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Technical Paper

The Measures of Improving Power Generation Stability for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy

2018-04-03
2018-01-1367
The automobile exhaust energy can be recovered by the thermoelectric module generator(TEG). Owing to the complex urban traffic, the exhaust gas’s temperature fluctuations are resulted, which means the unstable hot-end temperature of the TEG. By installing solid heat capacity material(SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, it is possible to appropriately reduce the temperature fluctuation, but there is still a fluctuation of the TEG’s power output. Then by adding voltage filter circuit (VFC) after the TEG, the power output stability can be improved. This research uses SHCM and VFC to improve the stability of the exhaust gas generation. Firstly, the three-dimensional heat transfer model of the exhaust pipe thermoelectric power generation system is established. The heat capacity materials with low thermal resistance and high heat capacity were selected as the research object based on previous research.
Technical Paper

Parallel Thermal Management System of the Water Medium Retarder

2018-04-03
2018-01-0777
The thermal management system of the water medium retarder using engine coolant (water and ethylene glycol) as transmission medium, omits oil-water heat exchanger in the structure. When the hydraulic retarder is operated, the valve is connected with the retarder and water pump, and then the engine coolant enters the working chamber. The kinetic energy of the vehicle is converted into internal energy of the coolant, and the heat is discharged to the external environment through the engine thermal management system. The braking torque of the water medium hydraulic retarder is determined by the water medium flow rate in the working chamber. The smaller the valve opening degree, the greater the braking torque and the faster the heating transmission fluid. Small valve opening is not conducive to the loss of heat. It will affect the normal working of the engine and hydraulic retarder.
Technical Paper

The Research of the Heavy Truck’s Warming System

2017-10-08
2017-01-2221
It’s not easy to start the engine in winter, especially in frigid highlands, because the low temperature increases the fuel’s viscosity, decreasing the lubricating oil flow ability and the storage performance of battery. Current electrical heating method can improve the engine starting performance in low temperature condition, but this method adds an external power to the engine, leading to the engine cannot maintain an efficient energy utilization. A warming device using the solar energy is designed to conserve the energy during the daytime, and directly warm up the engine at the time when the engine turns off for a long time, especially during the night. A solar collector installed on the top of the vehicle is used to convert the solar energy to the thermal energy, which is then transferred to the heat accumulator that contain the phase-change medium which can increase the heat storage performance.
Technical Paper

Driving Force Coordinated Control of Separated Axle Hybrid Electric Dump Truck

2017-10-08
2017-01-2462
Due to the increase of mining production and rising labor costs, manufacturers of construction and mining equipment are engaged in developing large tonnage mining truck with good dynamic performance and high transport efficiency. This paper focuses on the improvement of the dynamic performance of a 52t off-highway dump truck. According to the characteristics of its operating cycle, electric auxiliary drive system is installed in the front axle aiming at improving the utilization rate of ground adhesion. The new all-wheel drive hybrid electric system makes it possible for dump truck transports at a higher velocity. Both the conventional dump truck model and the new all-wheel drive hybrid truck model are built based on the AVL-Cruise platform. Meanwhile, under the premise of enough dynamic performance, fuel consumption can be minimized by collaborative optimization in Isight.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Fuel Economy for CVT and 9-speed AT based Vehicles

2017-10-08
2017-01-2435
It is well-known that, compared with automatic transmissions (ATs), continuously variable transmission (CVT) shows advantages in fuel saving due to its continuous shift manner, since this feature enables the engine to operate in the efficiency-optimized region. However, as the AT gear number increases and the ratio gap narrows, this advantage of CVT is challenged. In this paper, a comparative study on fuel economy for a CVT based vehicle and a 9-speed automatic transmission (AT) based vehicle is proposed. The features of CVT and AT are analyzed and ratio control strategies for both the CVT and 9-speed AT based vehicles are designed from the view point of vehicle fuel economy, respectively. For the 9-speed AT, an optimal gear shift map is constructed. With this gear shift map, the optimal gear is selected as vehicle velocity and driving condition vary.
Technical Paper

Development and Test of ESC Controller with Driver-In-the-Loop Platform

2017-09-23
2017-01-1993
This paper presents a Driver-In-the-Loop (DIL) bench test system for development of ESC controller. The real-time platform is built-up based on NI/PXI system and the real steering/throttle/braking actuator. In addition, the CarSim provides the vehicle model and the animator for virtual driving environment. A hierarchical ESC controller is proposed in MATLAB/Simulink then download into PXI. In the upper motion controller, the sliding mode theory is adopted and the logic threshold algorithm is used in the lower slip controller. Finally, ESC test is implemented under typical conditions by DIL and Model-In-the-Loop (MIL). The results show that, DIL could make up the shortage of driver model which can’t accurately simulate the emergency response of real driver. Therefore, DIL test could verify the ESC controller more accurately and effectively with considering the human-vehicle-road environment.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Modeling and State Estimation for Multi-In-Wheel-Motor-Driven Intelligent Vehicle

2017-09-23
2017-01-1996
Dynamic modeling and state estimation are significant in the trajectory tracking and stability control of the intelligent vehicle. In order to meet the requirement of the stability control of the eight-in-wheel-motor-driven intelligent vehicle, a full vehicle dynamics model with 12 degrees of freedom, including the longitudinal, lateral, yaw and roll motion of the body, and rotational motion of 8 wheels, is established for the research of the intelligent vehicle in this paper. By simulation with MATLAB/SIMULINK and by comparison with the TruckSim software, the reliability and practicality of the dynamics model are verified. Based on the established dynamics model, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) state observer is proposed to estimate the vehicle sideslip angle, roll angle and yaw rate, which are the key parameters to the stability control of the intelligent vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature on Braking Efficiency Stability of Magnetorheological Fluid Auxiliary Braking Devices

2017-09-17
2017-01-2510
Fluid auxiliary braking devices can provide braking torque through hydraulic damping, fluid auxiliary braking devices can also convert vehicular inertia energy into transmission fluid heat energy during the braking, which can effectively alleviate the work pressure of the main brake. Traditional hydraulic auxiliary braking devices use transmission fluids to transmit torque, however, there is a certain lag effect during the braking. The magnetorheological fluid (MR fluid) can also be used to transmit torque because it has the advantages of controlling braking torque linearly and responding fast to the magnetic field changed. The temperature of MR fluid will increase when the vehicle is engaged in continuous braking. MR fluid temperature changes will cause a bad influence on the efficiency stability of auxiliary braking.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Effects of Hot EGR on the Operation of Natural Gas Engine Ignited by Diesel-Butanol Blends

2017-03-28
2017-01-0760
Butanol, which is a renewable biofuel, has been regarded as a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. When blended with diesel and applied to pilot ignited natural gas engines, butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency. However, high blend ratio of butanol is limited by its longer ignition delay caused by the higher latent heat and higher octane number, which restricts the improvement of emission characteristics. In this paper, the potential of increasing butanol blend ratio by adding hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is investigated. 3D CFD model based on a detailed kinetic mechanism was built and validated by experimental results of natural gas engine ignited by diesel/butanol blends. The effects of hot EGR is then revealed by the simulation results of the combustion process, heat release traces and also the emissions under different diesel/butanol blend ratios.
Technical Paper

The TEG Hot-End Heat Capacity’s Effect on the Power Output Stability for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy

2017-03-28
2017-01-0160
While the car ownership increasing all over the world, the unutilized thermal energy in automobile exhaust system is gradually being realized and valued by researchers around the world for better driving energy efficiency. For the unexpected urban traffic, the frequent start and stop processes as well as the acceleration and deceleration lead to the temperature fluctuation of the exhaust gas, which means the unstable hot-end temperature of the thermoelectric module generator (TEG). By arranging the heat conduction oil circulation at the hot end, the hot-end temperature’s fluctuation of the TEG can be effectively reduced, at the expense of larger system size and additional energy supply for the circulation. This research improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability by installing solid heat capacity material(SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, which has the merits of simple structure, none energy consumption and light weight.
Journal Article

Investigation of Deposits in Urea-SCR System Based on Vehicle Road Test

2017-03-14
2017-01-9275
In vehicles with urea-SCR system, normal operation of the urea-SCR system and engine will be influenced if there are deposits appearing on exhaust pipe wall. In this paper, a commercial vehicle is employed to study the influence factors of deposits through the vehicle road test. The results show that, urea injection rate, temperature and flow field have impacts on the formation of deposits. When decreasing the urea injection rate of calibration status by 20%, the deposit yield would reduce by 32%. If the ambient temperature decreased from 36 °C to 26 °C, the deposit yield would increase by 95%. After optimizing the exhaust pipe downstream of the urea injector by removing the step surface, only a few flow marks of urea droplets are observed on the pipe wall, and no lumps of deposits existing.
Technical Paper

Research on Transmission Efficiency of Mechanical Transmission Based on Test Bench

2016-10-17
2016-01-2356
This paper mainly researches transmission efficiency (TE) of mechanical transmission in relation to the temperature of lubricating oil. Firstly the formula of TE is calculated about the kinematic viscosity of lubricating oil, then analyze the relationship between kinematic viscosity and temperature of lubricating oil, and finally the formula of TE which is related to the oil temperature is put forward. In order to verify the theoretical formula, the test bench for mechanical transmission is designed, which is used to research the N109 transmission of one mini car. The bench can be used to measure the curve of TE under different speed , load and lubricating oil temperature. The optimum operating temperature of the transmission is obtained by analyzing the measured data and theoretical calculation results. The test bench adopts 2 AC asynchronous motors to respectively simulate the driving and load performance of a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Study of Gasoline Engine Exhaust Manifold Based on Weak Coupling of CFD and FE

2016-10-17
2016-01-2350
This paper combines fluid software STAR-CCM+ and finite element software ABAQUS to solve the temperature field of this Gasoline engine exhaust manifold based on loose coupling method. Through the simulation of car parking cooling - full load condition at full speed, we estimate thermal fatigue life of the exhaust manifold with the plastic strain increment as the evaluation parameters. It can guide the direction of optimal design of the exhaust manifold. Here we also revealed how the bolt force affects the manifold elastic and plastic behavior.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Pressure Control for an Electro Hydraulic Brake System on RCP Test Environment

2016-09-18
2016-01-1954
In this paper a new pressure control method of a modified accumulator-type Electro-hydraulic Braking System (EHB) is proposed. The system is composed of a hydraulic motor pump, an accumulator, an integrated master cylinder, a pedal feel simulator, valves and pipelines. Two pressurizing modes are switched between by-motor and by-accumulator to adapt different pressure boost demands. A differentiator filtering raw sensor signal and calculating pedal speed is designed. By using the pedal feel simulator, the relationship between wheel pressures and brake force is decoupled. The relationships among pedal displacement, pedal force and wheel pressure are calibrated by experiments. A model-based PI controller with predictor is designed to lower the influences caused by delay. Moreover, a self-tuning regulator is introduced to deal with the parameter’s time-varying caused by temperature, brake pads wearing and delay variation.
Technical Paper

Research on Matching for the Rankine Cycle Evaporate-condensate System of Hydraulic Retarder

2016-09-18
2016-01-1938
The hydraulic retarder is an auxiliary braking device used for commercial vehicle in a long slope brake, and its transmission oil generates a lot of heat in its working process. If the heat of transmission doesn’t go through a reasonable management, it will seriously affect the braking performance of hydraulic retarder. To cool down the transmission oil, it will aggravates the load of the engine cooling system, and the long cooling path sometimes causes heat exchange not timely. When the Rankine cycle is used for cooling the hydraulic retarder transmission oil in virtue of its good heat transfer performance in phase change process, it can make the transmission oil temperature controlled more stable. In this new system, the setting parameters of the Evaporate-condensate system will affect the stability of the transmission oil temperature in the hydraulic retarder inlet and the energy recovery efficiency of the system.
Technical Paper

Energy Saving Analysis of Vehicle Hydraulic Retarder Thermal Management System Based on Rankine Cycle

2016-09-18
2016-01-1941
Vehicle hydraulic retarders are applied in heavy-duty trucks and buses as an auxiliary braking device. In traditional cooling systems of hydraulic retarders, the working fluid is introduced into the heat exchanger to transfer heat to the cooling liquid in circulation, whose heat is then dissipated by the engine cooling system. This prevents the waste heat of the working fluid from being used effectively. In hydraulic retarder cooling system based on the Organic Rankine Cycle, the organic working fluid first transfers heat with the hydraulic retarder working fluid in Rankine cycle, and then outputs power through expansion machine. It can both reduce heat load of the engine cooling system, and enhance thermal stability of the hydraulic retarder while recovering and utilizing braking energy. First of all, according to the target vehicle model, hydraulic retarder cooling system model based on Rankine cycle is established.
Technical Paper

The Selection of Working Fluid Used in the Organic Rankine Cycle System for Hydraulic Retarder

2016-04-05
2016-01-0187
With the improvement of occupants’ awareness on the driving safety, hydraulic retarder applications increase quickly. The traditional hydraulic retarder, on the one hand, exhausts the waste heat of transmission oil by the engine cooling system; on the other hand, the engine power should be consumed to drive the water pump and the engine cooling fan for maintaining the normal operation of the auxiliary braking system. In this study, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) instead of the traditional hydraulic retarder water-cooling system is applied to achieve the effective temperature control of the hydraulic retarder, while the waste heat of transmission oil could be recovered for saving vehicle energy consumption. The ORC fluid selection needs comprehensive consideration for the net power of the ORC and the optimal temperature range of the retarder transmission oil at both the inlet and outlet end, which is the key issue to ensure the stability and efficiency of the ORC system performance.
Technical Paper

Effects Analysis and Modeling of Different Transmission Running Conditions for Transmission Efficiency

2016-04-05
2016-01-1096
Several factors including internal factors which are related to the structure and components of transmission and external factors which are related to the running condition influence transmission efficiency (TE) collectively. Selected one manual transmission as the research object, this paper mainly analyzes factors including gears and bearings power loss through theoretical calculation and the external factors, such as gears, temperature and torque. Firstly, with a methodology, the overall efficiency of the manual transmission is calculated based on factors. Then, this paper discusses efficiency through external factor. This transmission is experimented on transmission test bench. On the bench, the driving motor (DM) simulates the power input of engine and the load motor (LM) simulates the whole resistance of vehicle. The mechanical transmission is operating in different speeds, torques and work temperature, thus the corresponding data are obtained.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of the Effects of Butanol Addition on Aromatic Species in Premixed Butane Flames

2016-04-05
2016-01-0574
The motivation of the present work was to understand the mechanism by which alcohols produce less aromatic species in their combustion process than an equal amount of hydrocarbon with similar molecular structure does. Due to its numerous advantages over short-chain alcohols, butanol has been considered very promising in soot reduction. Excluding the influence of spray, vaporization and mixing process in engine cases, an adiabatic constant-pressure reactor model was applied to investigate the effect of butanol additives on aromatic species, which are known to be soot precursors, in fuel-rich butane flames. To keep the carbon flux constant, 5% and 10% oxygen by mass of the fuel were added to butane using butanol additive, respectively. Based on the soot reduction effects proposed in literature, effects on temperature, key radical concentrations and the carbon removal from the pathway to aromatic species were considered to identify the major mechanism of reduction in aromatic species.
Technical Paper

Simulation Analysis of a Dry Cooling Equipment

2016-04-05
2016-01-0194
The exhaust cooling is an important index which measures the performance of the flameproof diesel engine. In this paper, a modification model is built for enhancing the cooling performance of exhaust, based on the reference model of the dry cooling equipment. The annular nozzle direction, extend plate of guide, bellows and elbow are introduced and studied in the model as the modification way. Considering the Coanda and Venturi effects, the comprehensive comparison of fluid velocity, temperature, pressure and mixture coefficient is implemented, and the optimum horizontal dimension of throat is summarized. The simulation results indicate the modification model shows better performance in reducing exhaust temperature and pressure than the reference model.
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