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Standard

Oxygen System and Component Cleaning

2020-10-19
CURRENT
ARP1176B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides recommended practices for the cleaning of aircraft oxygen equipment, both metallic and non-metallic articles, such as oxygen lines (tubes, hoses, etc.), components (including regulator and valve parts), cylinders, and ground-based equipment that may be used to support aircraft oxygen systems. This document also specifies work area details, methods for selecting suitable cleaning agents, cleaning methods, and test methods for verifying levels of cleanliness. The cleanliness coding scheme specified in this document provides a method for documenting minimum cleanliness level requirements and for identifying compliance.
Standard

Aerospace Auxiliary Power Sources

2020-10-10
WIP
AIR744D
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a review of the general characteristics of power sources that may be used to provide secondary, auxiliary, or emergency power for use in aircraft, space vehicles, missiles, remotely piloted vehicles, air cushion vehicles, surface effect ships, or other vehicles in which aerospace technology is used. The information contained herein is intended for use in the selection of the power source most appropriate to the needs of a particular vehicle or system. The information may also be used in the preparation of a power source specification. Considerations for use in making a trade study and an evaluation of the several power sources are included. More detailed information relating to specific power sources is available in other SAE Aerospace Information Reports or in Aerospace Recommended Practices.
Standard

Filter Element Cleaning Methods

2020-10-09
CURRENT
AIR787B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides technical information to assist the development of specific cleaning methods for those filter elements which are designated as "cleanable" and cannot be cleaned by simple and obvious procedures.
Video

Methodology and Results of Testing an Impact of F-34 Fuel on the Engine Reliability

2020-10-02
An application of the new kind of the fuel for the diesel engine requires to conduct the qualification tests of the engines powered by this his fuel which allow assessing an impact of fuel on the engine reliability. Such a qualification test of the piston and turbine engines of the aircraft stationed on the ground and land vehicles is described in the NATO standardisation agreement (STANAG) 4195 as the AEP-5 test. The methodology and selected results of the qualification tests of the SW-680 turbocharged multi-purpose diesel engine fuelled with F-34 fuel have been presented in this paper. A dynamometric stand with the SW-680 engine has been described. Based on the preliminary results of the investigation it has been found that a change in a type of the fuel from IZ-40 diesel fuel into F-34 kerosene-type one has reduced a maximum engine torque by about 4%. This has been primarily due to a lower fuel density of F-34 by about 3%.
Technical Paper

Tadpole Configuration for Three Wheeled Vehicles

2020-09-25
2020-28-0359
With the increasing adoption of electric vehicles in India, autos are also getting in the electrification race with lighter lithium-ion batteries and motor replacing the bulkier engine and transmission. This trend has led to a lighter vehicle which in-turn gives better mileage figures but at the loss of dynamic stability of the vehicle making them very unsafe. The current auto-rickshaws are using delta configuration that is more prone to the rollover while cornering. The three-wheeled configuration vehicle is less dynamically stable than the normal four-wheeled configurations. While working on prototype vehicle for Shell Eco-Marathon Asia [7] pro and cons for both configurations for a three-wheeled vehicle were considered and tadpole configuration was found to be more stable and better than current delta configuration.
Standard

Bearings, Plain and PTFE Lined, Self - Aligning

2020-09-22
WIP
AS8942A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the requirements for self-aligning, self-lubricating plain spherical bearings incorporating polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in a liner between the ball and the outer race for use in a temperature range of -65 to +250 °F (-54 to +121 °C).
Standard

Electrical Wiring Fuel Compatibility

2020-09-18
CURRENT
AIR6820A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is limited to the subject of compatibility of wiring as part of aircraft Electrical Wiring and Interconnect Systems (EWIS) installed in and around aircraft fuel tanks.
Standard

Considerations on Ice Formation in Aircraft and Engine Fuel Systems

2020-09-18
CURRENT
AIR790D
Ice formation in aircraft fuel systems results from the presence of dissolved and undissolved water in the fuel. Dissolved water or water in solution with hydrocarbon fuels constitutes a relatively small part of the total water potential in a particular system with the quantity dissolved being primarily dependent on the fuel temperature and the water solubility characteristics of the fuel. One condition of undissolved water is entrained water, such as water particles suspended in the fuel as a result of mechanical agitation of free water or conversion of dissolved water through temperature reduction. This can be considered as analogous to an emulsion state. Another condition of undissolved water is free water which may be introduced as a result of refueling or the settling of entrained water which collects at the bottom of a fuel tank in easily detectable quantities separated by a continuous interface from the fuel above.
Technical Paper

Methodology and Results of Testing an Impact of F-34 Fuel on the Engine Reliability

2020-09-15
2020-01-2133
An application of the new kind of the fuel for the diesel engine requires to conduct the qualification tests of the engines powered by this his fuel which allow assessing an impact of fuel on the engine reliability. Such a qualification test of the piston and turbine engines of the aircraft stationed on the ground and land vehicles is described in the NATO standardisation agreement (STANAG) 4195 as the AEP-5 test. The methodology and selected results of the qualification tests of the SW-680 turbocharged multi-purpose diesel engine fuelled with F-34 fuel have been presented in this paper. A dynamometric stand with the SW-680 engine has been described. Based on the preliminary results of the investigation it has been found that a change in a type of the fuel from IZ-40 diesel fuel into F-34 kerosene-type one has reduced a maximum engine torque by about 4%. This has been primarily due to a lower fuel density of F-34 by about 3%.
Technical Paper

Lean-Burn Stratified Alcohol Fuels Engines of Power Density up to 475 kW/Liter Featuring Super-Turbocharging, Rotary Valves, Direct Injection, and Jet Ignition

2020-09-15
2020-01-2036
Direct injection (DI) and jet ignition (JI), plus assisted turbocharging, have been demonstrated to deliver high efficiency, high power density positive ignition (PI) internal combustion engines (ICEs) with gasoline. Peak efficiency above 50% and power density of 340 kW/liter at the 15,000 rpm revolution limiter working overall λ=1.45 have been report-ed. Here we explore the further improvement in power density that may be obtained by replacing gasoline with ethanol or methanol, thanks to the higher octane number and the larger latent heat of vaporization, which translates in an increased resistance to knock, and permits to have larger compression ratios. Results of simulations are proposed for a numerical engine that uses rotary valves rather than poppet valves, while also using mechanical, rather than electric, assisted turbocharging. While with gasoline, the power density is 410-420 kW/liter, the use of oxygenates permits to achieve up to 475 kW/liter working with methanol.
Technical Paper

Advanced Intra-Cycle Detection of Pre-Ignition Events through Phase-Space Transforms of Cylinder Pressure Data

2020-09-15
2020-01-2046
The widespread adoption of boosted, downsized SI engines has brought pre-ignition phenomena into greater focus, as the knock events resulting from pre-ignitions can cause significant hardware damage. Much attention has been given to understanding the causes of pre-ignition and identify lubricant or fuel properties and engine design and calibration considerations that impact its frequency. This helps to shift the pre-ignition limit to higher specific loads and allow further downsizing but does not fundamentally eliminate the problem. Real-time detection and mitigation of pre-ignition would thus be desirable to allow safe engine operation in pre-ignition-prone conditions. This study focuses on advancing the time of detection of pre-ignition in an engine cycle where it occurs.
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