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Technical Paper

An Analysis of Diesel Spray Characteristics with Small Injection Amount under Similarity Law Condition

2020-01-24
2019-32-0590
In this paper, the Diesel spray characteristics were studied by HS video camera and the Laser Absorbing Scattering (LAS) technique means of the combustion deterioration problem caused by the engine downsizing based on the geometrical similarity was investigated. In the experiments, three Diesel injectors with the hole diameters of 0.07mm, 0.101mm and 0.133mm were used. The injection pressures of the injectors with three different diameters were 45MPa, 93MPa and 160MPa, respectively. The Diffused Background Illumination (DBI) method was employed for the nonevaporating spray experiment to obtain spray tip penetration and spray angle at room temperature. The LAS technique was employed for the evaporating spray experiment to obtain the equivalence ratio distributions, evaporation rate, and vapor phase tip penetration. Moreover, the Wakuri Momentum Theory was applied to analyze the data obtained by both the non-evaporating and the evaporating spray experiments.
Technical Paper

Effects of ratio and dwell of split injection on fuel spray and mixture formation process under evaporating, non-reacting condition

2019-12-19
2019-01-2323
The effects of split injections of a diesel spray was evaluated in a constant volume chamber under evaporating, non-reacting condition. Laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was utilized for the mixture concentration measurement, using a diesel surrogate fuel consists of n-tridecane and 2.5% of 1-methylnaphthalene in volume basis. While fixing the total injected fuel mass of 5.0 mg/hole, the effects of split ratio in mass basis and the dwell time (or injection interval) were investigated. Among the split ratios conducted in the current study (3,7, 5:5 and 7:3), the split ratio of 7:3 was the optimum for lean mixture formation regarding the overall distribution of the equivalence ratio at end-of-injection (EOI) timing. The air entrainment wave at the EOI timing of the first injection allowed the fuel at the vicinity of the nozzle to become leaner at a faster rate.
Technical Paper

Effects of Nozzle Hole Diameter and Injection Pressure on Fuel Adhesion of Flat-Wall Impinging Spray

2019-12-19
2019-01-2246
In direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine, it is difficult to avoid the spray impingement of fuel on the cylinder wall and piston head, which is a possible source of hydrocarbons and soot emission. The injector nozzle geometry and injection pressure are essential components for the spray atomization and mixture formation. For better understanding the effects of injector hole diameters and injection pressure, the fuel spray and adhesion on a flat wall by different mini-sac injectors with a single hole was examined in this study. A flat-wall made of quartz glass was used as the impingement plate. Refractive Index Matching (RIM) method was applied to measure the thickness of fuel adhesion on the wall. All the cases performed in constant high-pressure chamber were under high temperature condition considering the real gasoline engine condition. Time-resolved behaviors of the fuel adhesion as well as adhesion mass, area and thickness were discussed.
Technical Paper

Vaporization and Turbulence Characteristics of High Pressure Gasoline Sprays Impinging on a Wall

2019-12-19
2019-01-2247
To get a better understanding of the characteristics of the high pressure gasoline sprays impinging on a wall, a fundamental study was conducted in a high-temperature high-pressure constant volume vessel under the simulated engine conditions of in-cylinder pressures, temperatures, and wall temperatures. The injection pressure was varied from 20 to 120 MPa. The spray tip penetration, vapor mass distribution, and vaporization rate were quantitatively measured with the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique. The velocity fields of the wall-impinging sprays under vaporizing conditions were measured with the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique using silicone oil droplets as tracers. The effects of injection pressure and spray/wall interactions on spray characteristics were investigated. The results showed that the increased injection pressure improved penetration, vaporization, and turbulence of the sprays.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Flat-Wall Impinging Spray Flame and Its Heat Transfer under Diesel Engine-Like Condition: Effects of Injection Pressure, Nozzle Hole Diameter and Impingement Distance

2019-12-19
2019-01-2183
Substantial amount of fuel energy input is lost by heat transfer through combustion chamber walls in the internal combustion engines. Thus, these heat losses account for reduced thermal efficiency, in that spray-wall impingement plays a crucial role in Direct Injection diesel engines. The objective of this study is to investigate the mechanism of the heat transfer from the spray/flame to the impinging wall under small diesel engine-like condition and how the spray characteristics are affected with regards to effect of injection pressure, nozzle hole diameter and impingement distance. The experiment results showed that injection pressure was predominant factor on spray-wall heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Effects of Droplet Behaviors on Fuel Adhesion of Flat Wall Impinging Spray Injected by a DISI Injector

2019-09-09
2019-24-0034
Owing to the short impingement distance and high injection pressure, it is difficult to avoid the fuel spray impingement on the combustion cylinder wall and piston head in Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine, which is a possible source of hydrocarbons and soot emission. For better understanding of the mechanisms behind the spray-wall impingement, the fuel spray and adhesion on a flat wall using a mini-sac injector with a single-hole was examined. The microscopic characteristics of impinging spray were investigated through Particle Image Analysis (PIA). The droplet size and velocity were compared before impingement. The adhered fuel on the wall was measured by Refractive Index Matching (RIM). The fuel adhesion mass and area were discussed. Moreover, the relationships between droplets behaviors and fuel adhesion on the wall were discussed.
Technical Paper

Internal Fuel Flow, Near-Field and Far-Field Spray Evolution, and Mixture Formation Characteristics of Diesel Injectors - A Comparison between Multi- and Single-Hole Injectors

2019-04-02
2019-01-0273
A comparison of spray characteristics was conducted between single- and multi-hole injectors. A commercial software (AVL FIRE) was used to investigate the internal flow inside the sac volume, as well as the initial spray behavior at 1 mm downstream of the nozzle exit. Microscopic imaging was applied to observe the spray dispersion angle (spray cone angle) at the vicinity of the nozzle. Laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was implemented for measuring the mixture concentration. Three injection quantities, namely 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/hole, were selected to observe the differences between transient and quasi-steady spray. The vapor penetration at the initial stage of the injection was greater for single-hole than that of multi-hole injector due to faster fuel pressure build-up process inside the sac volume.
Technical Paper

Split Injection Spray Development, Mixture Formation, and Combustion Processes in a Diesel Engine Piston Cavity: Rig Test and Real Engine Results

2018-09-10
2018-01-1698
The objectives of this study are to investigate the effects of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) strategies with split injection on soot emission characteristics. The split injection conditions included three injection intervals (1.1 ms, 1.3 ms, and 1.5 ms) and three injection quantity fraction ratios (Q1/Q2 = 10.0/14.6 mm3/st, 15.2/9.4 mm3/st, and 20.0/4.6 mm3/st). The results in real engine tests showed that shorter injection intervals, and the 1st injection quantity contributes to reduced soot emissions. A rig test with high-pressure and high-temperature constant-volume vessel (CVV) and a two-dimensional (2D) model piston cavity were used to determine correlations between injection conditions and soot emissions. During the rig test, fuel was injected into the CVV by a single-hole nozzle under split injection strategies. The injection strategies include the same injection intervals and quantity fraction ratios as in the real engine test.
Technical Paper

Injection Strategy to Enhance Mixture Formation and Combustion of Fuel Spray in Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0241
Increasing the injection pressure and splitting the injection stage are the major approaches for a diesel engine to facilitate the fuel-air mixture formation process, which determines the subsequent combustion and emission formation. In this study, the free spray was injected by a single-hole nozzle with a hole-diameter of 0.111 mm. The impinging spray, formed by a two-dimensional (2D) piston cavity having the same shape as a small-bore diesel engine, was also investigated. The injection process was performed by both with and without pre-injection. The main injection was carried out either as a single main injection with injection pressure of 100 MPa (Pre + S100) or a split main injection with 160 MPa defined by the mass fraction ratio of 3:1 (Pre + D160_3-1). The tracer Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was adopted to observe the spray mixture formation process. The ignition delay/location and the soot formation in the spray flame were analyzed by the two-color method.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Flat-Wall Impinging Spray Flame and Its Heat Transfer under Small Diesel Engine-Like Condition

2017-11-05
2017-32-0032
Heat loss is more critical for the thermal efficiency improvement in small size diesel engines than large-size diesel engines. More than half of total heat energy in the internal-combustion engine is lost by cooling through the cylinder walls to the atmosphere and the exhaust gas. Therefore, the new combustion concept is needed to reduce losses in the cylinder wall. In a Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine, the spray behavior, including spray-wall impingement has an important role in the combustion development to reduce heat loss. The aim of this study is to understand the mechanism of the heat transfer from the spray and flame to the impinging wall. Experiments were performed in a constant volume vessel (CVV) at high pressures and high temperatures. Fuel was injected using a single-hole injector with a 0.133 mm diameter nozzle. Under these conditions, spray evaporates, then burns near the wall. Spray/flame behavior was investigated with a high-speed video camera.
Technical Paper

Effects of Hole Diameter and Injection Pressure on Fuel Spray and Its Evaporation Characteristics of Multi-Hole Nozzle for Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2305
The performance of a diesel engine largely depends on the spray behavior and mixture formation. Nozzle configurations and operating conditions are important factors that influence spray development. Using numerical and experimental methods, this study focused on the spray development of multi-hole nozzles under non-evaporating and evaporating conditions to compare the influence of nozzle hole diameter and injection pressure on spray characteristics. High-speed video observation was employed to study the properties of spray development under the non-evaporating condition, while the Laser Absorption Scattering technique was used in the observation and quantitative analysis of evaporating spray characteristics in the evaporating condition. In addition, computational fluid dynamics study results published previously [1] were correlated with the current experimental results to provide more detailed explanations about the mechanism of the characteristics of spray behavior.
Technical Paper

Hole Geometrical Effect on Internal Flow, Fuel Atomization and Spray Evaporation of Multi-Hole Nozzle for Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0860
With the aim of improving engine performance, recent trend of fuel injection nozzle design followed by engineers and researchers is focusing on more efficient fuel break up, atomization, and fuel evaporation. Therefore, it is crucial to characterize the effect of nozzle geometric design on fuel internal flow dynamics and the consequent fuel-air mixture properties. In this study, the internal flow and spray characteristics generated by the practical multi-hole (10 holes) nozzles with different nozzle hole length and hole diameter were investigated in conjunction with a series of computational and experimental methods. Specifically, the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial code was used to predict the internal flow variation inside different nozzle configurations, and the high-speed video observation method was applied to visualize the spray evolution processes under non-evaporating conditions.
Technical Paper

Spray, Mixture and Combustion Characteristics of Small Injection Amount Fuel Spray Injected by Hole Nozzle for Diesel Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0064
The injection amount per stage in a multiple injection strategy is smaller than a conventional single-stage injection. In this paper, the effect of the injection amount (0.27mg, 0.89mg, 2.97mg) under 100MPa injection pressure and the effect of injection pressure (100MPa, 150MPa, 170MPa) under different injection amounts (0.27mg, 2.97mg) on the spray and mixture formation characteristics were studied by analyzing the vapor/liquid phase concentration distributions obtained under various conditions via using the tracer LAS technique. The spray was injected into a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel by using a single-hole nozzle with a diameter 0.133mm. The higher the injection pressure with a smaller injection amount is, the shorter the spray tip penetration and leaner air-fuel mixture occur. The combustion processes had been examined by a high-speed video camera with the two-color pyrometry method.
Journal Article

Characterization of Internal Flow and Spray Behaviors of Hole-Type Nozzle under Tiny and Normal Injection Quantity Conditions for Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0862
The tiny and normal injection quantity instances usually happen under the multi-injection strategy condition to restrain the uncontrollability of the ignition timing of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion concept. Meanwhile, instead of the traditional and fundamental single-hole diesel injector, the axisymmetric multi-hole injectors are usually applied to couple with the combustion chamber under most practical operating conditions. In the current paper, the internal flow and spray characteristics generated by single-hole and multi-hole (10 holes) nozzles under normal (2 mm3/hole) and tiny (0.3 mm3/hole) injection quantity conditions were investigated in conjunction with a series of experimental and computational methods. High-speed video observation was conducted at 10000 and 100000 fps under the condition of 120 MPa rail pressure, 1.5 MPa ambient pressure, room temperature, and nitrogen environment to visualize different spray properties.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Diesel Spray with Temporally-Splitting High-Pressure Injection

2015-11-17
2015-32-0825
The effect of temporally-splitting high pressure injection on Diesel spray combustion and soot formation processes was studied by using the high-speed video camera. The spray was injected by the single-hole nozzle with a hole diameter of 0.11mm into the high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel. The free spray and the spray impingement on the two dimensional (2D) piston cavity wall were examined. Injection pressures of 100 and 160 MPa for the single injection and 160 MPa for the split injection were selected. The flame structure and soot formation process were examined by using the two-color pyrometry. The soot generated in the flame under the split injection under 160 MPa becomes higher than that of the single injection under 160 MPa.
Technical Paper

Spray and Flame Behaviors of Ethanol-Gasoline Blend Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for DISI Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1950
Different ethanol-gasoline blended fuels, namely the E0 (100% gasoline), E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline mixed in volume basis) and E100 (100% ethanol) were injected by a valve-covered-orifice (VCO) hole-type nozzle in a condition simulating the near top dead center (TDC). Two typical injection pressures of 10 and 20MPa were adopted to clarify the spray and flame behaviors. The correlation of the upstream unburned fuel and the flame propagation was analyzed by the high-speed imaging of shadowgraph. Moreover, the effects of ignition timing and location on the flame propagation were discussed based on the imaging of OH* chemiluminescence.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Nozzle Internal Flow and Near-Field Spray of Multi-Hole Injectors for Diesel Engines

2015-09-01
2015-01-1920
The combustion process, emission formation and the resulting engine performance in a diesel engine are well known to be governed mainly by spray behaviors and the consequent mixture formation quality. One of the most important factors that affect the spray development is the nozzle configuration. Originally, single-hole diesel injector is usually applied in fundamental research to provide insights into the spray characteristics. However, the spray emerging from a realistic multi-hole injector approaches the practical engine operation situation better. Meanwhile, previous research has shown that the reduced nozzle hole diameter is effective for preparing more uniform mixture. In the current paper, a study about the effects of nozzle configuration and hole diameter on the internal flow and spray properties was conducted in conjunction with a series of experimental and computational methods.
Journal Article

Effect of Ethanol Ratio on Ignition and Combustion of Ethanol-Gasoline Blend Spray in DISI Engine-Like Condition

2015-04-14
2015-01-0774
To reduce carbon dioxide emission and to relieve the demand of fossil fuels, ethanol is regarded as one of the most promising alternative fuels for gasoline. Recently, using ethanol in the state-of-the-art gasoline engine, direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine, has become more attention by researchers due to less knowledge of the ignition and combustion processes in that engine. In this study, different ethanol-gasoline blended fuels, E0 (100% gasoline), E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline mixed in volume basis) and E100 (100% ethanol) were injected by a valve-covered-orifice (VCO) hole-type nozzle. The experimental environment was set to the condition similar with the near top dead center (TDC) in DISI engine. The high-speed imaging of shadowgraph, OH* chemiluminescence and flame natural luminosity were used to clarify the characteristics of the ignition process, flame development and propagation.
Journal Article

Small Injection Amount Fuel Spray Characteristics Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine

2014-11-11
2014-32-0124
Spray characteristics under very small injection amount injected by the hole-type nozzle for a D.I. Diesel engine were investigated using the spray test rig consisting a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel with optical accesses and a common rail injection system. The Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was used to visualize the liquid and vapor phase distributions in the evaporating spray. In the very small injection amount condition of the evaporating and free (no wall impingement) spray, the both spray tip penetration and spray angle are larger than those of the non-evaporating free spray. This tendency contradicts the previous observation of the diesel spray with large injection amount and the quasi steady state momentum theory. In the case of the spray impinging on a 2-dimensional piston cavity wall, the spray tip penetration of the evaporating spray is larger than that of the non-evaporating spray.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Spray Flame under Flat Wall Impinging Condition --LAS, OH* Chemiluminescence and Two Color Pyrometry Results

2014-10-13
2014-01-2636
The effect of spray/wall interaction on diesel spray flame characteristics was investigated by applying LAS (Laser Absorption-Scattering) technique, OH* chemiluminescence and two color pyrometry in a constant volume vessel. To insure the precision of this investigation, following necessary verification experiments were carried out: (1) OH* chemiluminescence and two color pyrometry were synchronously employed to analyze the influence of soot incandescence on OH* chemiluminescence signal intensity; and (2) frontal view and side view OH* images of a linearly arranged three holes injector were concentrated on to investigate the effect of soot on optical intensity attenuation under line-of-sight image recording condition. And then the effect of impinging distance (30,40,50,60 mm and free) on diesel spray and combustion behaviors were studied. The results reveal that the impinging distance plays a significant role in mixture formation.
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