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Technical Paper

Approach for an Assistance System for E-Bikes to Implement Rider-Adaptive Support

2024-07-02
2024-01-2979
When riding an e-bike, riders are faced with the question of whether there is enough energy left in the battery to reach the destination with the desired level of support. E-bike users therefore have an existential range anxiety. Specifically, this describes the fear that the battery charge will be exhausted before there is an opportunity to recharge it and that it will no longer be possible to use the electric support. However, e-bike riders have so far had to decide for themselves whether the available battery charge is sufficient for riding the planned route or whether the desired destination can be reached. In this context, the challenge is to decide how much support can be used so that an appropriate amount of effort can be achieved for the entire journey. In order to assist e-bike riders with this problem, the objective of this paper is to present an approach towards an assistance system that provides rider-adaptive support over the entire journey of a defined route.
Technical Paper

Charging infrastructure for employer parking – Real data analysis and charging algorithms for future customer demands

2024-07-02
2024-01-2980
The mobility industry and the entire ecosystem is currently striving towards sus-tainable mobility which leads to continuous production ramp-up of electrified vehicles. The parallel increase of the charging infrastructure is faced with various challenges regarding needed investments and the connection into the electricity grid. MAHLE chargeBIG offers centralized and large scaled charging infrastruc-ture with more than 1,800 already installed charging points. This presentation and paper is evaluating the functionality of the system by ana-lyzing backend real data of various employer parking installations. It can be shown and proven that a single-phase charging concept is sufficient and able to manage most customer relevant charging events by considering the needs and limitations of the related electricity grid infrastructure. Smart charging algorithms enable the integration of the charging infrastructure in smart grid company environments.
Technical Paper

FMCW Lidar Simulation with Ray Tracing and Standardized Interfaces

2024-07-02
2024-01-2977
In pursuit of safety validation of automated driving functions, efforts are being made to accompany real world test drives by test drives in virtual environments. To be able to transfer highly automated driving functions into a simulation, models of the vehicle’s perception sensors such as lidar, radar and camera are required. In addition to the classic pulsed time-of-flight (ToF) lidars, the growing availability of commercial frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) lidars sparks interest in the field of environment perception. This is due to advanced capabilities such as directly measuring the target’s relative radial velocity based on the Doppler effect. In this work, an FMCW lidar sensor simulation model is introduced, which is divided into the components of signal propagation and signal processing. The signal propagation is modeled by a ray tracing approach simulating the interaction of light waves with the environment.
Technical Paper

Enabling Secured Global Time Synchronization (SGTS) in software-defined vehicles

2024-07-02
2024-01-2978
The global time that is propagated and synchronized in vehicle E/E architecture is used in safety-critical, security-critical and time-critical applications. The cybersecurity attacks on the global time result in false time, accuracy degradation and DoS as stated in IETF RFC 7384. These failures reduce the vehicle availability, robustness and safety of the road user. AUTOSAR R22-11 defines the detailed specifications for the integrated security mechanism to secure the global time on automotive networks. However, there are also external security mechanisms like MACsec on the Ethernet network. Challenges in achieving a holistic solution to secure the global time in the vehicle, include zero impact on the precision of global time, end-to-end security and being cost-effective. This triggers the questions: what are the security mechanisms in the vehicle E/E architecture? Can the external security mechanisms satisfy all security requirements of global time?
Technical Paper

Additively manufactured wheel suspension system with integrated conductors and optimised structure

2024-07-02
2024-01-2973
Increasing urbanisation and the growing environmental awareness in society require new and innovative vehicle concepts. In the present work, the design freedoms of additive manufacturing (AM) are used to develop a front axle wheel suspension for a novel modular vehicle concept. The development of the suspension components is based on a new method using industry standard load cases for the strength design of the components. To design the chassis components, first the available installation space is determined and a suitable configuration of the chassis components is defined. Furthermore, numerical methods are used to identify component geometries that are suitable for the force flow. The optimisation setup is selected in a way that allows to integrate information, energy and material-carrying conductors into the suspension arms. The conductors even serve as load-bearing structures because of the matching design of the components.
Technical Paper

Radar-based Approach for Side-Slip Gradient Estimation

2024-07-02
2024-01-2976
In vehicle ego-motion estimation, vehicle control, and advanced driver assist systems the vehicle dynamics are described by a few key parameters. The side-slip gradient, being one of them, is used to model the lateral behavior of the vehicle. This parameter is rarely known precisely, since it depends on the vehicle’s mass distribution, its tires, and even the chassis setup. Thus, an online-estimation of the side-slip gradient is beneficial, especially in serial applications. Estimating the side-slip gradient with conventional vehicle sensors such as wheel-speed, steering, and inertial sensors poses a significant challenge since considerable dynamic excitation of the vehicle is required, which is uncommon in normal driving. Here, radar sensors open new opportunities in the estimation of such vehicle dynamics parameters since they allow for an instantaneous measurement of the lateral velocity.
Technical Paper

Optimization-Based Battery Thermal Management for Improved Regenerative Braking in CEP Vehicles

2024-07-02
2024-01-2974
The courier express parcel service industry (CEP industry) has experienced significant changes in the recent years due to increasing parcel volume. At the same time, the electrification of the vehicle fleets poses additional challenges. A major advantage of battery electric CEP vehicles compared to internal combustion engine vehicles is the ability to regenerate the kinetic energy of the vehicle in the frequent deceleration phases during parcel delivery. If the battery is cold the maximum recuperation power of the powertrain is limited by a reduced chemical reaction rate inside the battery. In general, the maximum charging power of the battery depends on the state of charge and the battery temperature. Due to the low power demand for driving during CEP operation, the battery self-heating is comparably low under cold ambient conditions. Without active conditioning of the battery, potential regenerative energy is lost as a result of the cold battery.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Flow-induced Noise in Refrigeration Cycles

2024-07-02
2024-01-2972
In electrified vehicles, auxiliary units can be a dominant source of noise, one of which is the re-frigerant scroll compressor. Compared to vehicles with combustion engines, e-vehicles require larger refrigerant compressors, as in addition to the interior, also the battery and the electric motors have to be cooled. Currently, scroll compressors are widely used in the automotive industry, which generate one pressure pulse per revolution due to their discontinuous compression principle. This results in speed-dependent pressure fluctuations as well as higher-harmonic pulsations that arise from reflections. These fluctuations spread through the refrigeration circuit and cause the vibration excitation of refrigerant lines and heat exchangers. The sound transmission path in the air con-ditioning heat exchanger integrated in the dashboard is particularly critical. Various silencer con-figurations can be used to dampen these pulsations.
Technical Paper

Steering system with mechanical coupling of the wheels and the possibility of steering both wheels in opposite directions

2024-07-02
2024-01-2970
In the course of the U-Shift project, an automated, driverless and electrically driven vehicle concept is developed. By separating the vehicle into a drive module and a transport capsule, a novel form of mobility is created. The autonomous driving module, the so-called Driveboard, is able to change the transport capsules independently and thus serves both passenger and goods transport. In order to be able to use the vehicle effectively, especially in urban areas, the space required for manoeuvring and loading or unloading the capsules must be kept as small as possible. This poses special challenges for the steering system. In this paper, a novel steering system is presented that enables both same-direction and opposite-direction wheel steering. First, the fundamental concept of the steering system is presented. After that, the design is explained and the assembled steering system is shown. During normal cornering, there is a mechanical coupling between the wheels.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and simulation of wheel steering functionality on a Road to Rig test bench

2024-07-02
2024-01-3000
The automotive industry is continuously evolving, demanding innovative approaches to enhance testing methodologies and preventive identify potential issues. This paper proposes an advancement test approach in the area of the overall vehicle system included steering system and power train on a “Road to Rig” test bench. The research aims to revolutionize the conventional testing process by identifying faults at an early stage and eliminating the need to rely solely on field tests. The motivation behind this research is to optimize the test bench setup and bring it even closer to real field tests. Key highlights of the publication include the introduction of an expanded load spectrum, incorporating both steering angle and speed parameters along the test track. The load includes different route and driving profiles like on a freeway, overland and city drive in combination with the steering angles.
Technical Paper

Challenges of measuring low levels of CO2 and NOx on H2-ICE

2024-07-02
2024-01-2998
Society is moving towards climate neutrality where hydrogen fuelled combustion engines (H2 ICE) could be considered a main technology. These engines run on hydrogen (H2) so carbon-based emission are only present at a very low level from the lube oil. The most important pollutants NO and NO2 are caused by the exhaust aftertreatment system as well as CO2 coming from the ambient air. For standard measurement technologies these low levels of CO2 are hard to detect due to the high water content. Normal levels of CO2 are between 400-500 ppm which is very close or even below the detection limit of commonly used non-dispersive-infrared-detectors (NDIR). As well the high water content is very challenging for NOx measuring devices, like chemiluminescence detectors (CLD), where it results in higher noise and therefore a worse detection limit. Even for Fourier-transformed-infrared-spectroscopy-analysers (FT-IR) it is challenging to deal with water content over 15% without increased noise.
Technical Paper

Automated AI-based Annotation Framework for 3D Object Detection from LIDAR Data in Industrial Areas.

2024-07-02
2024-01-2999
Autonomous Driving is being utilized in various settings, including indoor areas such as industrial halls. Additionally, LIDAR sensors are currently popular due to their superior spatial resolution and accuracy compared to RADAR, as well as their robustness to varying lighting conditions compared to cameras. They enable precise and real-time perception of the surrounding environment. Several datasets for on-road scenarios such as KITTI or Waymo are publicly available. However, there is a notable lack of open-source datasets specifically designed for industrial hall scenarios, particularly for 3D LIDAR data. Furthermore, for industrial areas where vehicle platforms with omnidirectional drive are often used, 360° FOV LIDAR sensors are necessary to monitor all critical objects. Although high-resolution sensors would be optimal, mechanical LIDAR sensors with 360° FOV exhibit a significant price increase with increasing resolution.
Technical Paper

Analysis of human driving behavior with focus on vehicle lateral control

2024-07-02
2024-01-2997
The optimization and further development of automated driving functions offers great potential to relieve the driver in various driving situations and increase road safety. Simulative testing in particular is an indispensable tool in this process, allowing conclusions to be drawn about the design of automated driving functions at a very early stage of development. In this context, the use of driving simulators provides support so that the driving functions of tomorrow can be experienced in a very safe and reproducible environment. The focus of the acceptance and optimization of automated driving functions is particularly on vehicle lateral control functions. As part of this paper, a test person study was carried out regarding manual vehicle lateral control on the dynamic vehicle road simulator at the Institute of Automotive Engineering.
Technical Paper

Software-supported Processes for Aerodynamic Homologation of Vehicles

2024-07-02
2024-01-3004
Homologation is an important process in vehicle development and aerodynamics a main data contributor. The process is heavily interconnected: Production planning defines the available assemblies. Construction defines their parts and features. Sales defines the assemblies offered in different markets, where Legislation defines the rules applicable to homologation. Control engineers define the behavior of active, aerodynamically relevant components. Wind tunnels are the main test tool for the homologation, accompanied by surface-area measurement systems. Mechanics support these test operations. The prototype management provides test vehicles, while parts come from various production and prototyping sources and are stored and commissioned by logistics. Several phases of this complex process share the same context: Production timelines for assemblies and parts for each chassis-engine package define which drag coefficients or drag coefficient contributions shall be determined.
Technical Paper

Towards a New Approach for Reducing the Safety Validation Effort of Driving Functions Using Prediction Divergence

2024-07-02
2024-01-3003
An essential component in the approval of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and automated driving systems (ADS) is the quantification of residual risk, which demonstrates that hazardous behavior (HB) occurs less frequently than specified by a corresponding acceptance criterion. In the case of HB with high potential impact severity, only very low accepted frequencies of occurrence are tolerated. To avoid uncertainties due to abstractions and simplifications in simulations, the proof of the residual risk in systems such as advanced emergency braking systems (AEBS) is often partially or entirely implemented as system-level field test. However, the low rates and high confidence required, common for residual risk demonstrations, result in a significant disadvantage of these field tests: the long driving distance required.
Technical Paper

Probabilistically Extended Ontologies a basis for systematic testing of ML-based systems

2024-07-02
2024-01-3002
Autonomous driving is a hot topic in the automotive domain, and there is an increasing need to prove its reliability. They use machine learning techniques, which are themselves stochastic techniques based on some kind of statistical inference. The occurrence of incorrect decisions is part of this approach and often not directly related to correctable errors. The quality of the systems is indicated by statistical key figures such as accuracy and precision. Numerous driving tests and simulations in simulators are extensively used to provide evidence. However, the basis of all descriptive statistics is a random selection from a probability space. The difficulty in testing or constructing the training and test data set is that this probability space is usually not well defined. To systematically address this shortcoming, ontologies have been and are being developed to capture the various concepts and properties of the operational design domain.
Technical Paper

Set-up of an in-car system for investigating driving style on the basis of the 3D-method

2024-07-02
2024-01-3001
Investigating human driver behavior enhances the acceptance of the autonomous driving and increases road safety in heterogeneous environments with human-operated and autonomous vehicles. The previously established driver fingerprint model, focuses on the classification of driving style based on CAN bus signals. However, driving styles are inherently complex and influenced by multiple factors, including changing driving environments and driver states. To comprehensively create a driver profile, an in-car measurement system based on the Driver-Driven vehicle-Driving environment (3D) framework is developed. The measurement system records emotional and physiological signals from the driver, including ECG signal and heart rate. A Raspberry Pi camera is utilized on the dashboard to capture the driver's facial expressions and a trained convolutional neural network (CNN) recognizes emotion. To conduct unobtrusive ECG measurements, an ECG sensor is integrated into the steering wheel.
Technical Paper

Enhancing BEV Energy Management: Neural Network-Based System Identification for Thermal Control Strategies

2024-07-02
2024-01-3005
Modeling thermal systems in Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) is crucial for enhancing energy efficiency through predictive control strategies, thereby extending vehicle range. A major obstacle in this modeling is the often limited availability of detailed system information. This research introduces a methodology using neural networks for system identification, a powerful technique capable of approximating the physical behavior of thermal systems with minimal data requirements. By employing black-box models, this approach supports the creation of optimization-based operational strategies, such as Model Predictive Control (MPC) and Reinforcement Learning-based Control (RL). The system identification process is executed using MATLAB Simulink, with virtual training data produced by validated Simulink models to establish the method's feasibility. The neural networks utilized for system identification are implemented in MATLAB code.
Technical Paper

Impact of AdBlue Composition and Water Purity on Particle Number Increase

2024-07-02
2024-01-3012
Previous studies have shown that dosing AdBlue into the exhaust system of diesel engines to reduce nitrogen oxides can lead to an increase in the number of particles (PN). In addition to the influencing factors of exhaust gas temperature, exhaust gas mass flow and dosing quantity, the dosed medium itself (AdBlue) is not considered as a possible influence due to its regulation in ISO standard 22241. However, as the standard specifies limit value ranges for the individual regulated properties and components for newly sold AdBlue, in reality there is still some margin in the composition. This paper investigates the particle number increase due to AdBlue dosing using several CPCs. The increase in PN is determined by measuring the number of particles after DPF and thus directly before dosing as well as tailpipe. Several AdBlue products from different sources and countries are measured and their composition is also analyzed with regard to the limit values regulated in the standard.
Technical Paper

A computational study of hydrogen direct injection using a pre-chamber in an opposed-piston engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Opposed-piston two-stroke engines offer numerous advantages over conventional four-stroke engines, both in terms of fundamental principles and technical aspects. The reduced heat losses and large volume-to-surface area ratio inherently result in a high thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, the mechanical design is simpler and requires fewer components compared to conventional four-stroke engines. When combining this engine concept with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and pre-chamber technology, a potential route for carbon-neutral powertrains is observed. To ensure safe engine operation using hydrogen as fuel, it is crucial to consider strict safety measures to prevent issues such as knock, pre-ignition, and backfiring. One potential solution to these challenges is the use of direct injection, which has the potential to improve engine efficiency and expand the range of load operation.
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