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Vehicle Crash Reconstruction Principles and Technology

2021-06-15
Crash reconstruction is a scientific process that utilizes principles of physics and empirical data to analyze the physical, electronic, video, audio, and testimonial evidence from a crash to determine how and why the crash occurred. This course will introduce this reconstruction process as it gets applied to various crash types - in-line and intersection collisions, pedestrian collisions, motorcycle crashes, rollover crashes, and heavy truck crashes. Methods of evidence documentation will be covered. Analysis methods will also be presented for electronic data from event data recorders and for video.
Technical Paper

Methods to Increase the Relevancy of the Octane Number Tests

2021-04-06
2021-01-0471
The Octane Number test was unveiled in 1928 with a lukewarm response from the oil and automotive industries. The test represented a noble attempt for capturing the antiknock performance of a fuel given the limited knowledge of knock at the time. The test compares the antiknock performance of a fuel in a test engine to a reference fuel. Though simplistic, the test is ingrained in society and has undergone only minor revision despite dramatic changes in engines and fuels. Many studies have discussed the inadequacies of the test, with recent ones questioning their relevancy. This paper provides an overview of these issues, focusing on how to make the tests relevant to modern engines and fuels. Three techniques are recommended for updating the tests. The first technique adjusts the definition for the antiknock index, which is the “Octane Number” displayed on the fuel pump.
Technical Paper

Research on performance of air-assisted injector and its application on a spark ignition UAV engine

2021-04-06
2021-01-0651
The principal objective of the present work is to investigate the fundamental characteristics of a commercially available outwardly opening air-assisted injector, which utilizes pneumatic atomization method to attain the pulse-type injection of fuel-air mixture. The electromagnetic characteristics of the air injector were simulated and the effects of dominating parameters on the electromagnetic force of the injector were ascertained. On that basis, this paper elaborates on the fundamental characteristics of air-assisted spray using gasoline and kerosene with two types of laser diagnostic techniques. The spray morphological evolution under varied fuel injection durations and ambient pressures were recorded with high-speed shadowgraph and the corresponding external macroscopic characteristics were obtained and further compared. Spray droplet microscopic characteristics at fixed location were measured by using PDPA (Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer).
Technical Paper

xEV Propulsion System Control - Overview and Current Trends

2021-04-06
2021-01-0781
Propulsion system control algorithms covering functional needs of xEV propulsion ('x' donates P1-P4 configurations) system is presented in this paper. The scope and foundation are based on generic well established HEV controller architectures. However, unlike conventional HEV powertrains, next generation of integrated electric propulsion configurations there is a single ECU that supports multiple control functions of motor-inverter, actuators, solenoid, coolant pump etc. This presents a unique challenge to architect control algorithms in AUTOSAR framework with the addition of motor/generator-inverter (MGi) hardware driving complex timing requirements, increased API definitions between software components to realize high level of functional integration between propulsion system and its sub systems.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Vehicle Control: An Analytical Model Concept for Quantifying the Level of Trust

2021-04-06
2021-01-0860
Fully autonomous vehicles (i.e., self-driving cars) are projected to play a major role in the future of ground transportation. There is a growing interest in the related research from participants such as policy makers, governors, and engineers. Full autonomy in a vehicle, by definition, means there is no human driver in the vehicle. This reform will change the interactions of passengers with the vehicle. The level of trust of the passengers should be investigated in regard to the acceptance of the upcoming technology. To that end, the reliability of the fully autonomous vehicles in terms of passengers’ level of trust should be addressed. Trust is a highly subjective phenomenon because it is governed by human perception and is difficult to be quantified by explicit and analytical models. In this study, a novel and analytical model for the level of trust which is based on vehicle dynamics and human vestibular system is presented.
Technical Paper

3beLiEVe: towards delivering the next generation of LMNO Li-ion battery cells and packs fit for electric vehicle applications of 2025 and beyond

2021-04-06
2021-01-0768
This paper aims at providing the scientific community with an overview of the H2020 European project 3beLiEVe and of its early achievements. 3beLiEVe has the objective of delivering the next generation Lithium-Nickel-Manganese-Oxide (LNMO) cells, in line with the performance objectives of the “generation 3b” Li-ion battery cells, as per EU SET-plan Action 7.
Technical Paper

Study on Selective Electroplating for Pattern/Lighting on Plastic

2021-04-06
2021-01-0367
For making metal touch feeling and lighting simultaneously, selective electroplating is widely applied in button, panel and etc. in interior/exterior parts of automotive. In this paper, new selective electroplating with printing are suggested an alternative manufacturing process of two shot molding, PC (Polycarbonate) and ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene). Manufacturing process of selective electroplating is as follows: letter and symbol are printed with masking ink for preventing electroplating by pad printing on plastic part with PC+ABS and then pass through plating line. After electroplating process, the part has electroplated metal layer except for the printed area. As main resin of ink for preventing electroplating is transparent PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), printed area does not react with chemicals of etching and electroless plating, so the metal layer by electroplating is not formed. And new PC+ABS is developed for reducing the yellowness and increasing light transmission.
Technical Paper

Review and Comparison of Different Multi-channel Spatial-phase Shift Algorithms of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

2021-04-06
2021-01-0304
Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) is one of most sensitive and accurate methods for 3D deformation measurement in micro and sub micro-level. ESPI measures deformation by evaluating the phase difference of two recorded speckle interferograms under different loading conditions. By a spatial phase shift technique, ESPI enables a phase measurement with a single image (multi images are usually required in the temporal phase shift technique) and, thus, it allows for the rapid, accurate and continuous 3D deformation measurement. Multi-channel and carrier frequency are the two main methods of spatial phase shift. Compared with carrier frequency method, which is subject to the problem of spectrum aliasing, multi-channel method is more flexible in use. For extracting the phase value of speckles, three-step algorithm, four-step algorithm and five-step arbitrary phase algorithm are commonly used.
Technical Paper

Leading edge Requirements Engineering for the Automotive industry (with the use of JAMA)

2021-04-06
2021-01-0137
There have been many publications about requirements management, and still organizations are struggling to show 100% coverage and traceability in a lean way. It does not start with CMMI nor SPICE. It does not end with tools like DOORs, Polarion, Codebeamer or JAMA. It does depend on the right setup and how it feels in the everyday life of an engineer. This paper defines and explains what it takes to establish leading edge requirements engineering for the automotive industry. It describes how work day integration of requirements engineering and management can be achieved. The different roles in engineering are addressed with their unique needs and how are requirements engineering system need to support them and not the system need to be supported by engineers. One 120% RQM data model is shown and explained.
Technical Paper

Functional Safety & Safety Critical Systems - An Overview

2021-04-06
2021-01-0157
Advances in technology have continued to drive increased automation, and with it the capability and necessity to respond to adverse conditions in a controlled manner. As the automotive industry implements capabilities such as autopilot, adaptive cruise control, lane-keep assist, etc., with the ultimate goal of achieving fully autonomous vehicles, functional safety becomes increasingly relevant. One of the main aspects of functional safety is identifying risks and hazards associated with these different capabilities and implementing corresponding safety functions in these systems. Hazards may occur as a result of hardware or software failures, environmental conditions, or driver error. Modern vehicles are expected to accurately detect and diagnose these problems and quickly deploy an appropriate reaction that minimizes the risk to human life.
Technical Paper

Multi-modal Neural Feature Fusion for Pose Estimation and Scene Perception of Intelligent Vehicle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0188
The main challenge for future autonomous vehicles is to identify their location and body pose in real time during driving, that is, "where am I? and how will I go? ". We address the problems of pose estimation and scene perception from continuous visual frames in intelligent vehicle. Recent advanced technology in the domain of deep learning proposes to train some learning models for vehicle’s series detection tasks in a supervised or unsupervised manner, which has numerous advances over traditional approaches, mainly reflected in the absence of manual calibration and synchronization of the camera and IMU. In the paper, we propose a novel approach for pose estimation and scene recognition with a deep fusion of multi-modal neural features in the manner of unsupervised. Firstly, low-cost camera and IMU are used to extract original visual and inertial data, then the visual and inertial encoders are utilized to encoder the feature of the two modes.
Technical Paper

Impact of fog particles on 1.55 μm automotive LiDAR sensor performance: an experimental study in an enclosed chamber

2021-04-06
2021-01-0081
To achieve full automation in self-driving vehicles, environmental perception sensing accuracy is critically important. However, ambient particles in adverse weather like foggy, rainy, or snowy conditions can significantly scatter the incident laser beam, and therefore contaminate the intensity and accuracy of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors. Especially compared to the rapidity of technology development in self-driving vehicles, there is a significant lack of documented research on LiDAR systems with wavelength longer than 1 μm for application in Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems. In this work, experimental studies were performed with a state-of-the-art 1.55 μm wavelength automotive-grade LiDAR system in a controlled laboratory fog chamber. The goal of the research is to correlate laser attenuation and the optical properties of fog particles.
Technical Paper

A Review of Toxicity analysis of particulate emissions from conventional and advanced low-temperature combustion engines

2021-04-06
2021-01-0617
Automotive engines produce pollutant species which has the potential to damage human health as well as the environment. The toxicity potential of these species depends on the concentration, route, and time of exposure. Toxicity studies are required in the current scenario due to increase in pollution level by vehicles used for transportation.The presented study is a review focused on the toxicity analysis of particulate, elemental and organic carbon emission from the internal combustion engine with conventional and alternative fuels like biodiesel and alcohols. The study is focused on the formation, characterization and quantification of particulate matter, elemental and organic carbon, and their effect on human health. The other part of the study is focused on mutagenicity (mutation in DNA), Cytotoxicity (cell toxicity), ecotoxicity (plant and ambient toxicity) analysis of the particulate emitted from the engines.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Impact Analysis of Side Swipe and Minor Overlap Conditions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0881
This paper presents analyses of 21 real-world pedestrian versus vehicle collisions that were video recorded from vehicle dash mounted cameras or surveillance footage. These pedestrian collisions have in common an impact configuration where the pedestrian is at the side of the vehicle, or with a minimal overlap at the front corner of the vehicle (less than 1-foot overlap). These impacts would not be considered frontal impacts [Ravani, 1981], and as a result determining the speed of the vehicle by existing methods that incorporate the pedestrian travel distance post impact, or by assessing vehicle damage, would not be applicable. This research examines the specific interaction of non-frontal, side-impact, and minimal overlap pedestrian impact configurations to assess the relationship between the speed of the vehicle at impact, the motion of the pedestrian before and after impact and the associated post impact travel distances.
Technical Paper

E-mobility – opportunities and challenges of integrated corner solutions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0984
E-mobility is a game changer for the automotive domain. It promises significant reduction in terms of complexity and in terms of local emissions. With falling prices and recent technological advances, the second generation of electric vehicles (EVs) that is now in production makes electromobility an affordable and viable option for more and more transport mission (people, freight). Current e-vehicle platforms still present architectural similarities with respect to combustion engine vehicle (e.g., centralized motor). Target of the European project EVC1000 is to introduce corner solutions with in-wheel motors supported by electrified chassis components (brake-by-wire, active suspension) and advanced control strategies for full potential exploitation. Especially, it is expected that this solution will provide more architectural freedom toward “design-forpurpose” vehicles built for dedicated usage models [2], further providing higher performances.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid method for Automotive Entity Recognition

2021-04-06
2021-01-0179
Over the past decades, automotive industry has made substantial investments in automation solutions, electric and autonomous vehicles and advanced product technologies for enhancing vehicular communication and so on. The rise of industry 4.0 brings out a revolutionary transformation in the automotive industry with low-cost computing, high-speed connectivity, and machine learning that have enabled the digitization of the physical world, transforming insights into optimized actions. These technologies have an important role in the growth and future of automotive domain. Hence it is relevant and important to get insight of different OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturer) at different geographical locations and their focusing technologies adapted currently and in the nearby future. In this paper, we are implementing a hybrid method for entity recognition, which is a combination of both rule-based and machine learning based entity recognition techniques.
Technical Paper

A Study on Functional Safety, SOTIF and RSS from the Perspective of Human-Automation Interaction

2021-04-06
2021-01-0858
As perhaps the primary conduit of the physical expression of human freedom of movement, transportation in its various forms plays a critical role in human society. The availability of ready transport has shaped the fabric, infrastructure, and, to some degree, even the culture of whole human society. Now, automated driving technology is promising a safe, efficient, and productive life to humans by relieving human driver from active driving tasks in the context of road transportation system. However, recent high-profile crashes, e.g. fatalities involving automated driving system like Uber test autonomous vehicle or Tesla car, have undermined the automated-driving promise of enhanced safety. Still, safety standards like ISO 26262 and several others in-development are expected to mitigate the risk resulting from automated driving technology.
Technical Paper

Development and Characterization of aerosol conditioning devices for Solid Ultrafine Particle Measurement from Diesel Engines: A Review

2021-04-06
2021-01-0615
Emission regulations mandate the measurement of solid particles of size greater than 23 nm according to particle measurement protocol (PMP). The analysis of solid particles from diesel engines requires the use of aerosol conditioning systems which can remove effectively volatile particles/species with minimum solid particles losses. Two types of aerosol conditioning devices (thermodenuder and catalytic stripper) are used for the measurement of solid ultrafine particles emitted from the diesel engine. This paper reviews the recent literature related to design and operating characteristics (temperature profile, particle losses, penetration efficiency) of the thermodenuder and catalytic striper. The origin of various particle losses such as due diffusion, thermophoresis, sedimentation in these devices is discussed. Further theoretical calculation using the empirical equation of these particle losses is also described.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle GPS and Derived Speed Data from BMW NBT Evo Systems Acquired with Berla iVe

2021-04-06
2021-01-0906
Many late-model BMW vehicles are equipped with an NBT Evo infotainment system. This system is seen in BMW vehicles in all global markets. Like infotainment systems from other manufacturers, this system records data elements that can prove to be key evidence to investigators of vehicular incidents. This system records timestamped tracklogs that consist of GPS coordinates paired with date/time data. These tracklog points, however, are not recorded in regular intervals. Testing of an instrumented BMW 430i was conducted in and around the Bruntingthorpe Proving Grounds in the United Kingdom. The test vehicle was instrumented with a Racelogic Video VBOX Pro. Data from the instrumentation was compared to the data acquired from the BMW by the iVe Ecosystem from Berla Corporation. The accuracy of the GPS coordinates recorded in the BMW tracklogs was determined by computing the distance between the recorded BMW data and the reference instrumentation data.
Technical Paper

Real-time simultaneous measurement for dual-directional first derivative of 3D deformation based on shearography

2021-04-06
2021-01-0305
Shearography is widely used in nondestructive testing because it has the advantages of full-field, robust, non-contact and high sensitivity. However, conventional shearography can only measure the first derivative of deformation in a single direction; multiple tests need to be done to obtain the first derivative of 3D deformation in different shearing directions. This paper presents a novel shearography system that simultaneously measures the first derivative of 3D deformation in two orthogonal shearing directions, one is in the x direction and the other is in the y direction. This system achieves dual-directional shearography by a modified Michelson interferometer. The object surface is illuminated by three different wavelengths of laser in different directions and a 3CCD color camera is used to record images. Different color shearograms recorded by 3CCD color camera were extracted respectively through channel separation, and cross talk does not exist.
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