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OnQue Digital Standards System - Standards

Now Available from SAE International, SAE OnQue is a revolutionary digital standards solution that optimizes the way automotive and aerospace engineers access standards.
Technical Paper

In-Depth Considerations for Electric Vehicle Braking Systems Operation with Steep Elevation Changes and Trailering

As the automotive industry prepares to roll out an unprecedented range of fully electric propulsion vehicle models over the next few years - it really brings to a head for folks responsible for brakes what used to be the subject of hypothetical musings and are now pivotal questions for system design. How do we really go about designing brakes for electric vehicles, in particular, for the well-known limit condition of descending a steep grade? What is really an “optimal’ design for brakes considering the imperatives for the entire vehicle? What are the real “limit conditions” for usage that drive the fundamental design? Are there really electric charging stations planned for or even already existing in high elevations that can affect regenerative brake capacity on the way down? What should be communicated to drivers (if anything) about driving habits for electric vehicles in routes with significant elevation change?
Technical Paper

Measurement of Particle Dynamics on the Real Vehicle in Different Driving Scenarios with Swarm Sensors

Due to the increase in public attention in the analysis of non-exhaust emission sources because of the growing electrification of vehicles, measurements have been performed in recent years to develop a consistent test standard. In particular, the consideration of tyre and brake abrasion took a predominant position due to the small particle sizes. With measurements under controlled and laboratory-like athmosphere, for example for brakes on dynamometers, attempts have been made to create a uniform test standard according to the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). However, a transfer to the real driving environment is not yet feasible because of many external disturbance variables, such as the wheel housing or atmospheric variables. Typical reference measurement sensors in the vehicle are only suitable to a limited extent for mobile operation due to their size and the necessary measurement infrastructure.
Technical Paper

Front Suspension Joint Integrity Analysis for Addressing Noise Issue Due to Torque Loss at Lower Control Arm Joint

The lower control arm (LCA) is a part of the front suspension system which is mounted on chassis with flexible rubber bushing through-bolted joint which allows the control arm to swing up and down, absorb road bumps and reduce noise and vibrations as front wheels roll over bump or potholes. In bolted joints, torque is applied so as the joint develops a certain preload that is higher than the external loads and losses acting on the joint. But the loss of preload is evident over time which causes quality problems, reworks, or even joint failures. While moving over speed breakers/obstacles abnormal squeak noise is observed in the vehicle due to torque loss in the LCA joint. The intent of this study is to determine preload requirements in LCA joint and various factors contributing to preload loss by performing joint integrity analysis in CAE. Road load data acquisition (RLDA) with Wheel Force Transducer (WFT) is performed for different testing tracks.

Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) Systems Engineering Process Guidance for SAE J2945/X Documents and Common Design Concepts™

This SAE Standard serves as the guidance document for the J2945/x family of standards as illustrated in Figure 7. It contains cross-cutting material which applies to the other J2945/x standards, including recommended practice for the use of Systems Engineering (SE) and generic DSRC interface requirements content. The scope for the DSRC system environment is to provide for the information exchange between a host vehicle and another DSRC enabled device, a device worn by or otherwise attached to a traveler, a roadside device, or a management center, to address safety, mobility, and environmental system needs. The audience for this document includes the technical teams of developers of the J2945/x documents and the implementers of the applications which are based on the J2945/x documents.
Technical Paper

Overview of Various Scratch Test Methods for High Gloss Polymer Materials

Polymers are substituting traditional materials, such as metals, in existing as well as new applications, both for structural and aesthetic applications as they are lightweight, customizable and are easy to mould into complex shapes. With such an extensive use of polymers, there is a need to carefully scrutinize their performance to ensure reliability. This is particularly the case in the automotive and electronic industries where the aesthetic appeal of their products is of prime concern and any visible scratch damage is undesirable. Concern for aesthetics has led to a need for the quantification of visibility due to scratch damage on polymeric surfaces Many painted plastic parts used in vehicles are being replaced with the molded-in color plastics for cost reduction and also due to environmental concerns associated with solvent emissions. There are multiple methods used for scratch evaluation of polymers and paints.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Multi Axis Suspension Test Rig from Reaction Type to Inertial Type

This paper highlights the transition of multi-axis suspension test rig from fixed reacted type to semi-inertial type and the benefits derived thereof in simulation accuracies. The critical influence of ‘Mx’ and ‘Mz’ controls on simulation accuracies has been highlighted. The vital role of ‘Mz’ control in the resonance of wheel pan along ‘Z’ axis and thereof arresting unwanted failures modes in spindle has been duly emphasized. Finally, the role of constraints and boundary conditions on simulation accuracies has been demonstrated by replacing the reaction frame with vehicle body.
Technical Paper

Hurdles and Solutions towards Improving the Charging Experience

Charging is a key challenge for electromobility that needs interconnected and seamlessly integrated solutions and technologies. The focus of this paper is on charging robustness, interoperability, fast charging and efficiency inside as well as outside of the vehicle. A comprehensive overview of the complexity of charging features and hurdles will be given including issues which are typically faced in developing, integrating and testing. Elaborated methods and solutions to overcome these hurdles will be presented along the development roadmap. AVL’s success story as forerunner in the 800V technology for passenger cars goes back to 2012. It represents one of the fundamental requirements for ultrafast charging and mirrors AVL’s pioneering spirit to contribute to the vision of a clean, affordable, connected and intelligent mobility.

Implementation of Lean Operation User Manual

SAE J4001 provides instruction for evaluating levels of compliance to SAE J4000. Component text (Sections 4 to 9) from SAE J4000 is included for convenience during the evaluation process. Applicable definitions and references are contained in SAE J4000. SAE J4000 tests lean implementation within a manufacturing organization and includes those areas of direct overlap with the organization’s suppliers and customers. If applied to each consecutive organizational link, an enterprise level evaluation can be made. SAE J4001 relates the following approximate topic percentages to the implementation process as a whole: SAE J4001 is to be applied on a specific component basis. Each of the 52 components tests part of, one, or multiples of the specific requirements of lean implementation. Implementation throughout an organization may be measured by evaluating all of the components.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Simulate Adsorption and Desorption Phenomena of Gasoline Fuel Vapour in Activated-Carbon Canister to Meet Post-EU6 and US EPA Global Emission Norms

This paper covers the mathematical modeling of governing equations for the coupled heat and mass transfer phenomena during adsorption and desorption. Also the main focus is given on the methodology for numerical simulation for solving these partial differential equations for carbon canister. A comprehensive literature review is presented to summarize the target requirements of allowed evaporative emission level of gasoline vapour in grams per day based on global standards like, EU6, EPA stage II enhanced, CARB LEVII, PZEV and SULEV. In order to meet these stringent emission norms, presence of carbon canister is mandatory. The simulation results are compared for the gasoline vehicle application at various climatic temperature conditions in India, in which the canister sizing vs allowable emission targets are summarized.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of a Muffler for Engine Exhaust Noise and Heat Reduction

Engine exhaust noise and heat are significant sources of emissions in the environment. Engine exhaust systems are designed to minimize noise and heat while maintaining the necessary db levels and sound quality, as well as emissions in accordance with environmental regulations. Mufflers remain an integral portion of the IC engine arrangement are widely used in IC engine exhaust arrangements to reduce sound generated by engine exhaust gases as well as to reduce heat. The most efficient way to reduce noise and heat is to install a exhaust muffler in the engine tail pipe. The aim of our project is to design and analysis an engine exhaust muffler for reducing exhaust noise and heat. Appropriate design and analysis would aid in the reduction of noise and heat, while at the same time, the backpressure generated by the muffler should not affect the engine's efficiency. 3D models are developed in Solid Works software before being exported to ANSYS FLUENT CFD software for review in this report.
Technical Paper

Under-Expanded Jets Characterization by Means of CFD Numerical Simulation Using an Open FOAM Density-Based Solver

Among the others, natural gas (NG) is regarded as a potential solution to enhance the environmental performance of internal combustion engines. Low carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, worldwide relatively homogeneous distribution and reduced price are the reason as, lately, many researchers efforts have been put in this area. In particular, this work focuses on the characterization of the injection process inside a constant volume chamber (CVC), which could provide a contribution to the development of direct injection technologies for a gaseous fuel. Direct injection of a gaseous fuel involves the presence of under-expanded jets whose knowledge is fundamental to achieve the proper mixture formation prior to the combustion ignition. For this reason, a density based solver was developed within the OpenFOAM library in order to simulate the jet issued from an injector suitable for direct injection of methane.
Technical Paper

Lifetime Modeling for Silicon Carbide Based Power Module

In the presented paper it has been proposed a methodology that translates the customer conditions in terms of electric power into thermo-mechanical variables correlated with power module failure mechanisms. An initial analysis of power module failure modes will be presented, then the module temperature during inverter load profile will be numerically estimated. The so-obtained time-temperature during inverter operation will be converted using Rainflow-like approach into a pre-defined number of loading conditions. According to the time and temperature dependency of the typical failure mechanism, the mentioned loading cases will be characterized by different temperature swing and time duration. The extrapolated equivalent history will be a starting point to set durability tests aimed to predict reliability performances.

Automotive Engineering: September 2021

Weaving a new future for composites In a shift perhaps as prolific as steel to aluminum, woven plastics may finally bring the magic of composites to cost-effective mass-production. New composites target EV applications No longer a low-volume play, the latest composite materials offer EV developers new options for lightweighting, thermal management and structures. Acura TLX is Honda's new body-build benchmark All-new for 2021, Acura's midsize sport sedan gets an exclusive platform to go with its structural, materials and dynamic advancements. Body development leader Jeremy Lucas explains. Schaeffler builds an e-motor powerhouse Armed with state-of-the-art manufacturing and a history of innovation, Schaeffler Group is attacking the e-mobility space, says Daniel Sayre.
Technical Paper

SAE Light Vehicle Exterior Sound Level History

The Society of Automotive Engineers Light Vehicle Exterior Sound Committee recognizes the value of preserving historical knowledge regarding the standards developed and reviewed by the committee. To memorialize the knowledge gained and lessons learned over the years, the current committee reached out to the chair of the committee during its formative years, Mr. Richard Schumacher, to discuss the rationale and reasoning for many of the early decisions made regarding vehicle sound standards. This work preserves those discussions and relates the history of some of the most commonly used sound level standards. In this paper and presentation, the formation of the committee is discussed, particularly in relation to EPA’s original concern with vehicle noise, as well as the alignment between SAE standards and ISO standards for vehicle noise measurements. The role of the committee is examined, and the review process for SAE vehicle sound standards is explained.
Research Report

Unsettled Technology Areas in Deterministic Assembly Approaches for Industry 4.0

Increased production rates and cost reduction are affecting manufacturing in all mobility industry sectors. One enabling methodology that could achieve these goals in the burgeoning “Industry 4.0” environment is the optimized deterministic assembly (DA) approach. It always forms the same final structure and has a strong link to design-for-assembly and design-for-automation. The entire supply chain is considered, with drastic savings at the final assembly line level through recurring costs and lead-time reduction. Unsettled Technology Areas in Deterministic Assembly Approaches for Industry 4.0 examines the evolution of previous assembly principles that lead up to and enable the DA approach, related simulation methodologies, and undefined and unsolved links between these domains. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Journal Article

Knock: A Century of Research

Abstract Knock is one of the main limitations on increasing spark-ignition (SI) engine efficiency. This has been known for at least 100 years, and it is still the case today. Knock occurs when conditions ahead of the flame front in an SI engine result in one or more autoignition events in the end gas. The autoignition reaction rate is typically much higher than that of the flame-front propagation. This may lead to the creation of pressure waves in the combustion chamber and, hence, an undesirable noise that gives knock its name. The resulting increased mechanical and thermal loading on engine components may eventually lead to engine failure. Reducing the compression ratio lowers end-gas temperatures and pressures, reducing end-gas reactivity and, hence, mitigating knock. However, this has a detrimental effect on engine efficiency.