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Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Characteristics of Spray under Air Flow in Gasoline Engine

2020-01-24
2019-32-0616
The air flow affects the spray feature and mixture significantly in gasoline engine. The effects of air flow with atmosphere and pressurized ambient pressure were investigated experimentally in the previous work, the gasoline spray characteristics and air flow are analyzed using CFD method in this study. By polishing the model of droplet breakup according to the experimental results, the simulations are taken with various air flow conditions. Modeling of spray injected under typical condition of crossflow is employed to compare the numerical results with experimental results, using the corrected model the more calculation are carried out simulating the real conditions. With changing the injection and air flow conditions, the spray feature, droplet size, droplet movement, and droplet distribution are calculated by a commercial software.
Technical Paper

Effects of Nozzle Hole Diameter and Injection Pressure on Fuel Adhesion of Flat-Wall Impinging Spray

2019-12-19
2019-01-2246
In direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine, it is difficult to avoid the spray impingement of fuel on the cylinder wall and piston head, which is a possible source of hydrocarbons and soot emission. The injector nozzle geometry and injection pressure are essential components for the spray atomization and mixture formation. For better understanding the effects of injector hole diameters and injection pressure, the fuel spray and adhesion on a flat wall by different mini-sac injectors with a single hole was examined in this study. A flat-wall made of quartz glass was used as the impingement plate. Refractive Index Matching (RIM) method was applied to measure the thickness of fuel adhesion on the wall. All the cases performed in constant high-pressure chamber were under high temperature condition considering the real gasoline engine condition. Time-resolved behaviors of the fuel adhesion as well as adhesion mass, area and thickness were discussed.
Technical Paper

Vaporization and Turbulence Characteristics of High Pressure Gasoline Sprays Impinging on a Wall

2019-12-19
2019-01-2247
To get a better understanding of the characteristics of the high pressure gasoline sprays impinging on a wall, a fundamental study was conducted in a high-temperature high-pressure constant volume vessel under the simulated engine conditions of in-cylinder pressures, temperatures, and wall temperatures. The injection pressure was varied from 20 to 120 MPa. The spray tip penetration, vapor mass distribution, and vaporization rate were quantitatively measured with the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique. The velocity fields of the wall-impinging sprays under vaporizing conditions were measured with the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique using silicone oil droplets as tracers. The effects of injection pressure and spray/wall interactions on spray characteristics were investigated. The results showed that the increased injection pressure improved penetration, vaporization, and turbulence of the sprays.
Technical Paper

Effects of ratio and dwell of split injection on fuel spray and mixture formation process under evaporating, non-reacting condition

2019-12-19
2019-01-2323
The effects of split injections of a diesel spray was evaluated in a constant volume chamber under evaporating, non-reacting condition. Laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was utilized for the mixture concentration measurement, using a diesel surrogate fuel consists of n-tridecane and 2.5% of 1-methylnaphthalene in volume basis. While fixing the total injected fuel mass of 5.0 mg/hole, the effects of split ratio in mass basis and the dwell time (or injection interval) were investigated. Among the split ratios conducted in the current study (3,7, 5:5 and 7:3), the split ratio of 7:3 was the optimum for lean mixture formation regarding the overall distribution of the equivalence ratio at end-of-injection (EOI) timing. The air entrainment wave at the EOI timing of the first injection allowed the fuel at the vicinity of the nozzle to become leaner at a faster rate.
Technical Paper

Internal Fuel Flow, Near-Field and Far-Field Spray Evolution, and Mixture Formation Characteristics of Diesel Injectors - A Comparison between Multi- and Single-Hole Injectors

2019-04-02
2019-01-0273
A comparison of spray characteristics was conducted between single- and multi-hole injectors. A commercial software (AVL FIRE) was used to investigate the internal flow inside the sac volume, as well as the initial spray behavior at 1 mm downstream of the nozzle exit. Microscopic imaging was applied to observe the spray dispersion angle (spray cone angle) at the vicinity of the nozzle. Laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was implemented for measuring the mixture concentration. Three injection quantities, namely 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/hole, were selected to observe the differences between transient and quasi-steady spray. The vapor penetration at the initial stage of the injection was greater for single-hole than that of multi-hole injector due to faster fuel pressure build-up process inside the sac volume.
Technical Paper

Injection Strategy to Enhance Mixture Formation and Combustion of Fuel Spray in Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0241
Increasing the injection pressure and splitting the injection stage are the major approaches for a diesel engine to facilitate the fuel-air mixture formation process, which determines the subsequent combustion and emission formation. In this study, the free spray was injected by a single-hole nozzle with a hole-diameter of 0.111 mm. The impinging spray, formed by a two-dimensional (2D) piston cavity having the same shape as a small-bore diesel engine, was also investigated. The injection process was performed by both with and without pre-injection. The main injection was carried out either as a single main injection with injection pressure of 100 MPa (Pre + S100) or a split main injection with 160 MPa defined by the mass fraction ratio of 3:1 (Pre + D160_3-1). The tracer Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was adopted to observe the spray mixture formation process. The ignition delay/location and the soot formation in the spray flame were analyzed by the two-color method.
Technical Paper

Effects of Hole Diameter and Injection Pressure on Fuel Spray and Its Evaporation Characteristics of Multi-Hole Nozzle for Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2305
The performance of a diesel engine largely depends on the spray behavior and mixture formation. Nozzle configurations and operating conditions are important factors that influence spray development. Using numerical and experimental methods, this study focused on the spray development of multi-hole nozzles under non-evaporating and evaporating conditions to compare the influence of nozzle hole diameter and injection pressure on spray characteristics. High-speed video observation was employed to study the properties of spray development under the non-evaporating condition, while the Laser Absorption Scattering technique was used in the observation and quantitative analysis of evaporating spray characteristics in the evaporating condition. In addition, computational fluid dynamics study results published previously [1] were correlated with the current experimental results to provide more detailed explanations about the mechanism of the characteristics of spray behavior.
Technical Paper

Hole Geometrical Effect on Internal Flow, Fuel Atomization and Spray Evaporation of Multi-Hole Nozzle for Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0860
With the aim of improving engine performance, recent trend of fuel injection nozzle design followed by engineers and researchers is focusing on more efficient fuel break up, atomization, and fuel evaporation. Therefore, it is crucial to characterize the effect of nozzle geometric design on fuel internal flow dynamics and the consequent fuel-air mixture properties. In this study, the internal flow and spray characteristics generated by the practical multi-hole (10 holes) nozzles with different nozzle hole length and hole diameter were investigated in conjunction with a series of computational and experimental methods. Specifically, the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial code was used to predict the internal flow variation inside different nozzle configurations, and the high-speed video observation method was applied to visualize the spray evolution processes under non-evaporating conditions.
Technical Paper

Spray, Mixture and Combustion Characteristics of Small Injection Amount Fuel Spray Injected by Hole Nozzle for Diesel Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0064
The injection amount per stage in a multiple injection strategy is smaller than a conventional single-stage injection. In this paper, the effect of the injection amount (0.27mg, 0.89mg, 2.97mg) under 100MPa injection pressure and the effect of injection pressure (100MPa, 150MPa, 170MPa) under different injection amounts (0.27mg, 2.97mg) on the spray and mixture formation characteristics were studied by analyzing the vapor/liquid phase concentration distributions obtained under various conditions via using the tracer LAS technique. The spray was injected into a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel by using a single-hole nozzle with a diameter 0.133mm. The higher the injection pressure with a smaller injection amount is, the shorter the spray tip penetration and leaner air-fuel mixture occur. The combustion processes had been examined by a high-speed video camera with the two-color pyrometry method.
Journal Article

Characterization of Internal Flow and Spray Behaviors of Hole-Type Nozzle under Tiny and Normal Injection Quantity Conditions for Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0862
The tiny and normal injection quantity instances usually happen under the multi-injection strategy condition to restrain the uncontrollability of the ignition timing of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion concept. Meanwhile, instead of the traditional and fundamental single-hole diesel injector, the axisymmetric multi-hole injectors are usually applied to couple with the combustion chamber under most practical operating conditions. In the current paper, the internal flow and spray characteristics generated by single-hole and multi-hole (10 holes) nozzles under normal (2 mm3/hole) and tiny (0.3 mm3/hole) injection quantity conditions were investigated in conjunction with a series of experimental and computational methods. High-speed video observation was conducted at 10000 and 100000 fps under the condition of 120 MPa rail pressure, 1.5 MPa ambient pressure, room temperature, and nitrogen environment to visualize different spray properties.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Diesel Spray with Temporally-Splitting High-Pressure Injection

2015-11-17
2015-32-0825
The effect of temporally-splitting high pressure injection on Diesel spray combustion and soot formation processes was studied by using the high-speed video camera. The spray was injected by the single-hole nozzle with a hole diameter of 0.11mm into the high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel. The free spray and the spray impingement on the two dimensional (2D) piston cavity wall were examined. Injection pressures of 100 and 160 MPa for the single injection and 160 MPa for the split injection were selected. The flame structure and soot formation process were examined by using the two-color pyrometry. The soot generated in the flame under the split injection under 160 MPa becomes higher than that of the single injection under 160 MPa.
Technical Paper

Spray and Flame Behaviors of Ethanol-Gasoline Blend Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for DISI Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1950
Different ethanol-gasoline blended fuels, namely the E0 (100% gasoline), E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline mixed in volume basis) and E100 (100% ethanol) were injected by a valve-covered-orifice (VCO) hole-type nozzle in a condition simulating the near top dead center (TDC). Two typical injection pressures of 10 and 20MPa were adopted to clarify the spray and flame behaviors. The correlation of the upstream unburned fuel and the flame propagation was analyzed by the high-speed imaging of shadowgraph. Moreover, the effects of ignition timing and location on the flame propagation were discussed based on the imaging of OH* chemiluminescence.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Nozzle Internal Flow and Near-Field Spray of Multi-Hole Injectors for Diesel Engines

2015-09-01
2015-01-1920
The combustion process, emission formation and the resulting engine performance in a diesel engine are well known to be governed mainly by spray behaviors and the consequent mixture formation quality. One of the most important factors that affect the spray development is the nozzle configuration. Originally, single-hole diesel injector is usually applied in fundamental research to provide insights into the spray characteristics. However, the spray emerging from a realistic multi-hole injector approaches the practical engine operation situation better. Meanwhile, previous research has shown that the reduced nozzle hole diameter is effective for preparing more uniform mixture. In the current paper, a study about the effects of nozzle configuration and hole diameter on the internal flow and spray properties was conducted in conjunction with a series of experimental and computational methods.
Journal Article

Effect of Ethanol Ratio on Ignition and Combustion of Ethanol-Gasoline Blend Spray in DISI Engine-Like Condition

2015-04-14
2015-01-0774
To reduce carbon dioxide emission and to relieve the demand of fossil fuels, ethanol is regarded as one of the most promising alternative fuels for gasoline. Recently, using ethanol in the state-of-the-art gasoline engine, direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine, has become more attention by researchers due to less knowledge of the ignition and combustion processes in that engine. In this study, different ethanol-gasoline blended fuels, E0 (100% gasoline), E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline mixed in volume basis) and E100 (100% ethanol) were injected by a valve-covered-orifice (VCO) hole-type nozzle. The experimental environment was set to the condition similar with the near top dead center (TDC) in DISI engine. The high-speed imaging of shadowgraph, OH* chemiluminescence and flame natural luminosity were used to clarify the characteristics of the ignition process, flame development and propagation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Studies of Spray Combustion Processes of Palm Oil Biodiesel and Diesel Fuels using Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms

2014-04-01
2014-01-1143
Spray combustion processes of palm oil biodiesel (PO) and conventional diesel fuels were simulated using the CONVERGE CFD code. Thermochemical and reaction kinetic data (115 species and 460 reactions) by Luo et al. (2012) and Lu et al. (2009) (68 species and 283 reactions) were implemented in the CONVERGE CFD to simulate the spray and combustion processes of the two fuels. Tetradecane (C14H30) and n- heptane (C7H16) were used as surrogates for diesel. For the palm biodiesel, the mixture of methyl decanoate (C11H20O2), methyl-9-decenoate (C11H19O2) and n-heptane was used as surrogate. The palm biodiesel surrogates were combined in proportions based on the previous GC-MS results for the five major biodiesel components namely methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate.
Journal Article

Effect of Spray/Wall Interaction on Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation in Two-Dimensional Piston Cavity

2013-10-15
2013-32-9021
The effects of spray/wall interaction on diesel combustion and soot formation in a two-dimensional piston cavity were studied with a high speed color video camera in a constant volume combustion vessel. The two-dimensional piston cavity was applied to generate the impinging spray flame. In the cavity, the flat surface which plays a role as the cylinder head has a 13.5 degree angle with the injector axis and the impinging point was located 30 mm away from the nozzle tip. Three injection pressures of 100, 150, and 200 MPa and a single hole diesel injector (hole diameter: 0.133mm) were selected. The flame structure and combustion process were examined by using the color luminosity images. Two-color pyrometry was used to measure the line-of sight soot temperature and concentration by using the R and B channels of the color images. The soot mass generated by impinging spray flame is higher than that of the free spray flame.
Technical Paper

Cross-Flow Effect on Behavior of Fuel Spray Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for D.I. Gasoline Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2553
Spray characteristics are of great importance to achieve fuel economy and low emissions for a D.I. gasoline engine. In this study, the characteristics of the fuel spray as well as its interaction with a cross-flow were investigated. The fuel was injected by a VCO injector into an optically accessible rectangular wind tunnel under the normal temperature and pressure, in which the direction of the injection was perpendicular to the direction of the cross-flow. The velocity of the cross-flow varied from 0 to 10 m/s while the injection pressure was 5 and 10 MPa. With using the high speed video camera and the PIV system, the spray profile, velocity distribution and the penetration distance were measured. The lower penetration distance can be obtained with the lower injection pressure and the increased velocity of the cross-flow, however the injected fuel expands along the direction of the cross-flow, which indicates that spray atomization and mixing of fuel and air are enhanced.
Technical Paper

Fuel Spray Combustion of Waste Cooking Oil and Palm Oil Biodiesel: Direct Photography and Detailed Chemical Kinetics

2013-10-14
2013-01-2554
This paper studies the ignition processes of two biodiesel from two different feedstock sources, namely waste cooked oil (WCO) and palm oil (PO). They were investigated using the direct photography through high-speed video observations and detailed chemical kinetics. The detailed chemical kinetics modeling was carried out to complement data acquired using the high-speed video observations. For the high-speed video observations, an image intensifier combined with OH* filter connected to a high-speed video camera was used to obtain OH* chemiluminscence image near 313 nm. The OH* images were used to obtain the experimental ignition delay of the biodiesel fuels. For the high-speed video observations, experiments were done at an injection pressure of 100, 200 and 300 MPa using a 0.16 mm injector nozzle.
Journal Article

Fuel Spray Evaporation and Mixture Formation Processes of Ethanol/Gasoline Blend Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for DISI Engine

2012-10-23
2012-32-0018
Ethanol is regarded as the promising alternative fuel for gasoline to meet the strict low emission standard for spark ignition engines. In this study, the spray mixture formation process for different ethanol blended fuels, including E0 (gasoline), E85 (85% volume of ethanol and 15% volume of gasoline) and E100 (ethanol), has been evaluated using hole-type nozzle by the measurement of Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique in a constant volume vessel. Based on the principle of LAS, the quantitative vapor and liquid phase distribution from different ethanol blended fuel can be obtained by the light extinction regime. Aiming to analyze the effect of mixture formation and evaporation for different components of blended fuel or pure gasoline and ethanol, the vapor distribution of gasoline was determined by using p-xylene, which had similar physical properties to gasoline, especially higher boiling temperature components, and higher absorption for ultraviolet.
Technical Paper

Effects of Nozzle Hole Diameter and Injection Pressure on Flame Lift-Off and Soot Formation in D.I. Diesel Combustion

2011-08-30
2011-01-1813
Previous research has shown that the reduced nozzle hole diameter and elevated injection pressure are effective for preparing a uniform fuel-air mixture in a direct injection (D.I.) Diesel engine. A micro-hole nozzle with a hole diameter of 0.08 mm and an ultra-high injection pressure of 300 MPa have been employed to investigate the mixture formation process under various conditions. The aim of the current work is to clarify the effect of nozzle hole diameter and injection pressure on flame lift-off and soot formation processes. The free sprays from the micro-hole and conventional nozzles were investigated at a high-temperature, high-pressure constant volume vessel. A high-speed video camera system was employed to record the non-vaporizing sprays and combustion. The direct photography of OH chemiluminescence was used to provide information about the high temperature combustion process and to measure the flame lift-off length.
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