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Video

Development and Industrialization of a Laser-Based Hard Material Coating System for Brake Discs

2020-11-09
Fine dust emissions caused by road transportation are being investigated and discussed in detail by governments and vehicle manufacturers. Brake abrasion contributes to a significant extent to this ambient air pollution. There are different approaches to minimize this brake disc abrasion, one of the most promising is the coating of the friction surface with wear resistant layers, i.e. with metal matrix composite (MMC). One coating technology, the extreme high-speed laser material deposition, has proven to be extremely effective, especially in combination with appropriately adapted brake pads. In detailed investigations with various brake disc manufacturers, HPL Technologies in Aachen, Germany, examined influences on the quality such as reliable corrosion and wear resistance.
Video

Enclosure-in-Chamber Setup to Achieve Near-Zero Background Concentrations for Brake Emissions Testing (SAE Paper 2020-01-1634)

2020-11-09
Measuring brake emission continues to be a challenging non-standardized task. Extensive research is ongoing and as seen in the work in progress presented at SAE Brake Colloquium and PMP meetings. However, open items include how to achieve lower background concentration and how to design the brake enclosure. A low background concentration is essential as brake events are short and some emissions are in the range of reported background levels. Hence these emissions are difficult to distinguish from the background level. Even more critical, a high background concentration can result in a wrong particle number emissions value, either overestimated, background counted as emissions, or underestimated, background level subtracted, and low emission events no longer detected and counted. Reducing the background level to less than 100 #/cm3 appeared to be quite challenging.
Video

Ultraviolet and Titanium Dioxide Based Photocatalysis HVAC System to Eliminate COVID-19 for Occupant�s Safety & Health in Automobiles

2020-11-09
In a photocatalytic air purifier system, the catalyst that cleans the air is typically titanium dioxide and it is energized by ultraviolet (UV) light. UV is the short-wavelength light just beyond the blue/violet part of the electromagnetic spectrum that our eyes can detect. This shortwave-length light has much more energy than ordinary, visible light�and exactly the right amount of energy to get titanium dioxide excited. Titanium dioxide is a semiconductor that covers the filter surface. Just a thin film of titanium dioxide is required at the filter surface with a substrate. When UV light shines on the titanium dioxide, electrons (negatively charged particles inside atoms) are released at its surface. The electrons interact with water molecules (H2O) in the air, breaking them up into hydroxyl radicals (OH�), which are highly reactive, short-lived, uncharged forms of hydroxide ions (OH−).
Video

e-Fuel Production via Renewables and the Impact on the In-Use CO2 Performance

2020-11-06
The trend towards renewable energy sources will continue under the pre-amble of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets. The main question is how to harvest and store renewable energy properly. The challenge of intermittency of the renewable energy resources make the supply less predictable compared to the traditional energy sources. Chemical energy carriers like hydrogen and synthetic fuels (e-Fuels) seem to be at least a part of the solution for storing renewable energy. The usage of e-Fuels in the existing ICE-powered vehicle fleet has a big lever arm to reduce the GHG emissions of the transport sector in the short- and medium term. The paper covers the whole well-to-wheel (WtW) pathway by discussing the e-Fuel production from renewable sources, the storage and the usage in the vehicle. It will be summarized by scenarios on the impact of e-Fuel to the WtW CO2 fleet emissions.
Video

Technical Keynotes

2020-11-06
Braking Systems for High Performance Electric Vehicles � a Design Study (SAE Paper 2020-01-1612) - David Antanaitis, General Motors LLC Results of Brake PM Emissions Measurements on Six Different Vehicles Using a Large Inertia Dynamometer Study (SAE Paper 2020-01-1637) - Alan Stanard, Eastern Research Group Inc. Numerical Characterization of Brake System Cooling, Aerodynamic, and Particle Soiling Performances under Driving Conditions (SAE Paper 2020-01-1622) - Young-Chang Cho, Dassault Syst�mes
Video

Buckendale Lecture: Transformational Technologies Reshaping Transportation, An Industry Perspective (SAE Paper 2020-01-1945)

2020-11-05
Freight trucking has always embraced continuous improvement although the general public may be largely unaware of the tremendous changes that have occurred to date in vehicle safety, efficiencies, emissions mitigation and asset utilization. Today�s freight industry is in the early stages of dramatic technological advances in areas such as connectivity, automation and electrification. Fleet and manufacturer perspective on these transformational technologies are universally supportive, driven both by economic and regulatory factors. The early stages of these technological revolutions are characterized by a multitude of competing concepts confusing choices, complicated by a significant number of competing vested interests obscuring objectivity, and clouded by billions of dollars of venture capital. The objective of this report is to provide unbiased insight into the freight industries thoughts on these transformational technologies.
Video

Powertrain Committee Panel: Ultra-low NOx, Durability and Warranty, Part 1 - Catalyst and Aftertreatment

2020-11-05
Moderator - Ryan Bradley, CNH Industrial Panelists - Louise Arnold, Johnson Matthey Inc. Kevin Hallstrom, BASF AG Achim Heibel, Corning Inc. Paul Rodatz, Vitesco Technologies GmbH For the Commercial Vehicle industry to play its part in addressing the environmental impact of fossil fuels on the environment, pending emissions regulations will establish ultra-low NOx, extended durability and warrant requirements. The Powertrain Committee has assembled two panels of experts to provide insight into novel technology approaches and a progress report aimed at achieving these requirements for both the on-road and off-road segments of the industry. Panel 1 will focus on catalyst and aftertreatment, while panel 2 will focus on engine and powertrain integration challenges and innovations.
Video

Modeling of an Integrated Internal Heat Exchanger and Accumulator in R744 Mobile Air-Conditioning Applications

2020-11-05
Carbon dioxide (CO2 or R744) is a promising next-generation refrigerant for mobile air-conditioning applications (MAC), which has the advantages of good heating performance in cold climates and environmental-friendly properties. This paper presents a simulation model of an integrated internal heat exchanger (IHX) and accumulator (Acc) using the finite volume method. The results are validated by a group of experimental data collected with different transcritical R744 mobile air-conditioner and heat pump (MHP) systems, and the error was within �10%. The impacts of refrigerant mass flow rate and operating temperatures on the heat transfer rate of the IHX, improvement on refrigeration capacity and the liquid level in the Acc were studied. Results show that the net benefits of IHX are significant in AC mode, while it helps preventing flooding of the compressor in MHP mode.
Video

Clean Truck Initiative ? Goals, Opportunities and Challenges

2020-11-05
Moderator - Glen Kedzie, American Trucking Associations Panelists - Steve Berry, Truck & Engine Manufacturers Association Rasto Brezny, Manufacturers of Emission Controls Assoc. Brian Nelson, US Environmental Protection Agency William Robertson, California Air Resources Board Existing on-highway emissions standards for heavy-duty vehicles have existed at their current limits for many years. In the US, the current standards have been in play since 2010 and in Europe the latest level of Euro VI entered into force in 2012 and has evolved with comitology revisions to the latest stage E with PN, RDE and Cold start requirements. As technology has evolved the limits, testing procedures, real world emissions and lifetime requirements are under consideration. The California Air Resource board commissioned studies on the level of technical ambition and the US EPA has begun drafting a proposed new rule called the ?Clean Truck Initiative (CTI)?
Video

The Effect of the Abrasive Particle Size in the Friction Material on the Concentration and Size Distribution of Particulate Matter (PM)

2020-11-04
The correlation between the aggressiveness of the brake friction material and brake emission was investigated by using the abrasives in different sizes. The friction materials with three different zircon (ZrSiO4) particles in 1�m, 50�m, 150 �m in average diameter were produced. The emission test was carried out following a WLTC test procedure using a 1/5 scale brake dynamometer designed for brake emission measurements. The concentration and size distribution of the airborne particles were analyzed using an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI+). Results showed that the friction material with larger abrasives increased the wear rate of the gray iron disc and led to the high iron content in PM. The high iron content also changed the size distribution of the PM due to the electrostatic attraction changed by iron particles during the agglomeration of nano-sized wear particles.
Video

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation (SAE Paper 2020-01-1633)

2020-11-04
The particulate emissions of two brake systems were characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust PN regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a section (trip-10) novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of trip-10 tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Video

Intake Air Conditioning for Fuel Cell Systems

2020-11-04
As part of the rise of E-mobility, fuel cells continue to expand as an alternative powertrain option for a variety of industries (e.g. automotive, marine, locomotive, and material handling). At first glance, the requirements for a fuel cell (FC) air intake system are no different from a traditional internal combustion engine (ICE). The purpose in both powertrain systems is maximizing long driving range, with acceptable pressure losses. While these traditional objectives remain important, fuel cell powertrain requires additional protection & functionality to obtain best performance of the FC stack. The first is protection against the ambient environment. Tailpipe emissions, industrial exhaust and road dust contribute to small particles (PM1.0, PM10) with high concentrations and hazardous gases/ odors like NOx, SO2, H2S, Hydrocarbons, Ammonia.
Video

Increasing Electric Vehicle Driving Range by Incorporating an Innovative Thermoelectric Heat Pump Subsystem into R1234yf and CO2 HVAC Systems

2020-11-03
Under cold operating conditions (ambient temperature of 20oF), the electric energy consumed to provide occupant comfort and system thermal management in battery electric vehicles (BEVs) can reduce driving range up to 40% compared to the baseline operation in a 75oF ambient temperature. In hot environments (ambient temperature of 95oF), BEVs can suffer a 15-20% driving range penalty from HVAC energy consumption compared to the baseline. Effective integration of newly designed thermoelectric (TE) systems that use available TE materials provide performance enhancement in both R1234yf and CO2 HVAC systems. This presentation discusses subsystem designs, design tradeoffs and performance gains. The TE subsystems utilize an integrated design with cycle and material fabrication advancements to improve the coefficient of performance (COP) and reduce the size of HVAC systems that operate with low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants.
Video

Effective Grease Academy Training for Optimized Wheel Bearing Lubrication

2020-11-03
Grease is a three component matrix consisting of a thickener, base oil and additives. It is really critical to understand grease know how and technology for providing optimized lubrication solutions for many applications. This is no exception especially when the auto industry and the OEMs are striving towards development and making of energy efficient workable components such as wheel bearings and associated units. This academy will address key notes worthy of review and consideration in terms of grease terminology and associated parameters as a source of knowledge that can be used with engineers for a holistic and sustained solution for wheel bearing lubrication.
Video

Deposit Formation in SCR-Systems - Optical Investigations

2020-11-03
The permanently tightening emission regulations for nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollutants force further development of mobile exhaust aftertreatment systems with selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Of particular interest is the long-term reliability of SCR-systems with regard to unfavorable operating conditions, such as high injection rates of urea water solution (UWS) or low exhaust gas temperatures. Both may lead to the formation of solid deposits which decrease system efficiency by increasing backpressure and impairing ammonia formation. In order to study the most relevant processes of deposit formation, an optical box with heat resistant glass was designed. Three UWS injectors with different spray characteristics were used to study their influence on the deposit formation under a wide range of stationary and transient operating conditions. Infrared thermography was applied to observe spray-induced wall cooling, both below and above the Leidenfrost point.
Video

Potentials and Challenges of a Brake Particle Emission Collecting System (SAE Paper 2020-01-1635)

2020-11-03
Brake particle emissions as a part of non-exhaust emissions are becoming more and more relevant, various international research activities can be stated. Also from the legislation side, first hints are given in regards of possible regulations.One possible approach for the reduction of brake particle emissions deals with the collection of those particles close to the foundation brake. The presented paper will follow such an approach and give some insights.In a first step, the technical layout is described for bench and vehicle testing. While for bench testing a PMP-like style of the setup could be chosen, the vehicle test setup is oriented on conventional wheel dust measurements.Hence, presented results of laboratory testing are dealing with PN and PM measurements. Also the impact on particle size distribution is discussed. It can be stated, that the particle collecting system is able to improve PN and PM emissions.
Video

Use of Partial Recirculation to Limit Build-Up of Cabin Carbon Dioxide Concentrations to Safe Limits per ASHRAE Standard-62

2020-11-03
Carbon dioxide exhaled by occupants remains within the cabin during operation of HVAC unit in recirculation mode. The CO2 inhaled by the occupants goes into their blood stream that negatively affects occupant�s health. ASHRAE Standard-62 (1999) specifies the safe levels of carbon dioxide in conditioned space for humans. The CO2 concentration limit per ASHRAE is 700 ppm over ambient conditions on a continuous basis. Based on the test data, at worst case scenario (idle condition where body leakage will be a minimal) results in CO2 concentrations of 1601, 2846, 4845 and 6587 ppm respective for 1 to 4 occupants in 30 minutes. Author has also conducted test by imposing ASHRAE standard-62. A controller was programmed for operating the blower unit�s intake door to go from recirculation to OSA mode when the measured carbon dioxide ppm level goes above 1100 ppm. The door stays in OSA mode until the cabin carbon dioxide falls to approximately 500ppm.
Video

Tutorial: Aerosol Measurements - Principles, Techniques and Application to Brake Emissions

2020-11-02
The proper measurement and assessment of brake emissions is a challenge to traditional testing in many aspects. First, the analysis itself can involve over 100 data channels for a single brake. Besides, the orders of magnitude are much larger or significantly smaller, compared to legacy brake tests, from measuring distances in millimeters to measuring particles in nanometers (one-millionth of a millimeter). And, from counting items in hundreds (degrees of temperature or braking events) to counting particles in millions, or tens of millions for particles on a single particle size bin during a brake test. This tutorial helps the audience navigate through brake emissions data, make sense of its meaning, and make better decisions for a vehicle, a system, or a component program. The tutorial (using examples and real time measurements) explains critical concepts related to particle mass (PM), particle number (PN), size distribution, and new particle formation process.
Video

Powertrain Committee Panel: Ultra-low NOx, Durability and Warranty, Part 2 - Engine and Powertrain Integration

2020-11-02
Moderator - Alexander Taylor, BMTS Technology US Corporation Panelists - Lisa Farrell, Cummins Inc. Gustav Johnson, AVL Powertrain Engineering Inc. Navtej Singh, Navistar Inc. For the Commercial Vehicle industry to play its part in addressing the environmental impact of fossil fuels on the environment, pending emissions regulations will establish ultra-low NOx, extended durability and warrant requirements. The Powertrain Committee has assembled two panels of experts to provide insight into novel technology approaches and a progress report aimed at achieving these requirements for both the on-road and off-road segments of the industry. Panel 1 will focus on catalyst and aftertreatment, while panel 2 will focus on engine and powertrain integration challenges and innovations.
Video

Powertrain Committee Panel: e-Motor Based Powertrain Systems

2020-11-02
Moderator - Dheeraj Gosala, Cummins Panelists - David Genise, Eaton Fei Gong, Cummins Inc. William F. Northrop, Univ. of Minnesota-Twin Cities Giorgio Rizzoni, Ohio State University Selin Tur, FPT Motorenforschung AG There is an increasing interest in electrification of commercial vehicles, driven by stringent greenhouse gas and emission regulations, coupled with improving maturity in electrification technology. This panel aims to bring together industry experts, researchers and academics to discuss advancements and challenges related to electrification of commercial vehicle powertrains. Topics relevant to this panel may include novel e-motor based powertrain/drivetrain architectures, efficiency improvements in electric motors and power electronics, component sizing strategies, power management strategies, battery management systems, and cooling and thermal management and use of connectivity/autonomy features to improve the electrified powertrain operation.
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