Using tolerance stacks ensures that parts fit together properly, reducing scrap and rework, thereby increasing value. This 2-day foundational-level course explains how to use tolerance stacks to analyze product designs and how to use geometric tolerances in stacks. You’ll learn the essential methods used for creating 1D part and assembly tolerance stacks, including these six critical concepts: 1. The importance of stacks 2. The two-column stack method using the SAE stack spreadsheet 3. Determining a stack path 4. Creating 1D part and assembly stacks 5. Interpreting GD&T 6.
Automotive millimeter-wave radar is used extensively in vehicle active safety. The Radar Cross Section (RCS) is one of the main parameters used by the automotive radar system to detect and identify surrounding vehicles. The RCS describes the electromagnetic scattering properties of objects. This paper describes a method and equipment to measure the RCS. An automobile-grade radar is used to measure the RCS of typical vehicles. A representative distance between the radar and the vehicle was chosen based on the analysis of the RCS of passenger vehicles in different distances in the near field. A cost-effective rotating platform was developed to rotate the passenger vehicles for RCS measurement in different azimuth angles. The RCS generated by the rotating platform was analyzed and mitigated. The measurement system can record the synchronized azimuth angle and RCS measurement.
Mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems used in passenger cars and light duty trucks are covered by these SAE Standards when servicing the refrigerant system. Technician training is required to ensure that recommended procedures are used for service and repair of MAC systems using R-12, R-134a, R-1234yf, R-744, and R-152a refrigerants. Unique requirements for each refrigerant are detailed within this standard. Technicians may be trained in any or all refrigerants. The technician shall be trained to recognize which refrigerant is being handled and how to handle it safely, and be equipped with the essential information, proper equipment, and tools which are unique to these refrigerants. This standard outlines minimum content requirements for such training programs. Training programs designed in accordance with this standard are not intended to ensure or assess the technical skills of technicians regarding the diagnosis and repair of motor vehicle air conditioners.
This SAE Standard provides general and dimensional specifications for the most common hose fittings used in conjunction with hydraulic hoses specified in SAE J517 and utilized in hydraulic systems on mobile and stationary equipment. The general specifications contained in Sections 1 through 17 are applicable to all hydraulic hose fittings and supplement the detailed specifications for the 100R-series fittings contained in the later sections of this document. This document shall be utilized as a procurement document only to the extent agreed upon by the manufacturer and user. Refer to SAE J517 for specifications of hose and information on hose assemblies. SAE J1273 contains information on application factors affecting hose fittings, hose, and hose assemblies. The rated working pressure of a hose assembly comprising SAE J516 fittings and SAE J517 hoses shall not exceed the lower of the two working pressure rated values.
This standard covers un-shielded (JUTP) and shielded (STP) balanced single twisted pair jacketed data cable intended for use in surface vehicle cables for 1 Gb/s ethernet applications. The tests in this standard are intended to qualify cables for normal operation in an automotive environment while maintaining the necessary electrical properties for reliable data transmission.
CAST-32A strategy for MCP certification builds upon the key terms of robust resource partitioning, robust timing partitioning, and robust partitioning. In this work, we provide technical insight on the interpretation of these terms by building on derivative terms such as resource capacity, capacity allocation, and capacity verification and violation. We discuss on the scope of applicability of these terms from the low-level hardware components up to the complete MCP platform. We also dig into the complexities in implementing robust resource and time partitioning, and show that those concepts must be applied bottom-up from hardware-shared resources up to the whole platform. We also show that, while robust resource partitioning is the preferred choice, it can only be realistically applied to some resources and, in many cases, robust time partitioning is the only choice.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides a uniform procedure and performance requirements for evaluating fastening systems for normal highway use on aftermarket passenger cars and light trucks (except dual wheels, which are covered by SAE J1965) and multipurpose passenger vehicles. The fastening system includes the wheel, wheel bolts, and wheel nuts, as well as vehicle mating surface. The coefficients of friction for steel and aluminum mating surfaces are provided based on information available. Many factors must be considered in design and validation of wheel attachments for each specific vehicle. Where the procedure is used for original equipment applications the vehicle manufacturers specifications supersede those noted.
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as “3D printing,” has transitioned from concepts and prototypes to part-for-part substitution—and now to the creation of part geometries that can only be made using AM. As a wide range of mobility OEMs begin to introduce AM parts into their products, the question between insourcing and outsourcing the manufacturing of AM parts has surfaced. Just like parts made using other technologies, AM parts can require significant post-processing operations. Therefore, as AM supply chains begin to develop, the sourcing of AM part building and their post-processing becomes an unsettled and important issue. Unsettled Aspects of Insourcing and Outsourcing Additive Manufacturing discusses the approaches and trade-offs of the different sourcing options for production hardware for multiple scenarios, including both metallic and polymer technologies and components. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
This paper is devoted to the methods of increasing wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and service life of parts and assemblies of vehicles during their strengthening and renovation by the use of combined electric arc spraying (EAS) coatings. High density, adhesion, and microhardness of EAS coatings are provided by activation of the spraying process and subsequent nitriding of the sprayed coatings. This study is about the influence of technological parameters of the spraying process—composition, diameter and feed rate of sprayed wires, arc power, spray gas flow rate, spraying distance, speed of spraying spot movement, dispersion of spraying, etc.—on the qualitative characteristics of EAS coatings. The possibility of using pulsed ion nitriding (PIN) to improve the operational characteristics of EAS coatings made of wire materials is considered.
Passenger vehicles have made astounding technological leaps in recent years. Unfortunately, little of that progress has trickled down to other segments of the transportation industry leaving opportunities for massive gains in safety and performance. In particular, the electric drum brakes on most consumer trailers differ little from those on trailers over 70 years ago. Careful examination of current production passenger vehicle hardware and trailering provided the opportunity to produce a design and test vehicle for a plausible, practical, and performant trailer braking system for the future. This study equips the trailer with high control frequency antilock braking and dynamic torque distribution through use of passenger vehicle grade apply hardware.
Nowadays, inertia dynamometers or roller dynamometers are used for the development and testing of vehicle brakes. However, these testing methods are either entirely unable to simulate dynamical conditions, close to real driving maneuvers, or they can do so approximately only at very high costs. This means that brakes, braking systems and brake-related assistance systems such as the ESC system can ultimately only be tested in a full prototype of the car, or before that on hardware-in-the-loop test stands. In the case of the ESC, these test stands have to simulate the behavior of the brake and the surrounding vehicle in real time, then stimulate the interfaces of the ESC sensors accordingly, and finally evaluate the reaction of the ESC system in different situations. The problem here, however, is that the braking system can only be approximated by simulations.