectives: economics and financials, competitive differentiators, specific know how, business strategies, production and logistic effectiveness, quality of core and supporting processes.
Video

Study of Exit Burr Formation and Exit Burr Reduction in Automated Drilling of Titanium Stacked With Carbon Fiber Composite

2012-03-16
With the growing use of carbon fiber composite structure in Aircraft Manufacturing, the challenge of drilling carbon fiber stacked with Titanium has become a focus point. Due to the abrasive nature of the carbon fiber (CF), cutting tool life is relatively short when drilling carbon fiber stalked with Titanium. A common drill wear indicator is exit burr formation in the Titanium. As drilling tools wear due to the abrasive nature of the CF, the exit burr in the in the Titanium increases. This study seeks to understand the factors that lead to tool wear and exit burr formation. A correlation may be made relating drilling thrust forces with exit burr formation. Different cutting tools geometries and materials are studied using a high speed camera to attempt to understand the factors influencing exit burr formation. Findings are optimized and tested. Decreasing exit burr in the drilling of CF and Titanium may increase tool life thereby reducing tool costs to airframe manufacturers.
Video

Study of Materials and Coatings Used for Drilling Carbon Fiber Re-inforced Plastics

2012-03-14
With the increased usage of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) in the aircraft industry, there has been increased pressure to improve cutting tool life. Tungsten carbide tools were the first to be applied to CFRP materials. Poly Crystalline Diamond (PCD) tools also became an acceptable material to be used as a cutting tool material. In recent years, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond tools have become more popular as a cutting tool material for CFRP. This study compares these possible cutting tool materials in the drilling of CFRP. Wear is measured as well as hole quality. Life is determined by common industry standards with regard to fiber break out in a common CFRP material. An economic analysis is conducted in order to determine cost per hole. Presenter Christophe Petit
Video

Vertical Picture-Frame Wing Jig Structure Design with an Eye to Foundation Loading

2012-03-14
The foundation of many production aircraft assembly facilities is a more dynamic and unpredictable quantity than we would sometimes care to admit. Any tooling structures constructed on these floors, no matter how thoroughly analyzed or well understood, are at the mercy of settling and shifting concrete, which can cause very lengthy and costly periodic re-certification and adjustment procedures. It is with this in mind, then, that we explore the design possibilities for one such structure to be built in Belfast, North Ireland for the assembly of the Shorts C-Series aircraft wings. We evaluate the peak floor pressure, weight, gravity deflection, drilling deflection, and thermal deflection of four promising structures and discover that carefully designed pivot points and tension members can offer significant benefits in some areas.
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