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Engineering Project Management

2021-11-02
Project Management and Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) are two critical techniques used in product development in the mobility industry today. This seminar will bring these techniques together in an easy to understand format that goes beyond the typical concept of constructing timelines and project planning, by exploring not only the Automotive APQP process, but also key aspects of PM processes. Students will gain a solid foundation in the principles and application of Project Management and APQP.  
Technical Paper

Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor [FlexPLI] - Examination for its Repeatability & Reproducibility

2021-09-22
2021-26-0011
Recently, the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor (or Flex-PLI) – an advancement over the existing EEVC legform – was included in the Global Technical Regulation for Pedestrian Safety viz. GTR-9. The legform tool undergoes impact testing with vehicle at 40kmph in order to evaluate the frontal structure of vehicle for Pedestrian Safety. Being more biofidelic design over the old EEVC legform, Flex-PLI is more flexible and sensitive towards different vehicle designs, shapes and inner bumper structure. This flexibility and sensitiveness of its design also calls for examining the Manufactured FlexPLI for its efficacy under impact testing in terms of its Durability, Repeatability and Reproducibility. This study aims at validating the performance of the test device by building a platform for computing the variations in test results. In this study, Three key aspects are identified to measure the performance of this device – Durability, Repeatability, and Reproducibility.
Technical Paper

Enhanced eCall and Crash Severity Estimation for Two Wheelers

2021-09-22
2021-26-0024
In 2017, 16 citizens were killed and 53 were injured every hour on Indian roads as per officially reported data, while a fair number go unreported. With more than 30% of road accident deaths attributed to motorcyclists, there is an unrelenting need for automotive solutions that can minimize traffic fatalities and improve the road safety scenario in the country. The correlation between collision notification, emergency response and accident severity can be driven from the data which indicates that over the last two decades, while the total number of accidents and injuries show a small dip, fatalities have increased sharply. As the automotive industry focuses to develop technologies that prevent accidents and reduce impact, it also stresses the significance of emergency response solutions that improves the response time and reduces casualties.
Technical Paper

Side Pole crash –Developing objective targets

2021-09-22
2021-26-0002
Side pole impact is one of the stringent load case for vehicle structural development. Due to its localized nature of loading, concentrated localized deformations are experienced on the vehicle structure. Developing the vehicle structure for structural integrity and occupant injuries with such local deformation is always a challenge. The vehicle structural development is done based on the cascaded structural level targets, these targets are generally set based on benchmarking studies and experience from previous projects. The structural targets setting based on benchmarking will not be always effective as the occupant injury performance depends on many vehicle specific aspects such as occupant package, occupant position with respect to B-pillar, interior packaging and local component stiffness etc. To set the structural targets, CAE based study is carried out for side pole impact to evaluate the effect of different parameters affecting occupant injury performance.
Technical Paper

IP Analysis and Landscape for Emerging Automotive Power-Train Technologies

2021-09-22
2021-26-0044
The automotive industry is seeing significant growth in research and technology development across small, medium and heavy class of vehicles. The power train technology in specific is evolving at rapid rate and experiencing disruptions to respond to stringent emission norms, safety standards, growing energy infrastructure and new benchmarks for product performance. The emergence of new technologies is creating new players and start-ups in the industry. This is leading to corresponding increase in filing intellectual property and patents across the global players to gain competitive advantage. In the current paper, several state-of-the-art research papers, granted patents and live patent applications are analyzed across domains to provide total picture of power train technology landscape.
Technical Paper

Lessons learnt from L1 Functional And Operational Safety For Tier 1 ADAS Suppliers

2021-09-22
2021-26-0029
ADAS systems in today’s world is a combination of complex electronic systems and human interaction. These complexities in ADAS systems mandates automotive industry to consider safety from point of view of E/E failures and also from operational point of view. Tier 1 supplier in the automotive industry are contributors in the advancements of ADAS systems. Hence Tier 1 suppliers sometimes work closely with OEM’s in piloting new ADAS features which can help create a safe driving experience. Tier 1 supplier also sometimes work independently on developing new ADAS features based on their experience, market conditions and regulations. Hence Tier 1 suppliers are required in variably to perform activities of functional and operational safety to understand the safety aspects of the new ADAS functions, derive new safety measures for these new ADAS functions.
Technical Paper

Design of a Vacuum Independent, Power Assisted Brake by Wire System using a Novel Electro-Magnetic Brake Booster

2021-09-22
2021-26-0031
With an increasing demand in the market towards electrical vehicles through technological advancements in the automotive field like, automated driving assistance that which have resulted in higher safety requirements and new solutions mainly in the brake system such as the vacuum-independent, automatic braking and regenerative braking, which plays a key role for the vehicle’s comfort and economy. However, the traditional vacuum brake booster is no longer able to meet these requirements. In this paper, a novel Electro-Magnetic brake booster system is proposed, this system is designed to achieve the function of boosting or multiplying the pedal force of driver being independent on the vacuum source. Such an Electro-magnetic brake booster is mainly composed of an Electro-magnetic core plate, a ferromagnetic actuating plate and an ECU.
Technical Paper

Challenges and opportunities of ADAS in India: Road Ahead

2021-09-22
2021-26-0041
ADAS provides comfort and safety solutions for the vehicles. These features mainly are evolved for passenger vehicles. Few of these features such as ABS and Park Assist are common and as government restrictions are being removed on the RADAR frequency there is an opportunity to introduce the popular features of ADAS such as ACC, FCW, BSD etc. ADAS is helpful in reducing road accidents and as per data in 2018 compared to 2017 the number of accidents increased to 0.46% whereas number of people killed in the same year increased to 2.37 %. The problem statement of the current study is to provide the required ADAS features to reduce road accidents by vehicles. The objective of the study is to identify the challenges and opportunities of ADAS features in India and provide feasible solution to the problems. Methodology: the current study is based on extensive literature review and secondary data of the sales of the car from any two manufacturing companies.
Technical Paper

Model-Based System Engineering Approach for Steering Feel Simulation for Passenger Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0400
The basic function of steering system is to control the direction of the vehicle. The driver applies effort on the steering wheel and receives feedback through the steering system as a result of tire to road interaction. This feedback consists of a haptic (force) feedback which is directly felt by the driver and it is termed as steering feel. Precise steering feel gives better driving experience and is decisive factor for customer to buy a vehicle as well as for OEMs in building brand image. Along with steering parameters, suspension and tire parameters also has significant impact on steering feel. In past, modelling of the steering system was done at component level or with simplified vehicle system. Such approaches had not given accurate results of steering feel metric and resulted in incorrect steering design parameter selection. In order to replicate actual vehicle characteristics, complex and detailed modelling of steering, tire and suspension subsystems is necessary.
Technical Paper

BEST PRACTICES TO IMPROVE TESTING EFFICIENCY DURING BRAKE ASSIST SYSTEM EVALUATION

2021-09-22
2021-26-0464
Brake Assist is a mechanically or electronically function which supplies braking force when panic braking is recognized. It is effective for drivers who cannot apply enough effort during an emergency situation. In the initial stages of braking, the electronic Brake-Assist system [BAS] automatically builds up brake pressure, thereby considerably reducing the vehicles stopping distance, thus making the road safer. Based on the force and speed of brake application, the BAS examines the situation. It is important to establish the right trigger point to differentiate an emergency situation from a normal one. This study explains the vehicle instrumentation techniques and best practices be carrying out in a braking maneuvers during BAS development & evaluation. By doing so, Test Engineer can perform the BAS development in a safer environment. Thus by improving testing efficiency and reducing development lead time.
Technical Paper

Coastdown Road Load Coefficients of Passenger Vehicles – Variation Analysis and its Correlation with Temperature

2021-09-22
2021-26-0487
Road Load parameters (rolling resistance & aerodynamic drag) of a vehicle have strong impact on overall Vehicle Emissions & Fuel Economy. The road load coefficients are simulated on chassis dynamometer to carryout emission & fuel economy measurement and are hence required to be found beforehand. A realistic measure of road load parameters can be obtained by conducting a coastdown test. Coastdown test results are hugely impacted by various environmental parameters like ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed etc. Though performed in standard boundary conditions, results of multiple tests performed on a vehicle vary from one another due to variations in the mentioned environmental parameters over & above standard test to test variation. This paper aims at studying the variation in test results due to ambient temperature as one of the parameters responsible.
Technical Paper

Frictional Power Loss Distribution of Automotive Axles- Experimental Evaluation and Analysis

2021-09-22
2021-26-0483
With more stringent emission and Co2 norms (e.g. CAFÉ, RDE), it has become extremely important for all OEMs to push their boundary and make vehicle & powertrain more and more efficient. Frictional power loss of automotive axles is major source of losses which reduce the vehicle fuel economy and increase Co2 emissions. To make axles with low frictional power loss consumption, it is first important to understand the distribution of the frictional power i.e. where the energy goes and how it is distributed in the subcomponents of axles. This paper presents the main area of frictional power loss distribution inside an automotive axle of passenger car. For experimental evaluation one frictional torque measurement test rig was prepared and axle power loss was measured by stripping down one by one component to understand the distribution of frictional losses.
Technical Paper

Development of a Rapid Vehicle Steering Cooling System Using Thermoelectrics

2021-09-22
2021-26-0517
This technical report studies the development of a thermoelectric cooler based steering cooling system. Automotive vehicles are subjected to varied climatic conditions based on location and season. The Indian sub-continent withstands severe heat during summer, a vehicle parked in sun on a summer afternoon experiences greenhouse heating and its internals heat up. The part of heated car cabin which creates discomfort include seat, steering, gear knob and other touch points. Thermoelectrics have found wider acceptance amongst automotive industry and many articles have been published investigating implementation of thermoelectrics in automotive system. The paper deals with ‘different 3D concepts’, ‘transient formulation of a 1D mathematical model in’ and ‘a prototype tested with the predefined boundary conditions of the 1D model in transient’.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity of LCA bush stiffness in judder while braking for twist blade type suspension in passenger cars

2021-09-22
2021-26-0513
This paper deals with specific NVH related issues attributed due to LCA bush stiffness and Brake rotor DTV. While the focus is on the cause of such vibration (judder while braking at 120 kmph), the presentation goes to the root-cause of judder and how various suspension/tire/brake components contribute to the generation/amplification of such vibration. Results are presented for twist blade types of vehicle suspensions, along with procedures that were developed specifically for this study and some of the actual case study. DTV-Disk thickness variation
Technical Paper

DOMAIN CENTRIC ARCHITECTURE FOR MANAGING COMPLEXITY ARISING OUT OF ELECTRIFICATION

2021-09-22
2021-26-0508
Rapid growth trend in electrification has stepped up the experimentation in system development and integration but bounded by time due to reduced time to market. The biggest challenge with increase in vehicle variants is system integration which in turn results in multitude of controllers each performing independent function. As electrification is an evolving field with emerging concepts, there arises at least two needs to be addressed. Firstly, an architecture that is robust as well as adaptable to changes. Secondly, empowering the OEM or suppliers to develop and integrate their unique concepts and innovative ideas. As the functionalities are distributed across all the ECU’s in the current architecture it is difficult to support continuous improvements keeping lesser time to market. Any of the improvements can lead to change in the software of different ECU’s on which the functionality is distributed.
Technical Paper

EVALUATION OF PROTECTED BOOT MECHANISM IN AUTOMOTIVE DOMAIN

2021-09-22
2021-26-0506
In the recent years the electronics and software in the car has been increased with the request of new features. Todays vehicles are vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to their connectivity with internet and infrastructure. Due to this security in the automotive domain has gained importance. Earlier the software updates were done at the service station and probability of tampering the software was less. As the vehicles are connected through internet, the car manufacturers are shifting towards over the air updates (OTA). It should be ensured that only authentic software is executed on the micro controller. Protected boot is a security control used to ensure authentic software is executed on the microcontroller. Protected boot is a mechanism in which authenticity and integrity of the software is checked during the booting phase by using the chain of Trust mechanism. Protected boot can be achieved by using authenticated boot or secure boot mechanism.
Technical Paper

Computational analysis of automotive paint baking process

2021-09-22
2021-26-0368
Computational prediction of vehicle temperatures in an automotive paint oven is essential to predict paint quality and manufacturability. Conducting physical tests to determine the level of curing on vehicle components is non-predictive, costly and time consuming. The purpose of this computational analysis is to demonstrate the use of a rapid math based virtual paint simulation technique to simulate the drying process of painted body in paint ovens inside automotive paint shop. The information generated from the simulation study can be used for determining the curing status of the paint & adhesives on different parts of the body. It can also be used to understand the integrity of adhesive & sealer contacts in the oven bake process.
Technical Paper

Towards establishing Continuous-X pipeline using modular Software-in-the-Loop test environments

2021-09-22
2021-26-0412
Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) test environments are the ideal virtual platforms for enabling continuous-development, integration, testing or delivery (Continuous-X) in the current automotive industry to enable faster time to market. This is especially contributed by several factors such as the industry wide standardization of the artifacts (such as types of virtual ECUs), interfaces (e.g. FMI/FMU, OSI) as well as the architecture definitions. This approach is prominently advocated as well as already adopted by various Automotive OEMs, increasing the demand for innovating applicable methods. However the prominent usage of the existing monolithic architecture for interaction of various elements in the SiL environment, without regarding the separation between functional and non-functional test scope, is reducing the usability and thus limiting significantly the cost saving potential of SiL for continuous-x use cases in the industry.
Technical Paper

Android Automotive testing Solution

2021-09-22
2021-26-0454
In current automotive industry OEMs and suppliers are facing the ever-increased challenge to provide in-vehicle infotainment features that are exciting to their customers. Hence android devices are becoming exceptionally adopted because of its enhanced customer experience with mobility and connectivity, Increased customization, openness and scalability. With android automotive, car makers can create powerful infotainment systems designed for the digital age. This paper deals with the various testing solutions for Android infotainment System. It covers functional and non-functional testing solution and tools for an android RSE (Rear Seat Entertainment) system manually and with automation. Automation includes the use of Generic Test Automation Framework with the help of automated test failure log analyzer and integration of car simulation. In the fast-moving era, there is always a need of faster delivery and feedback with better quality.
Technical Paper

A New Catalyst Technology to overcome Diffusion and Transport Limitations

2021-09-22
2021-26-0210
The purification efficiency of exhaust gas catalysts depends on several factors. One of the most important factors is the diffusivity of the exhaust gases in the catalytic coating layer, especially at moderate to high temperature and space velocity conditions. Porous silica, γ-alumina, zirconia, carbons and many other porous crystalline materials that are commonly used as catalysts and catalyst supports are traversed by a labyrinth of tortuous micro and mesopores. If the connectivity is very low, the labyrinth of pores becomes more difficult to penetrate, increasing the overall “tortuosity” and slowing down the transportation of gas molecules within catalyst layers. A new approach to overcome these diffusion and transport limitations in an exhaust gas catalyst is to create an interconnected network of mesopores and macropores via increase in void fractions within the washcoat components and layers.
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