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Training / Education

Introduction to Failure Mode and Effects Analysis for Product and Process

2022-11-08
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a systematic method for preventing failure through the discovery and mitigation of potential failure modes and their cause mechanisms. Actions are developed in a team environment and address each high: severity, occurrence or detection ranking indicated by the analysis. Completed FMEA actions result in improved product performance, reduced warranty and increased product quality.
Training / Education

AS9145 Requirements for Advanced Product Quality Planning and Production Part Approval

2022-06-28
Production and continual improvement of safe and reliable products is key in the aviation, space and defense industries. Customer and regulatory requirements must not only be met, but they are typically expected to exceeded requirements. Due to globalization, the supply chain of this industry has been expanded to countries which were not part of it in the past and has complicated the achievement of requirements compliance and customer satisfaction. The IAQG has established and deployed the AS9145 Standard, as a step to help achieve these objectives.
Training / Education

Engineering Management Academy

2022-05-16
Why a Management Academy? Why should you be interested in this Engineering Management Academy from SAE? The answer to these questions lies in the statistics highlighted by surveys of hiring managers. For example, are you aware that: 28% of internal leadership promotions fail On average, it takes six years before an individual receives any formal training after being promoted to a management position Individual contributors, who are technical experts, are usually natural candidates for promotions to management positions.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Endurance Limit of Fasteners in Automotive Application

2022-03-29
2022-01-0260
Fastener commonly used in automotive industry plays an important role in the safety and reliability of the vehicle structural systems. In practical application, bolted joint would never undergo fully reversed loading, there always will be positive mean stress on bolt. The mean stress has little influence on the fatigue life if the maximum stress is lower than a threshold, which is the yield stress of the bolt. However, when the sum of the mean stress and the stress amplitude exceeds the yield stress, the endurance limit stress amplitude decreases fast as the mean stress increases. The purpose of this paper is to research fatigue endurance limit of fastener and establish the threshold for safe design in automotive application. In order to obtain the fatigue endurance limit at different mean stress levels, various mechanical tests were performed on M12x1.75 and M16x1.5 Class 10.9 fasteners using MTS test systems.
Technical Paper

Decomposition and Coordination to Support Tradespace Analysis for Ground Vehicle Systems

2022-03-29
2022-01-0370
Tradespace analysis is used to define the characteristics of the solution space for a vehicle design problem enabling decision-makers (DMs) to evaluate the risk-benefit posture of a vehicle design program. The tradespace itself is a defined by a multi-objective solution space (the tradespace) populated by individual design solutions including a set of Pareto design solutions. Designs within the tradespace are defined by a set of input variables whose performance is assessed through a set of functional objectives defined by vehicle simulations. These functional objectives represent individual objectives in a multi-objective optimization problem (MOP). The functional objectives are derived from a combination of simulations to determine vehicle performance metrics and direct calculations using vehicle characteristics. The vehicle characteristics represent vendor specifications of vehicle subsystems representing various technologies.
Technical Paper

An On-line path correction method based on 2D laser profile measurement for Gluing Robot

2022-03-08
2022-01-0016
Gluing is an essential fastening step in the field of aircraft assembly except for riveting and bolting. Generally, the robotic programs of gluing are generated in CAM environment. Due to the positioning errors and deformation of the workpiece to be glued in the fixture, the nominal pose and the actual pose of the workpiece are no longer consistent with each other. The Robot trajectory of dispensing glue are adjusted manually according to the actual pose of the workpiece by robot teaching. In this paper, an on-line gluing path correction method is developed by 2D laser profile measurement. A pose calibration method for 2D laser profiler integrated into a gluing robot by measuring a fixed center point of a standard ball is proposed to identify the position and orientation of the laser sensor, which enables the accurate transforming coordinates between the robot frame and the sensor frame. Meanwhile, the pose of the gluing tool mounted on the end of the robot is calibrated.
Technical Paper

Intuitive Robot Programming and Path Planning based on Human-Machine Interaction and Sensory Data for Realization of various Aircraft Application Scenarios

2022-03-08
2022-01-0011
Human-machine interaction (HMI) technologies enable the automation of various manufacturing and assembly applications while maintaining high flexibility. In this context, human-robot collaboration (HRC) capable robots should no longer function as autonomous systems, but much more as assistance systems or as colleagues for workers. In connection with shorter product life cycles, increasing variant diversity and individualization, the challenge arises to set up flexible robot systems, which can be reprogrammed and commissioned with little effort in a short period of time with preservation of the required accuracies. Therefore intelligent path planning is essential for development of flexible robot systems. In this paper different approaches are presented that allow the worker on the shop floor to rapidly and easily program a robot to implement new motion tasks based on a camera system without programming knowledge. Thereby various points are selected manually on an image.
Technical Paper

Simulation Environment for Modeling and Testing of Autonomous Assembly in Space for Multiple Robotic Arms

2022-03-08
2022-01-0012
Multi-arm robotic assembly in space is an increasingly popular research topic as robotic arms can be used to decrease repair costs. We propose a simulation framework to model different scenarios of multi-arm robotic assembly in space with an ever-changing harsh environment. Simulation is a valuable, viable, and low-cost option for testing the developed algorithms without the need to re-create the orbital conditions in an elaborate and expensive laboratory environment. The proposed simulation framework uses the open-source tools: ROS Kinetic and Gazebo 7. We propose a system where robotic arms coordinate and collaborate to drive a screw into a plate autonomously. A move-able robot with a 3D sensing camera maps the environment and, using image recognition and localization, notifies the arms of obstacles and the locations of the screw and plate models. The arms calculate a collision-free path to the model, grasp the object, and return to a shared location.
Technical Paper

Visualization Techniques for Simulation-Based Dependent Failure Analysis

2022-03-08
2022-01-0032
Failure analysis of engineering systems typically emphasises identification and mitigation under an independent failure assumption with dependent failures treated as the exception rather than the rule. Some frameworks for addressing dependent failures through analysis appear in standards including NUREG 0492, ISO 26262, MIL 1629 A, and ARP4761 amongst others. The purpose of identifying these dependencies is to allow system analysts to determine and quantify the factors that influence dependent fault probabilities. Once defined, failure relationships can be incorporated into a Discrete Event Simulation (DES) of the system, providing a mathematically rigorous estimate of system utility (e.g., availability, reliability). Nonetheless, the output of a simulation must not only provide an expected value of performance but also allow the analyst to identify the downstream impact of probabilistic dependencies between system elements.
Technical Paper

Tool Wear Detection in Automated Drilling Operations of Aircraft Structure Components using AI Methods

2022-03-08
2022-01-0040
In fuselage barrels, the mechanical joints are fabricated using a riveting process. With the key feature of rivet bore size and quality of hole, the riveting operation can lead to serious defects with rivet play or fracture due to non-uniform load distribution. Conventional approaches of tool wear inspection lead to delayed diagnosis of tool wear, eventually leading to quality defects in the previous holes generated till the event of tool breakage. To increase the robustness of conventional tool wear inspection, the frequency of inspection is being increased leading to interruptions in productivity. Hence, online tool wear measurement and signaling systems provide efficient solutions with the elimination of direct methods of tool wear inspection. Therefore, this paper presents a feasibility study to detect tool wear in drilling operations using additional sensors combined with the use of AI methods.
Technical Paper

Information Retrieval for Aviation Applications

2022-03-08
2022-01-0044
There is a recurring need for automatic Information Retrieval (IR) from quality documents, price tags, part markings, receipts, purchase orders and technical manuals - which are otherwise non-parsable. IR coupled with search functionalities has a wide range of applications from warehouses, shop floors, marketplaces to even cockpits in the aviation sector. It helps in semi-automating workflows like document reviews, quality checks, collaborative Q&As and contextual extraction of information. These workflows make laborious tasks more intuitive and easier, thereby reducing the workload of the engineers using them. The paper describes an AI based IR platform which caters to the aforesaid scenarios in a scalable manner and integrates seamlessly with similar problems across different domains.
Technical Paper

Avionic Latch Optimization and Production using Additive Manufacturing

2022-03-08
2022-01-0048
Additive Manufacturing (AM) provides significant opportunities in aerospace applications, especially for low-volume, highly customizable parts. Besides the flexibility of part design, the approach offers significant potential of reducing product manufacturing complexity and improving in-service performance. This paper discusses an example which is in serial production at Howmet Fastening Systems. The part is a latch used in a hold-down assembly for avionics. The primary driver for the initiative was the need for increased torsional strength within the geometric constraints of the baseline design. Finite Element Analysis was used to redesign one load limiting component to improve overall torsional capability. Design for AM (DFAM) was used to successfully produce the parts without any defects with limited post-processing. Comprehensive testing included component tensile, fatigue, and microstructure characterization along with assembled part testing.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Engineering-based Evaluation of a Purpose-built Tooling Concept for the Electroplating of Functional Coatings on Aerospace Components

2022-03-08
2022-01-0045
Industrial hard chrome plating is a rather complex, lengthy and labour-intensive process: typically, the low cathodic current efficiency of Cr plating baths results in limited deposition rates, taking an hour to deposit a thickness of 25 mm on any size of the part. In the majority of cases, the hard Cr plating process requires the use of tooling structures, making the process strongly operator-dependent and therefore, highly prone to errors. According to the Fokker Landing Gear BV team, operator-independence as well as process simplification are expected to be achieved by developing a purpose-built tooling concept. An intelligent support of employees in their increasingly complex work is also sought and thus far addressed by implementation of modern smart technologies. One of them is computer modeling and simulation, which enables to mirror the physical world in a virtual model.
Technical Paper

Super Flush Torque Controlled Screw

2022-03-08
2022-01-0017
Aerodynamic and cosmetic requirements are more and more stringent on new aircraft programs. External aircraft surfaces should ideally be free of any discontinuities and fasteners are usually local points of concern. While pins or lockbolts generally exhibit flush and smooth head surfaces, screws have inherent driving recesses which remain visible after finish paint application. Such screws are typically used in combination with anchor nuts to attach the panels closing thin wing boxes. The AeroDrive™ screw is a global solution to avoid recesses while improving mechanical characteristics of such structural joints. The AeroDrive™ screw features an additional drive head designed to break at a defined torque during installation, leaving a flush and smooth head surface.
Technical Paper

Accuracy Analysis for a Flow Line Process using a Mobile Holding Fixture for Machining CRFP Components

2022-03-08
2022-01-0041
The aerospace sector is challenged to produce airplanes more efficiently and resiliently in the future. This leads to an increasing demand for improving productivity and flexibility as well as providing solutions for sustainable developments. A bottleneck in production is the machining of large-scale components. Apart from the machining tasks, non-productive tasks like fixture adjustment, component handling, referencing and localization are performed within the machining station and can constitute up to 50% of the overall workload. In the UniFix project, Fraunhofer IFAM is participating in the development of a mobile fixture system for large-scale aircraft components, like vertical tail plane and landing flap components of the single aisle aircrafts.
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