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Technical Paper

Review of the Computer Science and Engineering Solutions for Model Sharing and Model Co-Simulation

The process of developing, parameterizing, validating, and maintaining models occurs within a wide variety of tools, and requires significant time and resources. To maximize model utilization, models are often shared between various toolsets and experts. One common example is sharing aircraft engine models with airframers. The functionality of a given model may be utilized and shared with a secondary model, or multiple models may run collaboratively through co-simulation. There are many technical challenges associated with model sharing and co-simulation. For example, data communication between models and tools must be accurate and reliable, and the model usage must be well-documented and perspicuous for a user. This requires clear communication and understanding between computer scientists and engineers. Most often, models are developed by engineers, whereas the tools used to share the models are developed by computer scientists.
Journal Article

A Large-Scale Robotic System for Depainting Advanced Fighter Aircraft

The general benefits of automation are well documented. Order of magnitude improvements are achievable in processing speeds, production rates, and efficiency. Other benefits include improved process consistency (inversely, reduced process variation), reduced waste and energy consumption, and risk reduction to operators. These benefits are especially true for the automation of the aerospace paint removal (or "depaint") processes. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®) developed and implemented two systems in the early 1990s for depainting full-body fighter aircraft at Robins Air Force Base (AFB) at Warner Robins, Georgia, and Hill AFB at Ogden, Utah. These systems have been in production use, almost continuously for approximately 20 years, for the depainting of the F-15 Eagle and the F-16 Falcon fighter aircraft, respectively.
Journal Article

Particle Emissions from a 2009 Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Using Different Commercially Available Fuels

Total and solid particle mass, size, and number were measured in the dilute exhaust of a 2009 vehicle equipped with a gasoline direct injection engine along with an exhaust three-way-catalyst. The measurements were performed over the FTP-75 and the US06 drive cycles using three different U.S. commercially available fuels, Fuels A, B, and C, where Fuel B was the most volatile and Fuel C was the least volatile with higher fractions of low vapor pressure hydrocarbons (C10 to C12), compared to the other two fuels. Substantial differences in particle mass and number emission levels were observed among the different fuels tested. The more volatile gasoline fuel, Fuel B, resulted in the lowest total (solid plus volatile) and solid particle mass and number emissions. This fuel resulted in a 62 percent reduction in solid particle number and an 88 percent reduction in soot mass during the highest emitting cold-start phase, Phasel, of the FTP-75, compared to Fuel C.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Technology Readiness Level of a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for Use on International Space Station

When technologies are traded for incorporation into vehicle systems to support a specific mission scenario, they are often assessed in terms of “Technology Readiness Level” (TRL). TRL is based on three major categories of Core Technology Components, Ancillary Hardware and System Maturity, and Control and Control Integration. This paper describes the Technology Readiness Level assessment of the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on the International Space Station. A team comprising of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Southwest Research Institute and Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International have been working on various aspects of the CRA to bring its TRL from 4/5 up to 6. This paper describes the work currently being done in the three major categories. Specific details are given on technology development of the Core Technology Components including the reactor, phase separator and CO2 compressor.
Technical Paper

Analyses of the Integration of Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, Compressor, Accumulator and Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly

An analysis model has been developed for analyzing/optimizing the integration of a carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA), CO2 compressor, accumulator, and Sabatier CO2 reduction assembly. The integrated model can be used in optimizing compressor sizes, compressor operation logic, water generation from Sabatier, utilization of CO2 from crew metabolic output, and utilization of H2 from oxygen generation assembly. Tests to validate CO2 desorption, recovery, and compression had been conducted in 2002-2003 using CDRA/Simulation compressor set-up at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An analysis of test data has validated CO2 desorption rate profile, CO2 compressor performance, CO2 recovery and CO2 vacuum vent in the CDRA model. Analysis / optimization of the compressor size and the compressor operation logic for an integrated closed air revitalization system is currently being conducted
Technical Paper

Method for Analyzing Lubricating Oil Contamination of Aircraft Systems

Cabin air quality is of continuing importance [1]. Contamination of air with particulates or vapors has the potential of affecting the health of passengers and flight crew. Therefore, measures are required to maintain acceptable levels of cabin air quality. One potential source of cabin air contamination is lubricating oils used in the engines. Type II oils are required for the main engines, but Type I or Type II oils can be used for the APU, with Type I recommended by some engine manufacturers for its cold-start properties. Southwest Research Institutes (SwRI®) Department of Emissions Research used an internally developed analytical method called Direct Filter Injection/Gas Chromatograph (DFI/GC™) to analyze for volatile fractions of lubricating oil contaminants on Environmental Control System (ECS) components. Samples of two standard Type II aviation turbine lubricating oils were analyzed with the DFI/GC™ method and their spectra examined.
Technical Paper

CO2 Pump for the Space Station Advanced Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem

The current operation of the International Space Station (ISS) calls for the oxygen used by the occupants to be vented overboard in the form of CO2, after the CO2 is scrubbed from the cabin air. Likewise, H2 produced via electrolysis in the oxygen generator is also vented. NASA is investigating the use of the Sabatier process to combine these two product streams to form water and methane. The water is then used in the oxygen generator, thereby conserving this valuable resource. One of the technical challenges to developing the Sabatier reactor is transferring CO2 from the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) to the Sabatier reactor at the required rate, even though the CDRA and the Sabatier reactor operate on different schedules. One possible way to transfer and store CO2 is to use a mechanical compressor and a storage tank.
Technical Paper

Interior Noise Source/Path Identification Technology

Excessive interior noise and vibration in propeller driven general aviation aircraft can result in poor pilot communications with ground control personnel and passengers, and, during extended flights, can lead to pilot and passenger fatigue. Noise source/path identification technology applicable to single engine propeller driven aircraft were employed to identify interior noise sources originating from structure-borne engine/propeller vibration, airborne propeller transmission, airborne engine exhaust noise, and engine case radiation. The approach taken was first to conduct a Principal Value Analysis (PVA) of an in-flight noise and vibration database acquired on a single engine aircraft to obtain a correlated data set as viewed by a fixed set of cabin microphones.
Technical Paper

EGR System Integration on a Pump Line-Nozzle Engine

The minimum oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were investigated on a heavy-duty diesel engine featuring a pump-line-nozzle fuel injection system. Due to the technical merits of electronic fuel injection systems, most accounts of EGR system development for heavy-duty diesel engines have focused on these types of engines and not engines with mechanical fuel systems. This work details use of a high-pressure-loop EGR configuration and a novel, computer-controlled, EGR valve that allowed for optimizing the EGR rate as a function of speed and load on a 6L, turbo-charged/intercooled engine. Cycle NOx levels were reduced nearly 50 percent to 2.3 g/hp-hr using conventional diesel fuel and application of only EGR, but particulates increased nearly three-fold even with the standard oxidation catalyst employed.
Technical Paper

System Component Coupling for Structure Borne Noise Isolation Studies

Control of structure borne noise transmission into an aircraft cabin generated from component excitation, such as rotor/engine vibration imbalance or firing excitations or from auxiliary equipment induced vibrations, can be studied empirically via impedance characterization of the system components and application of appropriate component coupling procedures. The present study was aimed at demonstrating the usefulness of such impedance modeling techniques as applied to a Bell 206B rotorcraft and a Cessna TR182 general aviation aircraft. Simulated rotor/engine excitations were applied to the assembled aircraft systems to provide baseline structure borne noise transmission data. Thereafter, impedance tests of the system components were carried out to provide a data base from which system component coupling studies were carried out.
Technical Paper

Survey of Low Sulfur Diesel Fuels and Aviation Kerosenes from U.S. Military Installations

In support of the Department of Defense goal to streamline procurements, the Army recently decided to discontinue use of VV-F-800D as the purchase specification for diesel fuel being supplied to continental United States military installations. The Army will instead issue a commercial item description for direct fuel deliveries under the Post-Camp-Station (PCS) contract bulletin program. In parallel, the Defense Fuel Supply Center and the U.S. Army Mobility Technology Center-Belvoir (at Ft. Belvoir, VA) initiated a fuel survey with the primary objective to assess the general quality and lubricity characteristics of low sulfur diesel fuels being supplied to military installations under the PCS system. Under this project, diesel fuel delivery samples were obtained from selected military installations and analyzed according to a predetermined protocol.
Technical Paper

Technology Demonstration of U.S. Army Ground Materiel Operating on Aviation Kerosene Fuel

A technology demonstration program was conducted by the U.S. Army to verify the feasibility of using aviation turbine fuel JP-8 in all military diesel fuel-consuming ground vehicles and equipment (V/E). Over 2,800 pieces of military equipment participated in a two and one-half year program accumulating over 2,621,000 total miles (4,219,810 km) using JP-8 in combat/tracked, tactical/wheeled, and transportation motor pool vehicles. Over 71,000 hours of operation were accumulated in diesel/turbine engine-driven generator sets using JP-8 fuel. Comparisons of various performance areas with baseline diesel fuel (DF-2) operation were made.
Technical Paper

the behavior of Radiation-Resistant ANP TURBINE LUBRICANTS

RADIATION can produce almost instantaneous failure of modern aircraft lubricants, tests at Southwest Research Institute show. Two types of failures demonstrated are rapid viscosity rise and loss of heat conductivity. Furthermore, it was found that lubricants can become excessively corrosive under high-level radiation. Generally speaking, the better lubricants appeared to improve in performance while marginal ones deteriorated to a greater extent under radiation. When the better lubricants were subjected to static irradiation prior to the deposition test, there was a minor increase in deposition number as the total dose was increased.