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Training / Education

High Voltage Vehicle Safety Systems and PPE

2021-08-16
High voltage vehicle safety is a primary concern for every technician or engineer involved in developing, diagnosing or repairing hybrid or electric vehicles. Engineers/technicians working in this field should complete safety training before they interface with hybrid, plug-in or electric vehicles.
Training / Education

EV Motor Design Analysis and Test Verification

2021-05-20
This seminar, designed for EV motor engineers and graduate students, systematically introduces EV motor design analysis and test verification. Combined with engineering practice, it discusses typical EV motor design cases and practical issues related to EV motor technology, aiming to broaden the horizon of EV motor design engineers and improve their problem-solving skills.
Standard

Test Methods and Equipment for Lighting Devices for Use on Vehicles Less than 2032 mm in Overall Width

2021-04-09
CURRENT
J575_202104
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This document provides standardized laboratory tests, test methods and equipment, and requirements for lighting devices covered by SAE Recommended Practices and Standards. It is intended for devices used on vehicles less than 2032 mm in width. Tests for vehicles larger than 2032 mm in overall width are covered in SAE J2139. Device specific tests and requirements can be found in applicable SAE technical reports.
Standard

Vehicle Display System Light Efficiency

2021-04-09
CURRENT
J1757-3_202104
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test protocols with performance requirements for vehicular flat panel display systems efficiency. The standard help determine vehicle the display system light efficiency vector KDS = (K50, Knight, Kdaytime, Khigh-ambient) with the highest optical performance (such as luminance, contrast) and lowest power density (defined as total power divided by active area of the display), based on typical automotive usage such as ambient lighting. In this standard, we are measuring Lamb to determine Eamb value such as 1.592 cd/m2 measured off a 0.99 standard diffuser equivalent to 5k lux illumination environment, same as in SAE J1757-1.
Standard

Transmission Oil Cooler Hose

2021-04-08
WIP
J1532
This SAE Standard covers hose intended for use with automatic transmission cooling system applications. Type A hoses are intended for original equipment or replacement applications while Type B hoses are intended for aftermarket auxiliary cooler applications only. The reference fluid for tests requiring the use of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) shall be Dexron III / Mercon 5 or equivalent ATF that is agreed to by hose manufacturer and customer.
Technical Paper

Innovative Approach of Reducing Vibration Stress in High Pressure Fuel Injection Pipe and Fuel Injector Using Vibration Dampers in Two Cylinder Diesel Engine

2021-04-06
2021-01-0686
Design and development of high-pressure pipe involves number of design validation plans for robust design in diesel engine. The fundamental behavior of two-cylinder diesel engine with parallel stroke involves high vibration which generates stress on components mounted on crankcase resulting into earlier fatigue failure. In this paper, the innovative approach of using optimized design of vibration damper for resolving high vibration stress concerns in fuel system is discussed. The vibration dampers were designed meeting both performance and durability aspects in two-cylinder diesel engine applicable for both passenger and commercial vehicle. This paper highlights the design approach involving experimental stress measurements and design optimization based on part development feasibility.
Technical Paper

Methodology for the Geometric Layout of a Mechanically Fully Variable Valve Train with Two Synchronously Rotating Cam Disks

2021-04-06
2021-01-0684
New engine concepts such as Miller, HCCI or highly diluted combustion offer great potential for further optimization of ICEs in terms of fuel economy and pollutant emissions. However, the development of such concepts requires a high degree of variability in the control of gas exchange, characterized by variability in valve spread, maximum valve lift and - ideally independent of these two variables - in valve opening time. In current series variable valvetrains, valve lift and opening duration are usually directly dependent one from the other. In the ideal case, however, engine concepts such as Miller require a fully flexible variation of the closing time of the intake valve while still maintaining the same intake opening time. Here, a methodology for the geometric layout of fully variable valve trains with significantly extended functionalities is presented. In this concept, the control of the valve opening and closing events is distributed to two synchronously rotating cam disks.
Technical Paper

The Breaking Torsion Test and Quasi-Static Finite Element Simulations of the Rzeppa Type Constant Velocity Joint under a Large Joint Angle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0706
The breaking torque is an essential property that identifies the strength of driveshafts under high torque loads. In the breaking torsion test, the constant velocity joint of the driveshafts is usually loaded slowly at a very slow rotating speed under a specific joint angle until it breaks. Under different joint angles, the Rzeppa type constant velocity joint, namely ball joints (BJ), will break at different positions and with different torques. Common results of fracture position include the shaft of the outer race, the shell of the outer race, and the cage column. Simultaneously, the plastic deformation caused by compressive stress occurs at the specific position of the ball track and the cage. In order to analyze the failure reason of the ball joint under a larger joint angle, the quasi-static finite element simulations and test methods are used to analyze the damage caused by stress distribution based on material properties.
Technical Paper

Research on Manual Transmission Rattle Noise Experiment Technique

2021-04-06
2021-01-0702
Gear rattle noise is one of the important characteristics of manual and dual-clutch transmission,it is generated by the impact of unloaded meshing gear pairs in the transmission due to engine torsional vibration. Based on a front-drive manual transmission and a five dynos drivetrain NVH test bench with high-speed sine wave generator function, this paper designs an experimental program suitable for transmission rattle noise. By driving dynamometer to simulate the torque fluctuation of real engine, the main research is to study the characteristics of the transmission rattle noise under different excitation amplitudes and different excitation frequencies, and the sensitivity of rattle noise under different gears, different oil temperatures, different excitation amplitudes and excitation frequencies is analyzed. Finally, the transmission maps of rattle noise in different gears can be obtained.
Technical Paper

Mixture Model Approach for the Study of the Inner Flow Dynamics of an AdBlue Dosing System and the Characterization of the Near-Field Spray

2021-04-06
2021-01-0548
Selective Catalytic Reduction stands for an effective methodology for the reduction of NOx emissions from Diesel engines and meeting current and future EURO standards. For it, the injection of Urea Water Solution (UWS) plays a major role in the process of reducing the NOx emissions. A LES approach for turbulence modelling allows to have a description of the physics which is a very useful tool in situations where experiments cannot be performed. The main objective of this study is to predict characteristics of the flow of interest inside the injector as well as spray morphology in the near field of the spray. For it, the nozzle geometry has been reconstructed from X-Ray tomography data, and an Eulerian-Eulerian approach commonly known as Mixture Model has been applied to study the liquid phase of the UWS with a LES approach for turbulence modeling. The injector unit is subjected to typical low-pressure working conditions.
Technical Paper

Study on Fuel-Saving Durability of Ultra-Low Viscosity 0W-8 Gasoline Engine Oil

2021-04-06
2021-01-0566
The JASO GLV-1 standard was introduced in Japan for 0W-8 ultra-low viscosity gasoline engine oil to improve fuel economy. Fuel economy targets are specified for new oil but not for aged oil. In contrast, Sequence VI in the ILSAC GF-6 standard requires fuel economy improvement for both new and aged oils. This test simulates fuel economy improvement after 6400 km (FEI 1) and 16000 km (FEI 2) of driving based on US fuel economy certification testing. Currently, 0W-8 is not included in the ILSAC standard and the fuel-saving durability of 0W-8 has not been investigated. To include ultra-low viscosity oil like 0W-8 in future engine oil standards, it is necessary to know its fuel-saving durability and to examine the evaluation test method. This study focused on the fuel-saving durability of 0W-8 with or without the Mo friction modifier and considered the evaluation method.
Technical Paper

Oil Consumption Pathway Impact on SCR-on-Filter Functional Performance and Lubricant Derived Ash Characteristics

2021-04-06
2021-01-0578
SCR-on-filter, or SCRoF, is an emerging technology for different market segments and vehicle applications. The technology enables simultaneous particulate matter trapping and NOX reduction, and provides thermal management and aftertreatment packaging benefits. However, there is little information detailing the lubricant derived exposure effects on functional SCR performance. A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of various oil consumption pathways on a light duty DOC and SCRoF aftertreatment system. This aftertreatment system was aged utilizing an engine test bench modified to enable increased oil consumption rates via three unique oil consumption pathways. The components were characterized for functional SCR performance, ash morphology, and ash deposition characteristics. This included utilizing techniques, such as SEM / EDS, to evaluate the ash structures and quantify the ash elemental composition.
Technical Paper

Investigation of High Internal Residual Gas Rates in Rich Operating Mode for Diesel Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

2021-04-06
2021-01-0592
For the regeneration of the Lean NOx Trap (LNT) a rich air-to-fuel ratio must be generated. This operation is very critical and has low combustion stability, especially in low load operation. A certain minimum engine load is always required for the regeneration phase. In the Real Driving Emissions this minimum engine load can be undercut over a long period of time. Hence, a reliable regeneration phase is not possible. The aim of these investigations is to extend the engine map range in which regeneration is possible towards lower loads. This is done by means of a variable valve train with second exhaust valve lift, which increases the internal residual gas amount. This in turns increases the temperature at start of combustion in the cylinder. Especially at low load and low combustion stability this leads to a stabilization of the combustion process. This advantage in combustion stability can be used for a reduction of the minimum engine load.
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