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A Full-System Approach to Maximize Energy Efficiency of a Wheel Bearing (SAE Paper 2020-01-1631)

2020-10-05
Environmental sustainability is morphing Automotive technical development strategies and driving the evolution of vehicles with a speed and a strength hardly foreseeable a decade ago. The entire vehicle architecture is impacted, and energy efficiency becomes one of the most important parameters to reach goals, which are now not only market demands, but also based on regulatory standards with penalty consequences. Therefore, rolling drag from all bearings in multiple rotating parts of the vehicle needs to be reduced; wheel bearings are among the biggest in size regardless of the powertrain architecture (ICE, Hybrid, BEV) and have a significant impact.The design of wheel bearings is a complex balance between features influencing durability, robustness, vehicle dynamics, and, of course, energy efficiency.
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Assessing the Efficiency of a New Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Concept

2020-10-02
A practical Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) concept is presented that works on standard European 95 RON E10 gasoline over the whole speed/load range. A spark is employed to assist the gasoline autoignition at low loads; this avoids the requirement of a complex cam profile to control the local mixture temperature for reliable autoignition. The combustion phasing is controlled by the injection pattern and timing, and a sufficient degree of stratification is needed to control the maximum rate of pressure rise and prevent knock. With active control of the swirl level, the combustion system is found to be relatively robust against variability in charge motion, and subtle differences in fuel reactivity. Results show that the new concept can achieve very low fuel consumption over a significant portion of the speed/load map, equivalent to diesel efficiency. The efficiency is worse than an equivalent diesel engine only at low load where the combustion assistance operates.
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Methodology and Results of F-34 Fuel Impact on the Reliability of the Engine Injection System on the Non-Engine-Based Test Stand

2020-10-02
The study of the F-34 aviation fuel used to power a diesel engine requires an extensive testing programme be carried out in the steady and transient states of the engine operation. The researches of the engines are expensive therefore, the tests can be also performed on the non-engine-based stand at a lower price. The design of the non-engine-based test stand and the methodology of the engine injection system testing follow the AEP-5 qualifying test has been described in the paper. The measurement methods used on the stand and the selected measurement results are presented. The tests have included checking the changes of three basic sets of the injection systems that may be subject to wear during the operation of the system. This applies to the following assemblies: jet needle - injection nozzle body, delivery valve plug - carrier, injection pump plunger and barrel.
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Explicit Equations to Estimate the Flammability of Blends of Diesel Fuel, Gasoline and Ethanol

2020-10-02
Blends of gasoline, diesel fuel and ethanol (�dieseline�) have shown promise in engine studies examining low temperature combustion using compression ignition. They offer the possibility of high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. However, unlike gasoline or diesel fuel alone, such mixtures can be flammable in the headspace above the liquid in a vehicle fuel tank at common ambient temperatures. Quantifying their flammability characteristics is important if these fuels are to see commercial service. The parameter of most interest is the Upper Flammable Limit (UFL) temperature, below which the headspace vapour is flammable. In earlier work a mathematical model to predict the flammability of dieseline blends, including those containing ethanol, was developed and validated experimentally. It was then used to study the flammability of a wide variety of dieseline blends parametrically.
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Methodology and Results of Testing an Impact of F-34 Fuel on the Engine Reliability

2020-10-02
An application of the new kind of the fuel for the diesel engine requires to conduct the qualification tests of the engines powered by this his fuel which allow assessing an impact of fuel on the engine reliability. Such a qualification test of the piston and turbine engines of the aircraft stationed on the ground and land vehicles is described in the NATO standardisation agreement (STANAG) 4195 as the AEP-5 test. The methodology and selected results of the qualification tests of the SW-680 turbocharged multi-purpose diesel engine fuelled with F-34 fuel have been presented in this paper. A dynamometric stand with the SW-680 engine has been described. Based on the preliminary results of the investigation it has been found that a change in a type of the fuel from IZ-40 diesel fuel into F-34 kerosene-type one has reduced a maximum engine torque by about 4%. This has been primarily due to a lower fuel density of F-34 by about 3%.
Video

Latest Advancement in Simulation Technologies (SAE Paper 2020-01-1618)

2020-10-02
High-temperature distributions in disc brake mounted within in-wheel motor-driven vehicles have several negative effects on braking performance. This is mainly due to the enclosed nature of the brake components. This paper aims to determine the effect of contact geometry on temperature distribution and thermal buckling in such a brake. Numerical analysis is conducted to investigate the variation of temperature field on the brake disc at different cover angles of pads while maintaining the same moment of friction. The effect of different radial positions of the pads is a second consideration in the current work, using a transient modeling approach. To validate the simulation results, an approximate, analytical solution is derived according to energy conservation. The results show that, for the same work done by the pads, the maximum temperature on the disc increases with a decrease in the pad cover angle.
Video

Series BEV with a Small Battery Pack and High-Efficiency ICE Onboard Electricity Production: B-Class, High-Roof Hatchback and Le Mans Hypercar Applications

2020-10-02
Data of battery electric vehicles (BEV) with and without a range extender internal combustion engines (ICE) are reviewed and integrated with weight and performance models. A BEV with an on-board, high efficiency, electricity generator based on positive ignition (PI) ICEs is proposed to improve the uptake of the BEV targeting city commuters while improving their economic and environmental impacts. The small ICE, that is working stationary, fixed load and speed, and the generator similarly optimized for a single point operation, permit an efficiency fuel chemical-to-electric of about 49%. This is much better than producing electricity centralized from combustion fuels (average efficiency with included distribution and recharging losses), and it does not require any electric recharging infrastructure. The range of cars can be extended to about the same values of today's car with traditional combustion engines.
Video

SAE Eye on Engineering: EVs and the US Grid

2019-12-05
As automakers prepare to launch electric pickup trucks, a question looms: can the U.S. electric grid handle vehicle charging in high volume? In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Editor-in-Chief Lindsay Brooke looks at the impact electric vehicles will have on the U.S. grid. SAE Eye on Engineering also airs Monday mornings on WJR 760 AM Detroit's Paul W. Smith Show.
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Spotlight on Design: Automotive Charging Infrastructure: Vehicle and Grid Integration

2016-01-30
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case studies, focusing on technology breakthroughs, hands-on testimonials, and the importance of fundamentals. Viewers are virtually taken to industry labs and research centers to learn how design engineers solve real-life problems. These challenges include enhancing product performance, reducing cost, improving quality and safety, while decreasing environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. In the episode “Automotive Charging Infrastructure: Vehicle and Grid Integration” (21:00), engineers from NextEnergy and an infrastructure expert from General Motors explain how technologies are rapidly converging to power electric vehicles and support the overall electric grid. This episode highlights: How the fast expansion of charging infrastructure is changing the way electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are gaining the confidence of consumers.
Video

Spotlight on Design Insight: Fuel Efficiency: Fuel Economy Testing

2015-05-07
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. As global concerns about the negative consequences of greenhouse gases on the environment increase, regulatory agencies around the world are taking serious steps to address the issue of tailpipe emissions In the episode “Fuel Efficiency: Fuel Economy Testing” (12:05), engineers at the EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory demonstrate how different vehicles are tested for emissions, and AVL’s technical team shows how accurate tailpipe emissions can be measured and reported.
Video

Spotlight on Design: Fuel Efficiency: Racing Toward CAFE 2025

2015-04-15
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Fuel efficiency, or simply put, how to get more mileage out of the same amount of fuel has become one of the main goals to be achieved by new automotive technologies in the future, thanks in part to new government regulations. In the episode “Fuel Efficiency: Racing toward CAFE 2025” (21:24) AVL engineers show simulation and testing being used to design more fuel efficient vehicles, including the equipment that actually analyzes fuel economy.
Video

Performance of Particle Oxidation Catalyst and Particle Formation Studies with Sulphur Containing Fuels

2012-06-18
The aim of this paper is to analyse the quantitative impact of fuel sulphur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulphur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higher sulphur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulphur level. The Fuel Sulphur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC.
Video

Experimental Study into a Hybrid PCCI/CI Concept for Next-Generation Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2012-06-18
This paper presents the first results of an experimental study into a hybrid combustion concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines. In this hybrid concept, at low load operating conditions, the engine is run in Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) mode, whereas at high load conventional CI combustion is applied. This study was done with standard diesel fuel on a flexible multi-cylinder heavy-duty test platform. This platform is based on a 12.9 liter, 390 kW heavy-duty diesel engine that is equipped with a combination of a supercharger, a two-stage turbocharging system and low-pressure and high-pressure EGR circuitry. Furthermore, Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) hardware is installed to have sufficient control authority. Dedicated pistons, injector nozzles and VVA cam were selected to enable PCCI combustion for a late DI injection strategy, free of wall-wetting problems.
Video

2-Stroke CAI Combustion Operation in a GDI Engine with Poppet Valves

2012-06-18
In order to extend the CAI operation range in 4-stroke mode and maximize the benefit of low fuel consumption and emissions in CAI mode, 2-stroke CAI combustion is revived operating in a GDI engine with poppet valves, where the conventional crankcase scavenging is replaced by boosted scavenging. The CAI combustion is achieved through the inherence of the 2-Stroke operation, which is retaining residual gas. A set of flexible hydraulic valve train was installed on the engine to vary the residual gas fraction under the boosting condition. The effects of spark timing, intake pressure and short-circuiting on 2-stroke CAI combustion and its emissions are investigated and discussed in this paper. Results show the engine could be controlled to achieve CAI operation over a wide range of engine speed and load in the 2-stroke mode because of the flexibility of the electro-hydraulic valvetrain system. Presenter Yan Zhang, Brunel University
Video

DPF's Regeneration Procedures and Emissions with RME Blend Fuels

2012-06-18
The fatty acid methyl esters (FAME's) - in Europe mostly RME (Rapeseed methyl ester) - are used in several countries as alternative biogene Diesel fuels in various blending ratios with fossil fuels (Bxx). Questions often arise about the influences of these biocomponents on the modern exhaust aftertreatment systems and especially on the regeneration of Diesel particle filters (DPF). In the present work different regeneration procedures of DPF systems were investigated with biofuels B0, B20 & B100. The tested regeneration procedures were: passive regenerations: DOC + CSF; CSF alone, active regenerations: standstill burner; fuel injections & DOC. During each regeneration on-line measurements of regulated and unregulated emission components (nanoparticles & FTIR) were conducted. It can be stated that the increased portion of RME in fuel provokes longer time periods to charge the filter with soot.
Video

Real-World Driving Pattern Recognition for Adaptive HEV Supervisory Control: Based on Representative Driving Cycles in Midwestern US

2012-06-18
Impact of driving patterns on fuel economy is significant in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Driving patterns affect propulsion and braking power requirement of vehicles, and they play an essential role in HEV design and control optimization. Driving pattern conscious adaptive strategy can lead to further fuel economy improvement under real-world driving. This paper proposes a real-time driving pattern recognition algorithm for supervisory control under real-world conditions. The proposed algorithm uses reference real-world driving patterns parameterized from a set of representative driving cycles. The reference cycle set consists of five synthetic representative cycles following the real-world driving distance distribution in the US Midwestern region. Then, statistical approaches are used to develop pattern recognition algorithm. Driving patterns are characterized with four parameters evaluated from the driving cycle velocity profiles.
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Impact of Biodiesel on Particle Emissions and DPF Regeneration Management in a Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2012-06-18
Biofuel usage is increasingly expanding thanks to its significant contribution to a well-to-wheel (WTW) reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition, stringent emission standards make mandatory the use of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for the particulate emissions control. The different physical properties and chemical composition of biofuels impact the overall engine behaviour. In particular, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value (LHV). More specifically, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value, respectively. The particle emissions, in fact, are lower mainly because of the higher oxygen content. Subsequently less frequent regenerations are required.
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Metal Oxide Particle Emissions from Diesel and Petrol Engines

2012-06-18
All internal combustion piston engines emit solid nanoparticles. Some are soot particles resulting from incomplete combustion of fuels, or lube oil. Some particles are metal compounds, most probably metal oxides. A major source of metal compound particles is engine abrasion. The lube oil transports these abraded particles into the combustion zone. There they are partially vaporized and ultrafine oxide particles formed through nucleation [1]. Other sources are the metallic additives to the lube oil, metallic additives in the fuel, and debris from the catalytic coatings in the exhaust-gas emission control devices. The formation process results in extremely fine particles, typically smaller than 50 nm. Thus they intrude through the alveolar membranes directly into the human organism. The consequent health risk necessitates a careful investigation of these emissions and effective curtailment.
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