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Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Parameters on Particulate Matter Emission in a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2021-04-06
2021-01-0628
PN(Particle Number) emission limits are more stringent for gasoline vehicles in Chinese VI emission standards (6×1011 #/km). A EEPS engine exhaust particle size spectrometer was employed to characterize the effects of injection strategies on particulates emissions from a turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. The effects of operating parameters (injection pressure, second injection ratio and second injection end time) on particle diameter distribution and particle number density of emission was Investigated. The experimental result indicates that the quantity of particles decrease with the increase of injection pressure obviously, especially at high load including the 20% reduction of the particle number density. When the engine is at low load, the accumulation mode particle emissions are higher than the nucleation mode particle emissions compared with high load, which present opposite results. The second injection can restrain engine knock at low speed.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study on the Influence of the Shielding Mechanism of the Battery Pack Shell on the Vehicle Radiation Emission

2021-04-06
2021-01-0149
From the perspective of the three elements of electromagnetic interference, the main function of shielding is to cut off the propagation path of electromagnetic noise. The battery pack casing can be regarded as shielding the electromagnetic interference conducted on its internal and external wiring harnesses, but because the battery pack casing has power lines in and out, the battery pack casing is an incomplete shield. In the field of electromagnetics, shielding can be divided into electrical shielding, magnetic shielding and electromagnetic shielding. Therefore, this paper studies its influence on the electromagnetic radiation emission of the whole vehicle from the perspective of shielding mechanism. Due to the role of the switch components in the power battery system, strong current fluctuation di/dt and voltage fluctuation dv/dt will be generated on the power cable, and these interferences will have an important impact on the radiation emission of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Anode Pressure Control with Fuzzy Compensator in PEMFC System

2021-04-06
2021-01-0121
Hydrogen safety is of great importance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. Anode pressure control has become a focus point in recent years. The differential pressure between anode and cathode in PEMFC system needs to be carefully controlled under a suitable threshold. In practice, the anode pressure is usually controlled about 20–30kPa higher than the cathode pressure to minimize nitrogen crossover and improve cell stability. High differential pressure could lead to irreversible damage in proton exchange membrane. PID control was the dominant method to control the anode pressure in the past. However, the anode pressure’s fluctuation when hydrogen mass flow suddenly changes is a long-term challenge. As the requirements of control precision are increasingly high, the traditional PID control needs to be improved. Several new control algorithms are presented in recent researches, however, mostly are theoretical and experimental.
Technical Paper

Investigating the Effect of Water and Oxygen Distributions on Consistency of Current Density Using a Quasi-Three-Dimensional Model of a PEM Fuel Cell

2021-04-06
2021-01-0737
Activation loss, mass transfer loss and ohmic loss are the three main voltage losses of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. While the former two types are relevant to concentration of oxygen in catalyst layer and the later one is associated with the water content in membrane. Distributions of water content and oxygen in a single cell are inconsistent which cause that current densities in each segment of the single cell are different. For the dry inlet gas, the water in the segments near the gas inlet channel will be carried to the segments near the gas outlet channel, which causes high ohmic loss of the segments near the gas inlet channel. In this work, a transfer non-isothermal quasi-three-dimensional model is developed to investigate inconsistency of current densities.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Operating Conditions on the Water and Thermal Management for a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell by One-Dimensional Model

2020-04-14
2020-01-0856
Water and thermal management is an essential issue that influences performance and durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Water content in membrane decides its ionic conductivity and membrane swelling favors the ionic conductivity, resulting in decreases in the membrane’s ohmic resistance and improvement in the output voltage. However, if excessive liquid water can’t be removed out of cell quickly, it will fill in the pores of catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) then flooding may occur. It is essential to keep the water content in membrane at a proper level. In this work, a transient isothermal one-dimensional model is developed to investigate effects of the relative humidity of inlet gas and cell temperature on performance of a PEMFC.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Transient NOx Emissions of HEV under Real Road Driving

2020-04-14
2020-01-0380
To meet the request of China National 6b emission regulations which will be officially implemented in China, firstly including the RDE emission test limits, the transient emissions on real road condition are paid more attention. A non-plug-in hybrid light-duty gasoline vehicles (HEV) sold in the Chinese market was selected to study real road emissions employed fast response NOx analyzer from Cambustion Ltd. with a sampling frequency of 100Hz, which can measure the missing NO peaks by standard RDE gas analyzer now. Emissions from PEMS were also recorded and compared with the results from fast response NOx analyzer. The concentration of NOx emissions before and after the Three Way Catalyst (TWC) of the hybrid vehicle were also sampled and analyzed, and the working efficiency of the TWC in real road driving process was investigated.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrous Ethanol Combined with EGR on Performance of GDI Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0348
In recent years, particulate matters (PM) emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been gradually paid attention to, and the hydrous ethanol has a high oxygen content and a fast burning rate, which can effectively improve the combustion environment. In addition, Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can effectively reduce engine NOx emissions, and combining EGR technology with GDI engines is becoming a new research direction. In this study, the effects of hydrous ethanol gasoline blends on the combustion and emission characteristics of GDI engines are analyzed through bench test. The results show that the increase of the proportion of hydrous ethanol can accelerate the burning rate, shorten the combustion duration by 7°crank angle (CA), advance the peak moment of in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release (RoHR) and improve the combustion efficiency. The hydrous ethanol gasoline blends can effectively improve the gaseous and PM emissions of the GDI engine.
Technical Paper

Simulation Analysis of Early and Late Miller Cycle Strategies Influence on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0662
Based on the working model of a diesel engine, the influence of 2 Miller cycle strategies-Early Intake Valve Closure (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closure (LIVC) on the combustion and emissions of diesel engine was analyzed. Then the working condition of each Miller cycle strategies on the engine under the rated speed was optimized through the adjust of the valve timing, boost pressure and the injection timing. The research found that both delaying and advancing the closure timing of the intake valve can decrease the pressure and temperature during compression stroke, prolonging the ignition delay. However, due to the decrease of the working media inside the cylinder, the average in-cylinder temperature and soot emissions will increase, which can be alleviated by raising the boost pressure and the resulting compensation of the intake loss.
Technical Paper

A Road Load Data Processing Method for Transmission Durability Optimization Development

2020-04-14
2020-01-1062
With increasing pressure from environment problem for reduction in CO2 emissions and stricter fuel targets from road vehicles, new transmission technologies are gaining more attention in different main market. To get suitable road load data for transmission durability development is becoming increasingly important and can shorten the development time of new transmission. This paper presents the procedure and methods of road load data development for durability design of transmission product and optimization based on the real road data measurement, statistical characteristics evaluation and fatigue damage equivalency. Apply this road load data method procedure on 3 type of vehicle which represent conventional vehicle, BEV and HEV.
Technical Paper

Impact Simulation and Structural Optimization of a Vehicle CFRP Engine Hood in terms of Pedestrian Safety

2020-04-14
2020-01-0626
With the rapidly developing automotive industry and stricter environmental protection laws and regulations, lightweight materials, advanced manufacturing processes and structural optimization methods are widely used in body design. Therefore, in order to evaluate and improve the pedestrian protection during a collision, this paper presents an impact simulation modeling and structural optimization method for a sport utility vehicle engine hood made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Head injury criterion (HIC) was used to evaluate the performance of the hood in this regard. The inner panel and the outer panel of CFRP hood were discretized by shell elements in LS_DYNA. The Mat54-55 card was used to define the mechanical properties of the CFRP hood. In order to reduce the computational costs, just the parts contacted with the hood were modeled. The simulations were done in the prescribed 30 impact points.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Thermal Management Strategy of the Exhaust Gas of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Based on In-Cylinder Injection Parameters

2020-04-14
2020-01-0621
The aftertreatment system is indispensable for the removal of the noxious pollutants emitted by diesel engines, whose efficiency depends largely on the exhaust gas temperature. Therefore, this study proposes a thermal management strategy including post injection, intake throttling and late post injection to improve the efficiency of the aftertreatment system for a heavy-duty diesel engine. In the experiments, the effects of main injection, post injection, injection pressure and throttle opening on the exhaust gas temperature at diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) inlet were studied, with the influence of late post injection on the exhaust gas temperature at DOC outlet also investigated. The results showed that the reasonable control of throttle opening and post injection (such as the adjustment of injection timing and injection quantity) can significantly improve the average temperature at DOC inlet from 237.8°C to 333.6°C in the WHTC, with an increase of 40.3%.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Validation for Pressure Estimation Algorithms of Decoupled EHB Based on Actuator Characteristics and Vehicle Dynamics

2020-04-14
2020-01-0210
Recently, electro-hydraulic brake systems (EHB) has been developed to take place of the vacuum booster, having the advantage of faster pressure build-up and continuous pressure regulation. In contrast to the vacuum booster, the pressure estimation for EHB is worth to be studied due to its abundant resource (i.e. electric motor) and cost-effective benefit. This work improves an interconnected pressure estimation algorithm (IPEA) based on actuator characteristics by introducing the vehicle dynamics and validates it via vehicle tests. Considering the previous IPEA as the prior pressure estimation, the wheel speed feedback is used for modification via a proportional-integral (PI) observer. Superior to the IPEA based on actuator characteristics, the proposed PEA improves the accuracy by more than 20% under the mismatch of pressure-position relation.
Technical Paper

Research on Modeling Method of Conducted Emissions Simulation for DC Brush Motors

2020-04-14
2020-01-1372
The conducted emissions of DC motors have been a very important content when testing electromagnetic noise. It has certain practical guiding significance to optimize and improve the motor in the design stage through the simulation of conducted emissions circuit level. The existing literature research shows that the simulation results can not reflect the test results of the conducted emissions of the motor well because it is difficult to accurately model the armature winding and the commutation process of the motor in the electromagnetic simulation of the conducted emissions circuit level of the DC brush motor. In this paper, an electromagnetic simulation modeling method for conducted emissions of DC motor is proposed. The circuit model established in the PSPICE can simulate the actual conducted emissions values of DC motor by the method.
Technical Paper

Influence of Distributing Channel Configuration and Geometric Parameters on Flow Uniformity in Straight Flow-Field of PEM Fuel Cell

2020-04-14
2020-01-1173
Gas distribution of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is mainly decided by flow field of bipolar plate. The improper design of distributing channel, nonuniform gas flow distribution and current density distribution among different straight channels are the leading factors that could tremendously undermine the performance and life expectancy of the cell. However, there is lack of research focusing on distributing channel in straight-parallel flow field. In this work, a three-dimensional numerical model of PEMFC cathode flow field is developed with CFD method to investigate the effects of configuration type and width of the distributing channel on pressure distribution in distributing channel and on reactant flow distribution, pressure drop and concentration distribution in multiple straight channel. Effects of electrochemical reaction and formation of water on the flow distribution are taken into consideration.
Technical Paper

Study on the Performance-Determining Factors of Commercially Available MEA in PEMFCs

2020-04-14
2020-01-1171
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), which convert the chemical energy into electrical energy directly through electrochemical reactions, are widely considered as one of the best power sources for new energy vehicles (NEV). Some of the major advantages of a PEMFC include high power density, high energy conversion efficiency, minimum pollution, low noise, fast startup and low operating temperature. The Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) is one of the core components of fuel cells, which composes catalyst layers (CL) coated proton exchange membrane (PEM) and gas diffusion layers (GDL). The performance of MEA is closely related to mass transportation and the rate of electrochemical reaction. The MEA plays a key role not only in the performance of the PEMFCs, but also for the reducing the cost of the fuel cells, as well as accelerating the commercial applications. Commercialized large-size MEA directly plays a major role in determining fuel cell stack and vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Durability Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells under Open-Circuit Voltage

2019-11-04
2019-01-5076
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are a good candidate for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) due to their high efficiency, high power density and zero-emission. However, the lifetime is one of the main barriers to overcome before their commercialization. The durability testing methods for PEMFCs are main include electrocatalyst cycle, catalyst support cycle, membrane electrode assembly (MEA) chemical stability, membrane mechanical cycle and so on. In addition, there is little research about MEA chemical stability test, which applies a continuous open-circuit voltage (OCV) to produce more free radicals and these will have a bad influence on PEMFCs. Based on this, the durability of PEMFC was studied under OCV operation at 30% relative humidity (RH), 90 °C and 150 kPa inlet pressure. The electrochemical performances such as in-situ cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltage (LSV) and cell polarization were used to evaluate the durability of PEMFC.
Technical Paper

Combined Technologies for Efficiency Improvement on a 1.0 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0233
The CO2 reduction request for automotive industry promotes the efforts on the engine thermal efficiency improvement. The goal of this research is to improve the thermal efficiency on an extremely downsized 3-cylinder 1.0 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. Effects of compression ratio, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), valve timing and viscosity of oil on fuel economy were studied. The results show that increasing compression ratio, from 9.6 to 12, can improve fuel economy at relative low load (below 12 bar BMEP), but has a negative effect at high load due to increased knock intensity. EGR can significantly reduce the pumping loss at low load, optimize combustion phase and reduce exhaust gas temperature. Therefore, the fuel consumption is reduced at all test points. The average brake thermal efficiency (BTE) benefit percentage is 3.47% with 9.6 compression ratio and 5.33 % with 12 compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Bi-Stable Behavior in the Wake of a Notchback MIRA Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-0663
This paper reports an experimental investigation of the wake flow behind a 1/12 scale notchback MIRA model at Re = UL/ν = 6.9×105 (where U is free-stream velocity, L the length of the model and ν viscosity). Focus is placed on the flow asymmetry over the backlight and decklid. Forty pressure taps are used to map the surface pressure distribution on the backlight and decklid, while the wake topology is investigated by means of 2D Particle Image Velocimetry. The analysis of the instantaneous pressure signals over the notch configuration clearly shows that the pressure presents a bi-stable behavior in the spanwise direction, characterized by the switches between two preferred values, which is not found in the vertical direction.
Technical Paper

Pressure Estimation Algorithms in Decoupled Electro-Hydraulic Brake System Considering the Friction and Pressure-Position Relationship

2019-04-02
2019-01-0438
This paper presents several pressure estimation algorithms (PEAs) for a decoupled electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB), which is driven by an electric motor + reduction gear. Most of the pressure control solutions are based on standard pressure-based feedback control, requiring a pressure signal. Although the pressure sensor can produce the pressure feedback signal, it will increase cost and enlarge installation space. The rotation angle of electric motor is available by the built-in sensor, so the pressure can be estimated by using the rotation angle. Considering the typical nonlinearities (i.e. friction, pressure-position relationship) and uncertainties (i.e. disturbance caused by friction model), the estimation-oriented model is established. The LuGre model is selected to describe the friction, and the pressure-position relationship is fitted by a quadratic polynomial.
Technical Paper

State-of-the-Art and Development Trends of Energy Management Strategies for Intelligent and Connected New Energy Vehicles: A Review

2019-04-02
2019-01-1216
Intelligent and connected vehicle (ICV) and new energy vehicle (NEV) will be two important directions of the automotive technology in the future, and the coordinated development of these two directions reflects relevantly the higher requirements put forward by nowadays society and people. Through the use of intelligent and connected technology (ICT), NEVs can exchange various traffic information data with the outside world (e.g. other running vehicles, road infrastructure, internet, etc.) in real time, which is so-called Vehicle to Everything (V2X). Based on the further analysis of the mutual traffic information, the vehicles can identify the current driving conditions and predict the future driving conditions effectively, which can realize the real time optimization of the energy management strategies (EMSs) of vehicles’ powertrain system, so as to meet the driving requirements of vehicles under different driving conditions.
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