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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Piston Geometry on the Performance of a Ducted Fuel Injection Engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3024
Ducted Fuel Injection (DFI) engines have emerged as a promising technology in the pursuit of a clean and efficient combustion process. This article aims at elucidating the effect of piston geometry on the engine performance and emissions of a metal DFI engine. Three different types of pistons were investigated and the main piston design features including the piston bowl diameter, piston bowl slope angle, duct angle and the injection nozzle position were examined. To achieve the target, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted coupled to a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism. Extensive validations were performed against the measured data from a conventional diesel engine. To calibrate the soot model, genetic algorithm and machine learning methods were utilized. The simulation results highlight the pivotal role played by piston bowl diameter and fuel injection angle in controlling soot emissions of a DFI engine.
Technical Paper

A computational study of hydrogen direct injection using a pre-chamber in an opposed-piston engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Opposed-piston two-stroke engines offer numerous advantages over conventional four-stroke engines, both in terms of fundamental principles and technical aspects. The reduced heat losses and large volume-to-surface area ratio inherently result in a high thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, the mechanical design is simpler and requires fewer components compared to conventional four-stroke engines. When combining this engine concept with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and pre-chamber technology, a potential route for carbon-neutral powertrains is observed. To ensure safe engine operation using hydrogen as fuel, it is crucial to consider strict safety measures to prevent issues such as knock, pre-ignition, and backfiring. One potential solution to these challenges is the use of direct injection, which has the potential to improve engine efficiency and expand the range of load operation.
Technical Paper

The influence of design operating conditions on engine coolant pump absorption in real driving scenarios.

2024-06-12
2024-37-0015
Reducing CO2 emissions in on-the-road transport is important to limit global warming and follow a green transition towards net zero Carbon by 2050. In a long-term scenario, electrification will be the future of transportation. However, in the mid-term, the priority should be given more strongly to other technological alternatives (e.g., decarbonization of the electrical energy and battery recharging time). In the short- to mid-term, the technological and environmental reinforcement of ICEs could participate in the effort of decarbonization, also matching the need to reduce harmful pollutant emissions, mainly during traveling in urban areas. Engine thermal management represents a viable solution considering its potential benefits and limited implementation costs compared to other technologies. A variable flow coolant pump actuated independently from the crankshaft represents the critical component of a thermal management system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lignin Fuels for CI Engines

2024-06-12
2024-37-0022
This study explores the feasibility of using a sustainable lignin-based fuel, consisting of 44 % lignin, 50 % ethanol, and 6 % water, in conventional compression ignition (CI) marine engines. Through experimental evaluations on a modified small-bore CI engine, we identified the primary challenges associated with lignin-based fuel, including engine startup and shutdown issues due to solvent evaporation and lignin solidification inside the fuel system, and deposit formation on cylinder walls leading to piston ring seizure. To address these issues, we developed a fuel switching system transitioning from lignin-based fuel to cleaning fuel with 85 vol% of acetone, 10 vol% of water and 5 vol% of ignition improving additive, effectively preventing system clogs.
Technical Paper

Guided Port Injection of Hydrogen as An Approach for Reducing Cylinder-To-Cylinder Deviations in Spark-Ignited H2 Engines – A Numerical Investigation

2024-06-12
2024-37-0008
The reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and ever stricter regulations on pollutant emissions in the transport sector require research and development of new, climate-friendly propulsion concepts. The use of renewable hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines promises to provide a good solution especially for commercial vehicles. For optimum efficiency of the combustion process, hydrogen-specific engine components are required, which need to be tested on the test bench and analysed in simulation studies. This paper deals with the simulation-based investigation and optimisation of fuel injection in a 6-cylinder PFI commercial vehicle engine, which has been modified for hydrogen operation starting from a natural gas engine concept.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Application of Gas Foil Bearings in High-Speed Drivelines

2024-06-12
2024-01-2941
Gas bearings are an effective solution to high-speed rotor applications for its contamination free, reduced maintenance and higher reliability. However, low viscosity of gas leads to lower dynamic stiffness and damping characteristics resulting in low load carrying capacity and instability at higher speeds. Gas bearings can be enhanced by adding a foil structure commonly known as gas foil bearings (GFBs), whose dynamic stiffness can be tailored by modifying the geometry and the material properties resulting in better stability and higher load carrying capacity. A detailed study is required to assess the performance of high-speed rotor systems supported on GFBs, therefore in this study a bump type GFB is analyzed for its static and dynamic characteristics. The static characteristics are obtained by solving the non-linear Reynolds equation through an iterative procedure.
Technical Paper

Influences of High-Pressure Pump and Injector Nozzle Geometry on Hydraulics Characteristics of a Mechanical Diesel Direct-Injection System

2024-06-04
2024-01-5061
The geometry of high-pressure pump and injector nozzles crucially influences hydraulic behaviors (e.g., the start of injection, the pressure profiles developed in the high-pressure line, needle lift, and injection rates) in diesel engines. These factors, in turn, significantly impact fuel atomization, fuel–air mixing, combustion quality, and the formation of emissions. The main geometry parameters such as plunger diameter and the number and diameter of nozzles lead to the system complexity, requiring careful analysis, design, and calibration. In this study, a high-speed shadowgraph system and a high-resolution pressure recording system were developed to capture the start of injection, spray structure, and pressure profiles in the high-pressure line. Additionally, a model was developed using GT-Fuel package built within the GT-Suite of simulation tools to explore different plunger diameters and numbers and diameters of injector nozzles.
Journal Article

Effect of Ethanol and Iso-Octane Blends on Isolated Low-Temperature Heat Release in a Spark Ignition Engine

2024-05-17
Abstract Low-temperature heat release (LTHR) is of interest for its potential to help control autoignition in advanced compression ignition (ACI) engines and mitigate knock in spark ignition (SI) engines. Previous studies have identified and investigated LTHR in both ACI and SI engines before the main high-temperature heat release (HTHR) event and, more recently, LTHR in isolation has been demonstrated in SI engines by appropriately curating the in-cylinder thermal state during compression and disabling the spark discharge. Ethanol is an increasingly common component of market fuel blends, owing to its renewable sources. In this work, the effect of adding ethanol to iso-octane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) blends on their LTHR behavior is demonstrated. Tests were run on a motored single-cylinder engine elevated inlet air temperatures and pressures were adjusted to realize LTHR from blends of iso-octane and ethanol without entering the HTHR regime.
Technical Paper

Centrifugal Compressor Map Prediction Based on Geometrical Parameters with Invariant Coefficients

2024-04-24
2024-01-5056
In the present work, a new methodology for predicting the performance of centrifugal compressors is developed. The proposed method differs from existing methods found in literature by gathering principal losses in three parameters: two constants and one variable, which is a function of the compressor wheel geometrical characteristics. As those parameters are constants for a given centrifugal compressor, there is no need for additional corrective parameters in order to obtain coherent results. Indeed, the proposed methodology does not depend on the choice of the slip factor correlation for the prediction of the correct pressure ratio. However, the choice of slip factor influences the efficiency computation. The prediction of the compressor maps for two full stage centrifugal compressors is presented and they show good agreement while compared with manufacturer’s data obtained from gas stand measurements.
Journal Article

TOC

2024-04-15
Abstract TOC
Technical Paper

Combustion Timing Control Based on First Modal Coefficients of Individual Cylinder Pressure Traces

2024-04-09
2024-01-2842
When an SI engine is equipped with individual cylinder pressure transducers, combustion timing of each cylinder can be precisely controlled by adjusting spark timing in real-time. In this paper, a novel method based on principal component analysis (PCA) is introduced to control the combustion timing with a significantly less computational burden than a conventional method.
Technical Paper

Improving the Performance of Diesel Engines by Bore Profile Control under Operating Conditions

2024-04-09
2024-01-2832
The cylinder bore in an engine block is deformed under the assembling stress of the cylinder head and thermal stress. This distortion exacerbates the piston skirt friction and piston slap. Through a numerical and experimental study, this article analyzes the effect of an optimized bore profile on the engine performance. The piston skirt friction was estimated in a three-dimensional elastohydrodynamic (EHD) friction analysis. An ideal cylindrical bore under the rated load condition was assumed as the optimal bore profile that minimized the piston skirt friction without compromising the piston slap. The simulation study revealed that secondary motion of the piston immediately after firing the top dead center can be mitigated by narrowing the piston–bore clearance at the upper position of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Study on the Optimization of Sealing Environment of Cylinder Head Gasket

2024-04-09
2024-01-2833
Typically, modern automotive engine designs include separate cylinder heads and cylinder blocks and utilize a multilayer steel head gasket (MLS) to seal the resulting joint. Cylinder head bolts are used to hold the joint together and the non-linear properties of head gasket provide capability to seal the movement within the joint, which is essential for engine durability and performance. The current design of cylinder head gasket mainly evaluates the sealing performance in hot and cold state through finite element analysis. The sealing performance of cylinder head gasket is mainly determined by sealing pressure, fatigue and lateral movement in the joint, which have been widely studied [1]. However, no one has been involved in the study of factors affecting sealing pressure and lateral movement in the joint.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Dual Fuel Hydrogen/Diesel Combustion Varying Diesel and Hydrogen Injection Parameters in a Single Cylinder Research Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2363
In the perspective of a reduction of emissions and a rapid decarbonisation, especially for compression ignition engines, hydrogen plays a decisive role. The dual fuel technology is perfectly suited to the use of hydrogen, a fuel characterized by great energy potential. In fact, replacing, at the same energy content, the fossil fuel with a totally carbon free one, a significant reduction of the greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide and total hydrocarbon, as well as of the particulate matter can be obtained. The dual fuel with indirect injection of gaseous fuel in the intake manifold, involves the problem of hydrogen autoignition. In order to avoid this difficulty, the optimal conditions for the injection of the incoming mixture into the cylinder were experimentally investigated. All combustion processes are carried out on a research engine with optical access. The engine speed has is set at 1500 rpm, while the EGR valve is deactivated.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Internal and External EGR Effects on a CNG-OME Dual-Fuel Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2361
Dual-fuel engines powered by renewable fuels provide a potential solution for reducing the carbon footprint and emissions of transportation, contributing to the goal of achieving sustainable mobility. The investigation presented in the following uses a dual-fuel engine concept running on biogas (referred to as CNG in this paper) and the e-fuel polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether (OME). The current study focuses on the effects of exhaust gas rebreathing and external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on emissions and brake thermal efficiency (BTE). A four-cylinder heavy-duty engine converted to dual-fuel operation was used to conduct the engine tests at a load point of 1600 min-1 and 9.8 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The respective shares of high reactivity fuel (HRF, here: OME) and low reactivity fuel (LRF, here: CNG) were varied, as were the external and internal EGR rates and their combinations.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis of Hydrogen-DDF Mode Based on OH* Chemiluminescence Images

2024-04-09
2024-01-2367
Hydrogen–diesel dual-fuel combustion processes were visualized using an optically accessible rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM). A hydrogen-air mixture was introduced into the combustion chamber, and a pilot injection of diesel fuel was used as the ignition source. A small amount of diesel fuel was injected as the pilot fuel at injection pressures of 40, 80, and 120 MPa using a common rail injection system. The injection amounts of diesel fuel were varied as 3, 6, and 13 mm3. The amount of hydrogen was manipulated by varying the total excess air ratio (λtotal) at 3 and 4. The RCEM was operated at a constant speed of 900 rpm, and the in-cylinder pressure and temperature at the top dead center (TDC) were set as 5 MPa and 700 K, respectively. The combustion processes were visualized via direct photography and hydroxyl (OH*) chemiluminescence photography using a high-speed camera and an image intensifier.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Engine Performance Fueled with Ammonia-Hydrogen Blend Ignited by Diesel Pilot

2024-04-09
2024-01-2365
The global energy crisis and drastic climate change are continuously promoting the implementation of sustainable energy sources. To meet the emission standards and carbon-neutrality targets in vehicle industry, ammonia is considered to be one of the promising carbon-neutral fuels. However, running the engines on high amounts of ammonia may lead to significantly high ammonia slip. This originates huge safety concerns. Therefore, hydrogen is added in certain ratio with ammonia to promote combustion and reduce ammonia slip. Furthermore, adding diesel as a pilot fuel further facilitates the combustion reactions. This experimental study investigated the effect of different ammonia-hydrogen blend ratios on in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, cumulative heat release, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), indicated thermal efficiency (ITE), CA5 and CA50. This effect of blend ratios was tested for varied diesel pilot amounts and timings.
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