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Journal Article

A Parallel Hybrid Electric Drivetrain Layout with Torque-Fill Capability

This paper discusses the torque-fill capability of a novel hybrid electric drivetrain for a high-performance passenger car, originally equipped with a dual-clutch transmission system, driven by an internal combustion engine. The paper presents the simulation models of the two drivetrains, including examples of experimental validation during upshifts. An important functionality of the electric motor drive within the novel drivetrain is to provide torque-fill during gearshifts when the vehicle is engine-driven. A gearshift performance indicator is introduced in the paper, and the two drivetrain layouts are assessed in terms of gearshift quality performance for a range of maneuvers.
Journal Article

The Application of Control and Wheel Torque Allocation Techniques to Driving Modes for Fully Electric Vehicles

The combination of continuously-acting high level controllers and control allocation techniques allows various driving modes to be made available to the driver. The driving modes modify the fundamental vehicle performance characteristics including the understeer characteristic and also enable varying emphasis to be placed on aspects such as tire slip and energy efficiency. In this study, control and wheel torque allocation techniques are used to produce three driving modes. Using simulation of an empirically validated model that incorporates the dynamics of the electric powertrains, the vehicle performance, longitudinal slip and power utilization during straight-ahead driving and cornering maneuvers under the different driving modes are compared.
Journal Article

Optimization of a Multiple-Speed Transmission for Downsizing the Motor of a Fully Electric Vehicle

The research presented in this paper focuses on the effects of downsizing the electric motor drive of a fully electric vehicle through the adoption of a multiple-speed transmission system. The activity is based on the implementation of a simulation framework in Matlab / Simulink. The paper considers a rear wheel drive case study vehicle, with a baseline drivetrain configuration consisting of a single-speed transmission, which is compared with drivetrains adopting motors with identical peak power but higher base speeds and lower peak torques coupled with multiple-speed transmissions (double and three-speed), to analyze the benefits in terms of energy efficiency and performance. The gear ratios and gearshift maps for each multiple-speed case study are optimized through a procedure developed by the authors consisting of cost functions considering energy efficiency and performance evaluation. The cost functions are explained in the paper along with the models adopted for the research.
Journal Article

A Novel Seamless 2-Speed Transmission System for Electric Vehicles: Principles and Simulation Results

This article deals with a novel 2-speed transmission system specifically designed for electric axle applications. The design of this transmission permits seamless gearshifts and is characterized by a simple mechanical layout. The equations governing the overall system dynamics are presented in the paper. The principles of the control system for the seamless gearshifts achievable by the novel transmission prototype - currently under experimental testing at the University of Surrey and on a prototype vehicle - are analytically demonstrated and detailed through advanced simulation tools. The simulation results and sensitivity analyses for the main parameters affecting the overall system dynamics are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Heavy Goods Vehicle Fuel Consumption Model

Over the last decade the simulation of driving cycles through longitudinal vehicle models has become an important stage in the design, analysis and selection of vehicle powertrains. This paper presents an overview of existing software packages, along with the development of a new multipurpose driving cycle simulator implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment. In order to evaluate the performance of the simulator, a MAN TGL 12.240 multi-usage delivery vehicle was fitted with a CAN-bus data logger and used to create a series of ‘real-life’ drive cycles. These were inputted into the vehicle model and the simulated fuel mass flow-rate and engine rotational speed were compared to those experimentally obtained.
Journal Article

Selection of the Optimal Gearbox Layout for an Electric Vehicle

The paper describes the advantages due to the adoption of multi-speed transmission systems within fully electric vehicles. In particular, the article compares a conventional single-speed transmission layout, a 2-speed layout based on a novel gearbox architecture capable of seamless gearshifts, and a Continuously Variable Transmission layout. The selection of the optimal gear ratios for the 2-speed system has been based on an optimization procedure, taking into account the efficiency characteristics of the components of the whole vehicle powertrain. The control system for the Continuously Variable Transmission system has been designed with the aim of maximizing the efficiency of the operating points of the electric motor.
Journal Article

Drivability Analysis of Heavy Goods Vehicles

The paper presents linear and non-linear driveline models for Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) in order to evaluate the main parameters for optimal tuning, when considering the drivability. The implemented models consider the linear and non-linear driveline dynamics, including the effect of the engine inertia, the clutch damper, the driveshaft, the half-shafts and the tires. Sensitivity analyses are carried out for each driveline component during tip-in maneuvers. The paper also analyses the overall frequency response using Bode diagrams and natural frequencies. It is demonstrated that the most basic model capable of taking into account the first order dynamics of the driveline must consider the moments of inertia of the engine, the transmission and the wheels, the stiffness and the damping properties of the clutch damper, driveshaft and half-shafts, and the tires (which link the wheel to the equivalent inertia of the vehicle).
Technical Paper

Tire Thermal Model for Enhanced Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

Brush models permit a more physical simulation of tire performance in comparison with models based on empirical formulas. The paper presents an empirical model for the estimation of tire temperature as function of the actual working conditions of the component. The estimated temperature values enter a tire brush model and provoke the variation of the performance in terms of tangential forces. The model can be empirically tuned through experimental data showing the variation of tire performance as function of temperature. The experimental validation of the model is dealt with in detail.
Journal Article

Torque Gap Filler for Automated Manual Transmissions: Principles for the Development of the Control Algorithm

One of the most significant tasks in automotive design is related to the implementation of gearboxes capable of reducing the torque gap during the gearshift process and, at the same time, not decreasing vehicle performance from the point of view of driveline efficiency. Automated gearboxes based on torque converters ([1], [2]) satisfy the first requirement but not the second. On the other hand, manual automated gearboxes ([3], [4], [5], [6]) satisfy the requirements in terms of consumption, due to the absence of the dissipations caused by the torque converter. In fact, they consist of the basic layout of a manual transmission with hydraulic or electromechanical actuators which are adopted for the clutch and the synchronizers. However, automated manual transmissions cannot guarantee optimal longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle due to the discontinuity in torque transmission when the clutch is disengaged.
Technical Paper

Racing Simulation of a Formula 1 Vehicle with Kinetic Energy Recovery System

This paper deals with the development of a Lap Time Simulator in order to carry out a first approximate evaluation of the potential benefits related to the adoption of the Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS). KERS will be introduced in the 2009 Formula 1 Season. This system will be able to store energy during braking and then use it in order to supply an extra acceleration during traction. Different technologies (e.g. electrical, hydraulic and mechanical) could be applied in order to achieve this target. The lap time simulator developed by the authors permits to investigate the advantages both in terms of fuel consumption reduction and the improvement of the lap time.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Tire Brush Model for Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

The aim of this paper is the conception of a tire model which allows a good fit with the physical experimental behavior of the component. In the meanwhile, the model should be simple enough to permit real time vehicle dynamics simulation, in the same way as the diffused Pacejka's model. The paper discusses the influence of the model for the estimation of contact patch properties on the overall tire forces and moments. It demonstrates that unrealistic models of the contact patch can lead to a good fit with the experimental data (in terms of forces and self-aligning moment), even if the real physics of the tire is not reproduced. A realistic model implies a significant reduction of the stiffness of the brushes as a function of the vertical load between the tire and the road surface.
Technical Paper

Driveline Modeling, Experimental Validation and Evaluation of the Influence of the Different Parameters on the Overall System Dynamics

The paper presents the driveline models conceived by the author in order to evaluate the main parameters for an optimal tuning of the driveline of a passenger vehicle. The paper deals with a full modal analysis of the contributions of the different parts. The implemented models permit to consider the non-linear driveline dynamics, including the effect of the clutch damper (in terms of non-linear stiffness and variable amplitude hysteresis in the case of the models in the time domain) and the halfshafts, the engine mounting system and the tires. The influence of each component of the driveline on the overall frequency response of the system is presented. In particular, the paper demonstrates that the tire can be modeled like a non-linear damper within the rotational dynamics of the driveline and that it is the fundamental component contributing to the first order dynamics of the transmission.
Technical Paper

Block-oriented Models of Torque Gap Filler Devices for AMT Transmissions

Vehicles equipped with Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT) for gear shift control show many advantages in terms of reduction of fuel consumption and improvement of driving comfort and shifting quality. In order to increase both performance and efficiency, an important target is focused on the minimization of the typical torque interruption during the gear shift, especially in front of the conventional automatic transmission. Recently, AMT are proposed to be connected with planetary gears and friction brakes, in order to reduce the torque gap during the gear change process. This paper is focused on a block-oriented simulation methodology developed in Matlab/Simulink/Stateflow® environment, able to simulate the performance of a complete FWD powertrain and in particular to predict dynamic performance and overall efficiency of the AMT with innovative Torque Gap Filler devices (TGF).
Technical Paper

Friction inside Wheel Hub Bearings: Evaluation through Analytical Models and Experimental Methodologies

This paper presents an experimental methodology which can be adopted to measure the friction torque of the bearings in the wheel hubs of passenger vehicles. The first section of the paper highlights the reasons why an experimental device is necessary to have an objective evaluation of the performance of the bearing in terms of friction. In particular, the high level of approximation of the current formulas for the estimation of the friction inside a single bearing is discussed and demonstrated. An analytical methodology for the evaluation of the distribution of the axial load between the two bearings of the wheel hub is presented. However, its practical application for the precise calculation of the distribution of the load has to be checked through experimental tests.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Simulation to Develop an Active Roll Control System

Active Roll Control (ARC) is one of the most promising active systems to improve vehicle comfort and handling. This paper describes the simulation based procedure adopted to conceive a double-channel Active Roll Control system, characterized by the hydraulic actuation of the stabilizer bars of a sedan. The first part of the paper presents the vehicle model adopted for this activity. It is Base Model Simulator (BMS), the 14 Degrees-of-Freedom vehicle model by Politecnico di Torino. It was validated through road tests. Then the paper describes the development of the control algorithm adopted to improve the roll dynamics of the vehicle. The implemented control algorithm is characterized by a first subsystem, capable of obtaining the desired values of body roll angle as a function of lateral acceleration during semi-stationary maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Virtual and Experimental Analysis of Brake Assist Systems

The paper deals with the virtual and experimental analysis of two commercial Mechanical Brake Assist systems. They are described in detail, then modeled and experimentally evaluated through a Hardware-In-the-Loop test bench and road tests. Three different kinds of drivers are compared, from the point of view of the performance increase promised by Brake Assist during an emergency brake maneuver. The three driver types are based on the measurement of the behavior of real drivers, as it is presented in specific research activities in literature.
Technical Paper

Base Model Simulator (BMS) - A Vehicle Dynamics Model to Evaluate Chassis Control Systems Performance

Chassis Control Systems development methodology is nowadays strongly based on analyzing performance by using PC vehicle dynamics simulation. Generally, the overall design, test bench and road validation process is continuously accompanied by simulation. The Base Model Simulator was developed by the Vehicle Dynamics Group at the Department of Mechanics of Politecnico di Torino both to satisfy this requirement and for educational purposes. It considers a complete vehicle dynamics mathematical model, including driver, powertrain, driveline, vehicle body, suspensions, steering system, brakes, tires. The Base Model Simulator takes in account the suspensions system elastokinematics, including, for example, automatic computation of camber variation during the vehicle roll motions. Tire model considered are either Pacejka's models or experimental data.
Technical Paper

Hardware-In-the-Loop to Evaluate Active Braking Systems Performance

The paper shortly describes an ABS/ESP Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) test bench built by the Vehicle Dynamics Team of the Department of Mechanics of Politecnico di Torino. It consists of a whole brake system, integrated through specific interface (e.g. wheel pressures signals) with a vehicle model running in real time on a dSPACE® board. Different commercial ABS strategies are compared, in a large spectrum of manoeuvres: slow brake apply manoeuvres, panic brake manoeuvres, μ-split brake manoeuvres, brake manoeuvres with a sudden variation of the friction coefficient between tyres and ground. The paper deals with the generation of all the signals required for activating a commercial ESP: steering wheel angle, body yaw rate, body lateral acceleration, engine control, etc… Some of them are transmitted by CAN. Typical handling manoeuvres are used to test the ESP: step steer, double step steer, ramp steer, etc… Several brake manoeuvres are simulated while turning.
Technical Paper

Driveline Layout Influence on Four Wheel Drive Dynamics

The paper presents the research activity managed to investigate the dynamics of a 4WD vehicle equipped considering drivelines with different layout. The procedure developed required to conceive an on purpose simulator to compare performance through virtual experimentation. Drivelines mechanical main characteristics and performance increasing due to control strategy were evaluated. Preliminary road test were performed with a single driveline layout, to evaluate simulation reliability and limits. The paper presents the 4WD vehicle simulator, the main equations applied to model open, torque sensing and limited slip differentials, some preliminary road test results showing torque sensing driveline performance.
Technical Paper

A Failsafe Strategy for a Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) System

The paper presents a failsafe strategy conceived for a Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) system developed by the Vehicle Dynamics Research Team of Politecnico di Torino. The main equations used by the failsafe algorithm are presented, especially those devoted to estimate steering wheel angle, body yaw rate and lateral acceleration, each of them fundamental to correctly actuate the VDC. The estimation is based on redundancy; each formula is considered according to a weight depending on the kind of maneuver. A new recovery algorithm is presented, which does not deactivate VDC after a sensor fault, but substitutes the sensor signal with the virtually estimated value. The results obtained through simulation are satisfactory. First experimental tests carried out on a ABS/VDC test bench of the Vehicle Dynamics Research Team of Politecnico di Torino confirmed the simulation results.